Introduction to the film Nothing like chocolate 13052014


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Introduction to the film Nothing like Chocolate, discussing the environmental, social and economic issues at stake in making the chain of making the '"food of the gods".

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Introduction to the film Nothing like chocolate 13052014

  1. 1. Introduction: Nothing like chocolate! Pre-film introduction and discussion, Heerenstraattheater, Wageningen, The Netherlands 13 May 2014 Dr. Verina Ingram LEI, Wageningen UR
  2. 2. Cocoa theobroma  Greek “food of the gods”  Mexican Aztec xocolātl  “bitter water“  Cultivars  Criollo  Forastero  Trinitario  Tree bears fruit at 4-5 years old, average age 40 years, up to 100  Tropical needs shade, warm climate abundant rainfall, nutrient rich soil 30 pods 40 beans each 1 pod 500 beans 1 tree 600 flowers 1 kg chocolate
  3. 3. A tropical cash crop with colonial roots Cacao cultivation spread across the hot, humid tropical belt reversing the slave triangle
  4. 4. What's in a bean? Sources: Buitrago-Lopez et al 2011, Mursu et al. 2004, Steinberg et al. 2003, Wollgast & Anklam 2000, Crozier et al. 2011 Theobromine, caffeine < 1 % Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C, E , pantothenic acid < 1-4 % Alkaloids Mild stimulant, arousal Craving Impacts cholesterol, improve cardiovascular health, inflammation reduction, neuropsychological & cognitive functioning cerebral blood flow Pleasure, craving Suggested health impacts
  5. 5. From bean to bar...
  6. 6. Where is cocoa produced? Exporters (Top 10) Importers (Top 10) Cote d’Ivoire United States Ghana Netherlands Indonesia Germany Nigeria France Cameroon Malaysia Ecuador United Kingdom Togo Belgium/Luxembourg Papua New Guinea Russian Federation Dominican Republic Spain Guinea Canada Sources: UCTAD & ICCO, World Cocoa Foundation
  7. 7. Where is cocoa traded? Source: ICCO, The Guardian
  8. 8. Who eats the most chocolate?  Source ICCO 2012 2282 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 gpercapitadomesticconsumptionchocolate2010/2011 18th
  9. 9. Supply chain
  10. 10. Social challenges 90% produced by 3 million small holder farmers Approx. 14 million employed Farmers high poverty levels Fair prices & incomes Position of women and workers Ensuring basic rights re child and forced labour Worker health and safety on farm Human toxicity of crop protection products Risk management and diversification Source: TSC 2013, Cocoa Barometer 2012
  11. 11. Environmental challenges Sourcing from ecologically sensitive regions On-farm use of chemicals for crop protection (pesticides) and inorganic fertilizer use Depletion soil fertility and quality on farm Biodiversity loss (full sun farms & deforestation) Maintaining genetic diversity and resilience farming systems and ecosystems Pollution water sources Packaging waste Energy use and emissions during transport and grinding, roasting and processing
  12. 12. Economic challenges Insufficient supply to meet growing global demand + declining yields Control of and losses to pests & diseases Volatile prices Efficient models to delivering services and products to farmers Impact climate change Farmer access to markets and adding value Governance and traceability in the chain Cocoa prices “Cocoa prices are too low bearing in mind how much demand there is for it” Edward George, Ecobank Commodities, January 28 2014
  13. 13. Solutions.....
  14. 14. Abidjan Declaration November 2012, World Cocoa Conference Cote d’Ivoire Goal : move the entire sector to a path of sustainable development that will benefit all stakeholders along the cocoa value chain 1) Strategic management • Coordinate initiatives and participate in voluntary consensual processes • National Cocoa Development Plans based on Public-Private-Partnership Models (PPP) • Improve living standards and working conditions - especially women and children and ILO standards 2) Sustainable production • Attract younger generations • Better planting material and inputs, innovative technology, integrated pest management • Aid farmer’s groups to offer training in “Good Agricultural Practices” • Support Affordable and accessible credit services • Manage soil fertility, preserve biodiversity and existing ecosystems 3) Chain sustainability • Enhance traceability • Reduce harmful impacts on the environment • Training and access to market and consumer safety information • Increase income by value-addition at origin 4) Sustainable consumption • Respond to expectations and concerns of consumers • Promote consumption in traditional/mature markets and origin/producer countries
  15. 15. Harkin-Engel Protocol (Labor agreement) September 19, 2001 • Framework for growing and processing of cocoa beans and their derivative products to comply with the International Labour Organization Convention 182 on the elimination of the worst forms of child labour. • Signed by industry groups: the World Cocoa Foundation and the Chocolate Manufacturers Association (now the Chocolate Council of the National Confectioners Association), Guittard, Mars, World’s Finest Chocolate, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Nestlé US, Blommer Chocolate, Hershey Food Corporation and Barry Callebaut, governments in West Africa, NGOs, farmers groups and experts  Progress? Dark side of Chocolate film, Bitter Harvest report, Payson Centre Tulane University, Fair Labour Association
  16. 16. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality signed a letter of intent with 30 supermarkets, industry associations, companies, government agencies, NGO’s and certification agencies in the cocoa sector. They committed to; Produce 100% of ‘Chocolade letters’ in the Dutch market from 100% guaranteed sustainable cocoa by 2012 50% of all cocoa beans used in cocoa products in the Dutch market sourced from guaranteed sustainable cocoa by 2015 80% of all cocoa beans used in cocoa products in the Dutch market sourced from guaranteed sustainable cocoa by 2020 100% consumption in the Netherlands sourced from guaranteed sustainable cocoa by 2025 Results out June 2014!! March 2010 Letter of Intent: Sustainable cocoa consumed in the Netherlands
  17. 17. Guaranteed certified cocoa: What does it mean ? In 2012 approx. 1143 k tons cocoa = 7% certified globally - up from 2% in 2009 – however a supply deficit with synergies to upscale and to increase efficiencies in demand *no other such systems were found or used to provide data yet Sources: Cocoa Barometer 2011, 2012, IFC Visible, measurable, third party schemes, independent auditing and monitoring of cocoa in the chain from producer to retailer with a traceable system. 2012 405 Kt 534 Kt 165 Kt ? Kt 37 Kt ? Kt 1,143 Kt and other comparable systems*
  18. 18. • From 2008 to 2015 Sustainable Trade Action Plan partners investing 40 million € (cocoa) on enhancing sustainability of commodity chains: certification main tool • Dutch government & partners investing 40 million € (cocoa) from 2008 to 2015 on enhancing sustainability of commodity chains: certification major vehicle to achieve this. • Recent studies highlight need for evidence on impact of sustainability initiatives – especially PPP and certification. • Multi-stakeholder international public + private + research + CSO partnerships emerging
  19. 19. What's needed? oUp-scaling positive initiatives oMaintaining the sustainability /certification buzz oDemonstrating to consumers initiatives having effect oContinued education and training farmers & workers e.g. GAP oImproved and accessible cultivars oIncrease productivity oAccess to inputs and credit oAlternative energy sources oContinued promotion of biodiversity (cultivar, farm and landscape level) oMore efficient use current land & avoid abandonment of farms oPartnerships oAlternatives and innovators high value and niche markets
  20. 20. Challenges  Demonstrating progress to environmental and social goals  Who pays?  Going beyond certification  Speed of progress....  Sharing pre-competitive information, complementarity – not duplication  Efficient use public funding  Convincing private sector about efficiency of data sharing to improve monitoring, evaluation and trade data