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The Fuelwood Market Chain of
Kinshasa: Socio-economic and
sustainability outcomes of the
number one household energy
in th...
Outline presentation
• Why do we want to know more about fuelwood around
Kinshasa?
• Methods
• Who are the actors?
• Socio...
Problem statement: fuelwood for the
city of Kinshasa
• DRC covers 61% (98 million
hectares) of the Congo Basin forest
Kins...
Conceptual framework and methods
• Focus on livelihood systems and entire chain in order to understand
individual and hous...
The actors
Government

Specialists:
Wood
cutting
Construction
of oven
‘Harvesting
of charcoal’
‘Put in bags’
‘Waving the
‘...
What are social and economic
outcomes? - Consumers

• Consumers in the city use mainly charcoal for cooking
(74%), some el...
Socio-economic outcomes- producers
• Producers: educated, all ethnicities, also women (4%).
• Permanent vs temporary produ...
Average yearly volume and profit charcoal
producers Kinshasa

Profit (US$)

Income (US$)

$104.50

$863.49

$0.00 $100.00
...
And the natural resource base?
• 1 plantation acacia auriculiformis that provides fuelwood
(Mampu): estimated 0.85% of dem...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Location of fuelwood harvesting for
Kinshasa
Actual places of fuelwood
harvesting (producers region of Kinshasa)

Preferre...
Intstitutional analyses
•

Legal framework about land tenure and forest provides following legal options for
sustainable p...
Local rules of access
Type of access (%/city)
Kinshasa
Type of
access

Customary
59.42%
right
Renting

33.89%

Costs of ac...
Preliminary conclusions
1. Fuelwood provides essential access
to energy and is important for
livelihoods producers.
2. Sec...
Thank you for your attention

Contact: Jolien Schure: J.schure@cgiar.org
THINKING beyond the canopy
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The Fuelwood Market Chain of Kinshasa: Socio-economic and sustainability outcomes of the number one household energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo

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The Fuelwood Market Chain of Kinshasa: Socio-economic and sustainability outcomes of the number one household energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Schure Ingram Kinshasa and Kisangani

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The Fuelwood Market Chain of Kinshasa: Socio-economic and sustainability outcomes of the number one household energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  1. 1. The Fuelwood Market Chain of Kinshasa: Socio-economic and sustainability outcomes of the number one household energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo IUFRO August 2010-Urban Forestry Combating Poverty: Building a collaborative stakeholder dialogue– Jolien Schure, Verina Ingram THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Outline presentation • Why do we want to know more about fuelwood around Kinshasa? • Methods • Who are the actors? • Socio-economic and environmental implications • Institutional framework and management • Conclusion THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Problem statement: fuelwood for the city of Kinshasa • DRC covers 61% (98 million hectares) of the Congo Basin forest Kinshasa: • 10 million people population, urbanization • Not sufficient access to alternative energy (91.5% is fuelwood) • - Deforestation forest-savana mosaic (estimated 60,000 ha/year (Marien, 2009)), Increasing prices • + Labor, (renewable) energy for cooking THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Conceptual framework and methods • Focus on livelihood systems and entire chain in order to understand individual and household choices and institutional arrangements. • Mapping, interviews, surveys THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. The actors Government Specialists: Wood cutting Construction of oven ‘Harvesting of charcoal’ ‘Put in bags’ ‘Waving the ‘hat’. Private Sector Wholesaler Retailer Vendor Porters Packers Collectors Thieves NGOs, research institutes Household s Truck Small (98%) Head (8%) industries: bakeries, Barge restaurants (4%) , grilled meat THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. What are social and economic outcomes? - Consumers • Consumers in the city use mainly charcoal for cooking (74%), some electricity and firewood. • Reasons: clean, little smoke, taste of food, hygiene rules of city. • Almost no improved stoves used (3%). • Prices have raised over past 5 years. • Costs for household: 21US$/ month! (+-15.6). THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Socio-economic outcomes- producers • Producers: educated, all ethnicities, also women (4%). • Permanent vs temporary producers (61% permanent in Kinshasa, 42% of producers Kin. depend on fuelwood revenues. • Secondary activities: Agriculture (76% ), Fishing (15% ), Timber exploitation (5% ) • Training pays off with production increases (21.4 percent received training) • Traditional charcoal oven • Factors influencing production: (informal) taxes, distances and transport costs, demand, caterpillar harvest season, events and festivities (year’s end, return to school). • Annual profit/producer= (Bags sold*price)-(Costs transport+labour+materials+tax+access). THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. Average yearly volume and profit charcoal producers Kinshasa Profit (US$) Income (US$) $104.50 $863.49 $0.00 $100.00 $200.00 $300.00 $400.00 $500.00 $600.00 $700.00 $800.00 200 150 Producteurs zones de Kinshasa 167 100 50 0 Production charbon de bois (sacs) Producteurs zones de Kinshasa THINKING beyond the canopy $900.00
  9. 9. And the natural resource base? • 1 plantation acacia auriculiformis that provides fuelwood (Mampu): estimated 0.85% of demand Kinshasa (Ducenne, 2009) • Perception: traders, producers, consumers see diminishing source and increasing distances • Volumes: 400,000 tonnes of charcoal/ year. • Wood species: Kisangani : Limbalu, Gilbert, Botuna, Kélé, Alombi, Dabema, Kele, Lipela, Agbama, Mbala; Kinshasa: Kiseka, Acacia, Bois noir, Makayabu, Kititi, Muboti, Musangambala, Kiyeti, Mubamba, Mukwati • Reforestation limited (only 4786.74 ha for 1986 – 2006, despite plan of 500/1000 ha/ year). • 80.5% producers never planted tree, 19.5% did. • Location THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Location of fuelwood harvesting for Kinshasa Actual places of fuelwood harvesting (producers region of Kinshasa) Preferred places for fuelwood harvesting (producers region of Kinshasa) Uncultiv ated forest 24% Newly cultivate d forest 37% Champs 39% Uncultiv ated forest 45% Champs 55% THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Intstitutional analyses • Legal framework about land tenure and forest provides following legal options for sustainable production of fuelwood:      1. Public plantations 2. Private plantations (Mampu, Ibi ) 3. Reforestation at agricultural plots 4. Exploitation with fuelwood/ charcoal permit in surrounding forest 5. Community forestry (No regulation yet) However in practice: • Permit system hardly enforced and not guaranteeing sustainable outcome. • Conflicting interests – e.g. Energy and Environment for the city of Kinshasa • Land tenure ssue remains THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Local rules of access Type of access (%/city) Kinshasa Type of access Customary 59.42% right Renting 33.89% Costs of access (US$/per parcel/ tree) Kisangani Kinshasa Kisangani $00.00 $00.00 24.33% 59.67% $40.91 $38.90 Concession 3.81% 2.67% $18.56 $26.19 Buying trees 13.33% $17.12 $9.86 2.86% THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. Preliminary conclusions 1. Fuelwood provides essential access to energy and is important for livelihoods producers. 2. Sector is not sustainable at present and not part of peri-urban planning. 3. No incentives to producers to produce in more sustainable way. Opportunities for stakeholder dialogue: Local level: involve local authorities, producers and officials. National level: overcome conflicting interests/incoherence between ministries, role of private sector. International level: regional strategies (COMIFAC), lessons learned from other countries. THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. Thank you for your attention Contact: Jolien Schure: J.schure@cgiar.org THINKING beyond the canopy

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