A sustainable cocktail? Cola and palm wine


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Ingram Sustainable cocktail nov 2010, palm wine raffia NTF{P forest product value chains cameroon

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A sustainable cocktail? Cola and palm wine

  1. 1. A sustainable cocktail – Cola and Palm wine? Dynamic Interlinkages between Social and Ecosystem Changes: Towards a Europe Africa Partnership European Science Foundation & ICSU 8-12 November 2010 Beyaerd, Hulshort, The Netherlands Verina Ingram Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Central Africa v.ingram@cgiar.org THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Background Congo Basin Forest Globally 2nd largest intact humid forest, rich & unique biodiversity ≈ >40% people in region below $2 day ≈ 70% poor people in Congo Basin live in/near forests Low development indicators, high on corruption index, high levels forest degradation & deforestation Forests an economic resource: commercial logging = export revenues 49 million US$ (1-6% of GDP), estimated contribution of NTFPs to 20-95% forest communities livelihoods THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. A Congo cocktail.......... • Take Cola (Cola acuminata, nitida & anomala, Garcinia kola) caffeine rich nuts (a century’s old stimulant) on its own or in Coca-Cola • Add the strong cultural associations when given & consumed with palm wine made from indigenous raffia (Raphia spp.), a traditional alcoholic beverage • Mix with palm wine and forest honey for ‘ntop mimbo‘, a sweeter, stronger cocktail • For an aphrodisiac, mix with mondia (Mondia whiteii) root • Stir in ground pygeum (Prunus africana) bark to treat multiple aliments including prostate hyperplasia • Eat with eru: a popular, nutritious leaves of the ancient Gnetum spp. vine, also a traditional medicine and used to make wine • Take bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) bark and eru THINKING leaves if feeling sick or have a hangover afterwards! beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Safou Eru Gnetum spp. Cola acuminata Honey Apiculture products Dacryodes edulis Bush mango Irvingia spp. Raphia spp. THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Issues • Despite their economic and cultural importance, recent, reliable trade & income figures almost non-existent • Resource stocks largely un-quantified and cultivated stocks (almost) completely unknown – Can’t manage what don’t measure? • Despite this lack of data, some species are highly regulated (often unenforced or un-monitored, and corruption), others chains in a formal void.. Others customarily governed • Conflicting interests; conservation lobby vs. immediate and long term livelihood needs • Fears that NTFPs may become extinct as shifts from subsistence to international trade lead to overexploitation of wild stocks without domestication • Market arrangements, especially international trade, appear counterproductive to sustainable trade - actors and issues in chain unknown to each other THINKING beyond the canopy Photo: K Stewart
  6. 6. Aims & Research Questions Gnetum africana Aim Explore interrelationships and impacts of the variety of governance arrangements on sustainable livelihoods of those engaged in forest product market chains originating from the Congo Basin. Questions 1. What do NTFPs contribute to the livelihoods (economic, socio-cultural & environmental) of actors involved in the value chains? Especially the poorest and the forest based? 2. What types of governance arrangements are found in NTFP market chains? and how and why do they shape and affect NTFP chains and subsequent livelihoods? the canopy THINKING beyond
  8. 8. Governance is the whole of public & private interactions initiated to solve societal problems & create opportunities. Includes the formulation & application of principles guiding interactions & caring for the enabling institutions (Bavinck et al, 2005) ....the system of values, policies & institutions by which a society manages its economic, political and social affairs through interactions within and among the state, civil society & private sector..’’(UNDP, 2004). Value chains to understand activities to bring a product from conception, to production & delivery to final consumers and ultimately disposal (Kaplinsky & Morris 1999). VC Analysis a conceptual framework for mapping and categorizing economic processes, understand how and where enterprises positioned in processes, identify opportunities and possible leverage points for upgrading…encompasses organization, coordination, equity, power relationships, linkages and governance between organizations and actors. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including material & social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with & recover from stresses and shocks & maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base (Chambers & Conway, 1992). THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Dacrodyes edulis Democratic Republic Congo Safou Europe, USA Equateur Bas Congo Kinshasa Study sites Cola spp. Rhapia spp. Cameroon Dacryodes edulis THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Selection Field work VCA 2007-2009 PAR Analysis Outputs • Literature review; NTFPs in Cameroon and VCs • Actor sample and Production zone selection – Stakeholder interviews (2007) • Inventory - transects 3 zones (2007-2008) • Bark regeneration post-harvest study – 4 zones (2009) • Structured Interviews (25% sample of actors in chains ) = 3424 actors & 632 consumers • 40 focus group interviews &7 problem analysis workshops in 4 cities . • 5 market surveys (2007-2008) • Participatory action research: SWOTs, stakeholder analysis, Prunus africana: 6 working sessions stakeholder groups & 1 all stakeholder workshop, participatorily developed Prunus africana management plan. Honey: EU Export HMRP, Geographic Origin Indication , National Union, National honey profiling • Capacity building events; group organisation, business skills. Harvest, production & processing (honey & Prunus )training, legal framework • Data analysis SPSS and Excel, TIAMA, interpretation satellite images, SWOT, GIS mapping • Preliminary findings verified in meetings /workshops & peer cross-checked • Value chain maps: Visualisations • Reports: Problem analysis workshop report, Inventory in NW & SW Cameroon, Guidelines for a National Management Plan for Prunus africana in Cameroon, Assessment sustainable harvest methods, Baseline study of Prunus africana chain, Domestication Guide (ICRAF), Harvest and inventory norms GTZ + CIFOR) • Actors’ grouping: Prunus Platform, Scientific Group supporting CITES Authority, • Policy brief: NTFPs in Cameroon & Product sheet: Prunus africana in Cameroon THINKING beyond the canopy Methodology Review
  11. 11. Why use a participatory market chain approach? • Understand demand & supply, volumes & values • Map and analyse actors interactions, power relations, governance arrangements and pressures • Comprehend institutional and customary and legal framework and influence and implementation in practice • Understand livelihood and cultural aspects • By participating in developing the VC, actors validate , own and understand chain & issues THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Key findings • • • • • • • • • • Garcinia kola . Positive impacts on forest based, rural & urban livelihoods Dacryodes edulis Large and growing demand for NTFPs in rural, and . especially, urban areas NTFPs play a role in food security, health and providing cash income to meet basic needs Level of organisation and efficiency of markets a function of local culture, product & location Lack of knowledge among actors about their chain Market information influences vertical integration Irvingia spp. Market Information System and actor Platforms show initial positive results improving integration and margins Wide variances in sustainability of livelihoods and chains Stakeholders shown openness to participate in formulating Gnetum spp. policy options Sustainable harvest techniques & domestication technologies offer potential to increase profits – but needs wide scale disseminating and enforcement THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. VALUES How 5 NTFPs in Cameroon & DRC are used by harvesters % Perished % barterd % given as gifts % Consumed % Sold 0 10 20 30 40 % of total production 50 60 70 % contribution to producers household total income from NTFPs Subsistence & income TOTAL NTFP and Country Irvingia CSL CM Irvingia East CM Irvingia SW CM Prunus CM Apiculture DRC Apiculture CM Gnetum SW CM Safou DRC Gnetum DRC 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % contribution to household income 70 80 90 THINKING beyond the canopy Beeswax
  14. 14. Livelihoods $ annual market chain sales 2007/2008 60,000,000 48 million US$ Employment & Production 50,000,000 40,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000 10,000,000 Gnetum DRC Safou DRC Gnetum Honey CM Honey DRC Prunus CM Irvingia SW, C CAM SW, C,S, L, E CM Number of people directly involved Numbers of direct actors in 5 regional NTFP market chains DRC & Cameroon 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Gnetum DRC Safou DRC Gnetum Apiculture Apiculture Prunus CM Irvingia SW, C CAM CM DRC SW, C,S, L, E CM Chain and Country TOTAL THINKING beyond the canopy TOTAL
  15. 15. the tip of the canopy...? Forest sector employment* Forest products market value US$ (10* export timber species, 4 domestic timber species and 15 NTFPs) 1,200,000,000 Domestic Timber value 2008 Major traded NTFPs 9% 1,000,000,000 45,000 58,000,000 54,824,876 33% 800,000,000 29,000,000 Timber Exports value (2003 DRC, 2004 Cam) 213,388,071 163,000 600,000,000 400,000,000 870,000,000 690,000,000 58% 283,822 200,000,000 22,500 15,000 70,376 65% - Cameroon DRC *Direct & indirect employment *80% exports from 10 species in Cameroon and 85% in DRC Cameroon DRC THINKING beyond the canopy Sources : CIFOR 2008, 2009 , de Wasseige et al, 2009, Lescuyer et al 2009
  16. 16. Illustrations of impacts of governance arrangements • • • • • • • Unregulated access to Raphia leads to decreases in quantity and quantity Cola is planted upon the birth of the 1st son and trees are often ‘owned’ Over 52 % of Prunus africana trees inventoried in wild forests are harvested, of which 60% unsustainably – compared to 40% planted Prunus of which 38% unsustainably 97% of eru harvesters indicate increasing scarcity & 45% is harvested using unsustainable techniques Beekeepers now planting hive material sources and avoiding using Kofia (Lophira lanceolota) as fuel wood to melt wax Intermediaries and new markets increase honey buying price for honey up to 50% plus diversify to wax, propolis and by-products Irvingia increasingly domesticated and access controlled (100% SW, 32% East) as value increases and land use changes (65% in SW, 5% East) – frequently conserved in fallows THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. Conclusions • • • • • • • • • • • • Congo Basin NTFP trade under appreciated & insufficiently captured in economic, employment, food security and health statistics Governance arrangements major impact on income equity & distribution, market access & control and profit margins Power, relationships (lobby and government contacts) & tenure critical Overlapping & conflicting traditional, regulatory and devolved authorities cloud governance Policy & regulatory extremes & inappropriate legal framework ripe for rationalisation Processing & storage important to add value locally (vertical integration) Domestication a good indicator of sustainability - trees act as savings account Cultivation appears decisive for long term chain continuation Employment & profitability increase when sector professionalised - but access to most profitable parts of chain may be limited Importance of business, capital, legal, infrastructure & technical support For long lived species, need to wait for long term results when governance arrangements change Awareness and enforcement of new policy regimes (honey, Prunus africana) will be critical THINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. Cheers! www.cifor.cgiar.org v.ingram@cgiar.org The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is one of the 15 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy