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Behind the waterfall methodology (by Jan Buytaert)

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What are the differences between popular innovation project management methodologies? Why does project management often fail? Learn how risk assessment should define your methodology in order to become a real innovation factory. The waterfall methodology has been promoted for years as the best practice for IR&D management. These days agile and scrum are increasingly popular as alternative. Hater or believer? Good or bad? Get guided through our body of knowledge as published in the Inspire Toolbox.

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Behind the waterfall methodology (by Jan Buytaert)

  1. 1. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 1 CONFIDENTIAL Template Innovation Day 2019CONFIDENTIAL BEHIND THE WATERFALL METHODOLOGY Jan Buytaert Project Manager jan.buytaert@verhaert.com TRACK 2 MyInnovationFactory
  2. 2. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 2 CONFIDENTIAL Template Innovation Day 2019CONFIDENTIAL Jan Buytaert Project Manager jan.buytaert@verhaert.com TRACK 2 MyInnovationFactory BEHIND THE WATERFALL METHODOLOGY
  3. 3. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 3 CONFIDENTIAL MyTalentFactory MyTechnology MyQALab MyFabLab MyProject Management for innovation programs MyStrategic InnovationFactory MyDigital InnovationFactory MyProduct InnovationFactory MyIncubator • On demand services • From conventional manufacturing role to holistic solutions • From volume to value • Disruption of the eco-system • New focus B2C • Sharing economy (outside-in) • Data intelligent products & services • Consumerized solutions • Holistic solutions • NPI • Non-core solutions • Acceleration time-to-market • Agile test/prototyping & production platforms • Medical device/IVD regulation (ISO 13485) TRACK 2 MyInnovationFactory
  4. 4. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 4 CONFIDENTIAL
  5. 5. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 5 CONFIDENTIAL Founded by Prof. Em. P. Verhaert Pioneering integrated product innovation in Belgium First activity in space industry Developing systems engineering capabilities Designed, built, launched and commissioned the first small EU satellite for ESA in orbit – PROBA (now QinetiQ Space nv) Kick off Perfect Draft program for AB InBev, developing FMCG insights Demonstrating policy making capabilities as partner of the Flemish Government and OESO Competence center DPD in the Netherlands Launch of Masters in Innovation platform and training center 1969 1984 2001 2003 2005 2009 2012 2014 Operations ESA’s TTO office in Belgium 5 2019&
  6. 6. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 6 CONFIDENTIAL 1 2 3 4 5 CONTENT Introduction Project Management Methodologies Managing innovative R&D projects RICE methodology Conclusion
  7. 7. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 7 CONFIDENTIAL INTRODUCTION Project Management – Terminology
  8. 8. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 8 CONFIDENTIAL EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES IN NEED OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT VS BUSINESS-AS-USUAL Developing a new product or service Designing a new transportation vehicle Constructing a building
  9. 9. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 9 CONFIDENTIAL WHAT ARE THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES YOU FACE IN MANAGING PROJECTS?
  10. 10. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 10 CONFIDENTIAL 1. A tool is a material item that helps you to implement a method. 2. A method is a process. Methods provide an approach to achieve a specific goal. 3. A methodology is a disciplined set of principles, tools and practices which can be used to guide processes to achieve a particular goal. A methodology contains the justification, rationale and strategy for using particular methods. 4. A framework is a conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something usable and useful. It is a loose but incomplete structure needed to implement a model (or some part of a model) which leaves room for other methods and tools to be included. 5. A model is an abstraction that provides a core set of practices/methodologies and interrelationships needed by an organization to deliver a product or service. Models are valuable if they are theoretically consistent and fit the real world. STRAIGHTENING OUT THE TERMINOLOGY
  11. 11. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 11 CONFIDENTIAL ICB4.0 (by IPMA), PMBOK5 (by PMI), PRINCE2, ISO21500/DIN69901 • Certifications / International Standards / Project Management Models or Approaches • Rather not call it a methodology PROJECT MANAGEMENT MODELS IPMA - ICB PMI – PMBoK OGC – PRINCE2 DIN 69901 • Founded in 1965 as an association for project managers • Since 1979 registered seat in Switzerland • Founded in 1969 in Pennsylvania, USA • Since 2004 ANSI Standard • Founded in 1999 in the United Kingdom • Since 2010 part of the Cabinet Office • Founded in 1917 in Berlin, Germany • Since 1967 network planning technique • Competence oriented PM approach • Process oriented PM approach • Knowledge based approach • Process and practical oriented PM approach • Methodology • Process oriented PM approach based on a model • Internationally used • Coming from Europe • Mostly used in Europe and the USA • Internationally used • Coming from North America • Market leader • Mostly used in Europe and the USA • Internationally used • Coming from the United Kingdom • Nationally used • Coming from Germany • Strong influence on ISO 21500
  12. 12. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 12 CONFIDENTIAL • Choosing the right project management methodology to execute your project is a vital step for success. • There are many different and, in some cases, overlapping methodologies and approaches to managing project complexities. • Some of the most popular project management methodologies: • Waterfall methodology (1970) • Six Sigma methodology (1980) • Agile methodology (2001) • If you adapt/combine methodologies, you could call it a framework or methodology. PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES
  13. 13. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 13 CONFIDENTIAL Within these project management methodologies there exists several project management methods: • Agile > Scrum method (1986) • Waterfall / Six Sigma > Critical path method (1957) • Waterfall / Six Sigma > Critical chain project management (1997) PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODS
  14. 14. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 14 CONFIDENTIAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
  15. 15. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 15 CONFIDENTIAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES Choosing the right one
  16. 16. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 16 CONFIDENTIAL WHICH PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY DO YOU CURRENTLY USE? From manufacturer respondents Best known methodologies
  17. 17. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 17 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Critical Path Method (CPM) 2. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) 3. Projects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) 4. Integrated Project Management (IPM) 5. Lean Methodology 6. Kanban Methodology/Method 7. Design Thinking 8. Six Sigma Methodology 9. Projects integration Sustainable Methods (PRiSM) 10. Event Chain Methodology (ECM) 11. XP (Extreme Programming) 12. Crystal 13. FDD (Feature Driven Development) 14. DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development) 15. Adaptive Software Development 16. RUP (Rational Unified Process) OTHER PMMs M for Model, Methodology or Method?
  18. 18. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 18 CONFIDENTIAL The Waterfall methodology • one of the oldest methodologies. • outlined by Dr. Winston Royce in 1970 as a (flawed) way of managing the increasingly complex nature of software development. • sequential in nature. • heavily requirements-focused WATERFALL METHODOLOGY PUR SANG
  19. 19. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 20 CONFIDENTIAL The Agile methodology • Originating from software development • It formally came into being in 2001 with the release of the "Agile Manifesto“: • Customer collaboration • Responding to change • In approach and ideology, Agile is said to be the opposite of the Waterfall. • Fast flexible approach. • No top-heavy requirements gathering. • Iterative with small incremental changes that respond to changing requirements. • End-user focused • The scrum method is based on • Dedicated project teams • Short "sprints" • Daily stand-up meetings AGILE > SCRUM METHODOLOGY PUR SANG
  20. 20. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 23 CONFIDENTIAL
  21. 21. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 24 CONFIDENTIAL EASY, JUST PICK A METHODOLOGY … • However, the choice is based on many aspects:
  22. 22. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 25 CONFIDENTIAL MANAGING INNOVATIVE R&D PROJECTS Upping the challenge
  23. 23. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 26 CONFIDENTIAL
  24. 24. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 27 CONFIDENTIAL Understanding the dynamics of innovation: 1. Innovation is a (re)search process. 2. Innovation is about learning along the way. If you do not learn during innovation, you are probably copying. 3. Innovation is similar to a problem solving process in which you make sequential choices. 4. Whereby each choice limits the creative space to solve the next problem. Making it essential to prioritize the problems to be solved – e.g. the ‘wickedest problem’ or so called critical design item TO KNOW HOW TO MANAGE, YOU HAVE TO KNOW WHAT TO MANAGE! Pub.Ref. Paul Verhaert, De praktijk van de productontwikkeling, Acco, 1984
  25. 25. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 28 CONFIDENTIAL Cost of change 1. Learn fast, often and cheap when innovating. 2. It is imperative to actively scan for unknowns on all angles and tackle them upfront. Inverse your learning curve. THE IMPORTANCE OF STARTING WITH THE WICKEDEST PROBLEM
  26. 26. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 29 CONFIDENTIAL Creative space / solution space 1. Every design decision limits the solution space for the next problem 2. Impact of what you do in the beginning is much greater than at the end. THE IMPORTANCE OF STARTING WITH THE WICKEDEST PROBLEM TIME SOLUTIONSPACE PHASE A PHASE B PHASE C
  27. 27. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 30 CONFIDENTIAL HOW DO THESE METHODOLOGIES GUARANTEE THAT YOU START WITH THE WICKEDEST PROBLEM? But: Are any of these assumptions valid for innovation projects? Agile assumes that the user fit contains the biggest risk and, as a consequence, integrated intermediate deliverables are key. Waterfall assumes that change of requirements is the biggest risk and therefore puts requirement definition upfront.
  28. 28. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 31 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Start to understand the mission of any product innovation project a) Creating a successful commercial product; Creating sustainable added value being a new positive balance between wanted and unwanted effects HOW TO IDENTIFY YOUR WICKEDEST PROBLEMS UPFRONT?
  29. 29. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 32 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Start to understand the mission of any product innovation project a) Creating a successful commercial product; Creating sustainable added value being a new positive balance between wanted and unwanted effects b) Determine criteria for added value: Usefulness / Feasibility & Viability / Desirability / Usability / Admissibility HOW TO IDENTIFY YOUR WICKEDEST PROBLEMS UPFRONT? allowable usable desirable feasible & viable useful
  30. 30. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 33 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Start to understand the mission of any product innovation project a) Creating a successful commercial product a new positive b) Determine criteria for added value Usefulness / Feasibility & Viability / Desirability / Usability / Admissibility 2. Start a risk analysis a) Not only on the technical side b) Also on the user side c) And on the business side 3. Determine the unknowns HOW TO IDENTIFY YOUR WICKEDEST PROBLEMS UPFRONT?
  31. 31. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 34 CONFIDENTIAL Requirements Yes Late changes in requirements require rework and cost of change grows exponentially throughout the innovation process. No As one cannot specify requirements not know yet. Pushing for early specs embodies a risk on its own. No Specs should not be holy, as insights and corresponding changes to fit the user create important added value. ARE ANY OF THESE ASSUMPTIONS VALID FOR INNOVATION PROJECTS? User fit Yes End users judge the added value of any project. Yes 3 out of the 5 added value criteria are user centered No What about the criteria feasibility & viability and admissibility? No Always adapting to new requirements/wishes leads to redoing work, thus increasing cost/duration of the project Waterfall Agile
  32. 32. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 35 CONFIDENTIAL WATERFALL VS AGILE?
  33. 33. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 36 CONFIDENTIAL WATERFALL AND AGILE
  34. 34. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 37 CONFIDENTIAL WATERFALL AND AGILE ‘WaterScrumFall’ ‘Agifall’ ‘ScrummerFall’ ‘WAgile’ =
  35. 35. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 38 CONFIDENTIAL • “Agile and Waterfall development methodologies are rather different yet both good in their respective way.” • Open mind / Same goal • Could the answer lie in a combination of methodologies fitting your purpose and organization? • The PMBOK® Guide – Sixth Edition and Agile Practice Guide were created to complement each other. Together these two publications are a powerful tool that enable the right approach for the right project • “Together for the first time…” CHOOSING IS LOOSING
  36. 36. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 39 CONFIDENTIAL • The Hybrid approach, as the name implies, is a combination of the Waterfall and Agile methodologies. It takes the best parts of both Waterfall and Agile and combines them in a flexible yet structured approach that can be used across different projects. • The Hybrid methodology focuses on gathering and analyzing requirements initially - a nod to the Waterfall method. From thereon, it takes the flexibility of Agile approach with an emphasis on rapid iterations. • Best of both worlds. • And of course, combining methodology principles is not limited to Agile and Waterfall rather it should be open to any other methodology. HYBRID METHODOLOGY
  37. 37. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 41 CONFIDENTIAL RICE METHODOLOGY Custom in-house study logic for innovation projects
  38. 38. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 42 CONFIDENTIAL Parallel and ongoing requirements & risks management and verification & validation activities complete a phased stage-gated process with divergent (exploration) and convergent (synthesis) thinking EXAMPLE: VERHAERT’S RICE METHODOLOGY GateGate Verification & validation Requirements & risks management Pub.Ref. Paul Verhaert, De praktijk van de productontwikkeling, Acco, 1984
  39. 39. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 43 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Zero risk is not affordable in terms of cost and schedule 2. Risk management : The gain should exceed the pain! 3. Combine risk management with opportunity management 4. Don’t be afraid of risk, try to manage risks in a decent way REQUIREMENTS & RISKS MANAGEMENT Verification & validation Requirements & risks management ProjectCost/Uncertainty ProjectCost/Uncertainty
  40. 40. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 44 CONFIDENTIAL PRIORITIZE YOUR DESIGN ITEMS / WICKEDEST PROBLEMS WITH RESPECT TO RISKS AND UNKNOWNS 3 EFFECT MITIGATION TECHNOLOGYBUSINESSUSER 1. 1 2 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. FAILURE MODES EFFECT (1-10) SEVERITY PROBABILITY DETECTABILITY RPN TOTAL ACCEPTANCE RATES GREEN: YELLOW: RED: FREQUENT PROBABLE OCCASIONAL REMOTE IMPROBABLE NEGLIGIBLE MINOR SERIOUS CRITICAL CATASTROPHIC PROBABILITY SEVERITY Verification & validation Requirements & risks management
  41. 41. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 45 CONFIDENTIAL VERIFICATION & VALIDATION MyFabLab Need for organization, tools and infrastructure to build and test demonstrators, prototypes, pilots in a lean way. Rapid prototyping toolboxes, 3D printing , software tools, platforms and test infrastructure Verification & validation Requirements & risks management MyIncubator Need for an organization, tools and infrastructure to do pretotyping in the market. New business development teams / Pop-up channels / Digital marketing / User research campaigns
  42. 42. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 46 CONFIDENTIAL EXAMPLE: VERHAERT’S RICE METHODOLOGY 1. Work vision-driven and manage holistically 3. Apply visual design thinking and communication. Work output oriented (e.g. fast prototyping) 4. Reverse the learning curve. Front-load the risks. Fail-fast fail-cheap. 8. Work multi-disciplinary: user centered, business driven and technology simultaneously 7. Scout and use existing building blocks 6. Define an added value creating strategy and innovation level and stick to it. 5. Think continuous improvement. Iterate in sprints 2. Think convergent/divergent and organize a stage-gated process for option and risk management 8 guiding principles for successful product design
  43. 43. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 47 CONFIDENTIAL Aim for the sweet spot • View it as whole, not just as a collection of parts PRINCIPLE 1: WORK VISION-DRIVEN AND MANAGE HOLISTICALLY 1. Manage holistically & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints
  44. 44. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 48 CONFIDENTIAL Stage-gates should include stakeholders PRINCIPLE 2: THINK CONVERGENT/DIVERGENT AND ORGANIZE A STAGE-GATED PROCES Create Create Create Create Verify Verify Verify New-value proposition 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints Stage-Gate Go / No-Go Stage-Gate Go / No-Go Stage-Gate Go / No-Go
  45. 45. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 49 CONFIDENTIAL PRINCIPLE 3: APPLY VISUAL DESIGN THINKING 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints • Moodboards set the scene • Storyboards make use cases tangible • Mock-ups provide 3D insights • Sketches show conceptual ideas • Renders deliver sense of reality and selling value
  46. 46. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 50 CONFIDENTIAL 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints Learn fast, often and cheap when innovating. It is imperative to actively scan for unknowns on all angles and tackle them upfront. • Avoid postponing the unknowns for the sake of ‘fast progress’ (prioritizations). • Detect elements of risk and convert them early stage to non-risks • Use verification tools in an early stage: bread boarding / testing / simulations / reviews /... • Make your options tangible to confront them PRINCIPLE 4: REVERSE THE LEARNING CURVE BY FOCUSING ON RISKS AND UNKNOWNS
  47. 47. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 51 CONFIDENTIAL Research and development is a process of • Analysis, • Synthesis, • Conceptualization • Verification • Learning • Adaption 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints PRINCIPLE 5: ITERATE IN CREATION AND VERIFICATION SPRINTS And iteration
  48. 48. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 52 CONFIDENTIAL Strike the right balance between wanted and unwanted effects in order to develop a successful innovation PRINCIPLE 6: DESIGN FOR ADDED VALUE 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints allowable usable desirable viable useful
  49. 49. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 53 CONFIDENTIAL Avoid unneeded development costs and risks by researching potentially commercial technologies and applications • Use various technology scouting tools to cover your market exploration PRINCIPLE 7: SCOUT AND USE AVAILABLE BUILDING BLOCKS 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints
  50. 50. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 54 CONFIDENTIAL Avoid unneeded development costs and risks by researching potentially commercial technologies and applications • Use various technology scouting tools to cover your market exploration • Avoid the common engineering pitfall to deep dive into developing a solution instead of buying one PRINCIPLE 7: SCOUT AND USE AVAILABLE BUILDING BLOCKS 1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints
  51. 51. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 55 CONFIDENTIAL Although disciplines are often in competition with one another for time and budget, they are equally important. Due to their interdependencies they should be dealt with simultaneously. Late-stage design changes can have a big impact on the project. PRINCIPLE 8: COMPOSE YOUR TEAM WITH MULTIDISCIPLINARY/COMPLEMENTARY SKILLS SEQUENTIAL APPROACH Effort Impact on the project technology Time Time PARALLEL APPROACH economy human factors
  52. 52. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 56 CONFIDENTIAL Innovation teams require specific skills and profiles • Both technically (designer, engineer, business analyst) as personally PRINCIPLE 8: COMPOSE YOUR TEAM WITH MULTIDISCIPLINARY/COMPLEMENTARY SKILLS1. Manage holisticly & multidisciplinary 2. Involve disciplines simultaneously 3. Apply visual design thinking 4. Reverse the learning curve 8. Compose complementary team 7. Scout & use building blocks 6. Design for added value 5. Iterate in sprints ANTROPOLOGIST Observe, interact, look around Vuja De – see the common for the 1st time Keep a ‘Bug list’ and ‘idea wallet’ Maintain a spirit of curiosity EXPERIMENTER Hard work, curious mind Fail often to succeed sooner Prototype everything! CROSS-POLLINATOR Draw associations, make connections Wide sets of interests and avid curiosity Bring seemingly unrelated ideas together HURDLER Tireless problem-solving, optimist Quiet determination, perseverance Don’t ‘just do your job’ Do see beyond initial failures COLLABORATOR The team over the individual, shared journey Multidisciplinary teams More of a coach than a boss DIRECTOR Big picture thinking Bring out the best in team members Give center stage to others Shoot for the moon and wield a large toolbox EXPERIENCE ARCHITECT Fend of the ordinary wherever you find it Facilitate positive encounters with your products, services, organizations, spaces and events SET DESIGNER Liven up the workplace Promote energetic, inspired culture CAREGIVER The foundation of human-powered innovation Empathy for individuals Create relationships STORYTELLER Capture imagination with a story (video, narrative, animation, drawing) Spark emotion and action LEARNING ORGANIZING BUILDING
  53. 53. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 57 CONFIDENTIAL Waterfall Agile Rice Comment Planning Rigid detailed phased planning. Front-heavy. Sequential project flow start-to-end. Little planning. Development and insights in an incremental and iterative approach. Sequential, parallel , diamond, stage-gated, iterations, … Work breakdown Design process and architecture not broken down into individual systems. Design process and architecture gets broken down into individual systems. Morphological card: System cut into its constituents. Parallel and iterative effort. Waterfall of course does break down into subsystems. Flexibility No flexibility. Planning is structured, rigid and thus more secure. High flexibility, both in requirements and scope. Thus rather unstructured project. High flexibility. Needed in iR&D. Deadlines Clear and set deadlines. Project schedule risk. Hard to set deadlines. No clear idea on project termination. Clear and set deadlines/milestones, allowing reorientation of scope. Scope & requirements Fixed clear upfront scope made into fixed detailed requirements. Works well if the scope and requirements are not known beforehand but grow along the way. Building the scope and requirements together beforehand and at milestones. Change management Requirement changes not allowed. Or else redoing major planning and starting anew. Constant validation, changes, issue mitigation. Methodology intended to cope with these. New insights are common and require requirement/expectation updates. Change is a reality. Especially in innovation (high-risk developm.) Funding Works well with fixed budget. Changes require also budget/contract negotiations. Works well with time& material contract. More efficient/cheaper. Time&material or fixed budget combined with fail-fast fail-cheap. Agile is doubtful to be cheaper. The end is unknown. Predictability High predictability. No turning back to a previous phase. No addition of new phases. Poor predictability. New requirements add on. Many iterations and changes along the way. Intermediate predictability. Team/Communication Team(s) communicate at phase-handoffs. Possibly large teams / different departments. Close communication. Need for a disciplined motivated team. Works best with small teams. Multi-disciplinary dedicated teams in close collaboration and communication. Documentation Significant because of listing & managing requirements throughout the project. Little documentation. Emphasis on performance with often neglect on documenting. Balanced amount of documentation. Quality Average quality. Late testing. Long time to discover problems. Better quality. Errors can be fixed in the middle of the project. Better quality. Errors can be fixed in the middle of the project. Frontloading issues. Testing Testing only at the end. In case of bad performance, project needs to start anew. Testing every iteration. Close collaboration between tester and implementer. Testing before every project stage-gate. Fail fast, fail cheap. Frontloading issues. Success Does not allow partial success which increases the risk of failure. Allows partial success by prioritization thus decreasing risk of failure. Frontloading the uncertainties and looking for the unknowns allows fail-fast fail-cheap. Client involvement Low level of client participation. Big bang at the end of the project. High level of stakeholder involvement, at every iteration, allowing feedback and change. High level of client involvement, at stage- gated milestones and progress meetings. User acceptance User acceptance is verified at the end of the project. Big bang at the end of the project. User acceptance is verified at the end of every sprint/cycle/iteration. Constant validation. User acceptance is verified at every milestone/stage-gate. Constant validation. Project size Small to large projects, with clear fixed requirements/deadlines and little surprises. Small projects get done quickly. Large projects have unknown duration. Small teams. Small to large projects, small to large teams.
  54. 54. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 58 CONFIDENTIAL CONCLUSION Summary
  55. 55. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 59 CONFIDENTIAL More recently, project management is being used • in nearly all industries, • in all functions, • across all fields. The project manager now requires an expanding arsenal of skills • The art of project management • Effective communication, integrity, honesty, sociability, leadership, staff development, flexibility, decision making, perspective, sound business judgment, negotiations, customer relations, problem solving, managing change, managing expectations, training, mentoring, consulting, and the like. • The science of project management • Plans, WBS, Gantt charts, standards, CPM/precedence diagrams, controls variance analysis, metrics, methods, earned value, s-curves, risk management, status reporting, resource estimating and leveling. • Project Management Methodologies WHAT DO THE BEST PROJECT MANAGERS DO?
  56. 56. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 60 CONFIDENTIAL • Remember, no methodology is better than the others. It all depends on how well it meets organizational goals and values, the constraints the project team has to deal with, the needs of stakeholders, the risks involved, as well as the project size, cost, and complexity. 1.Consider your project factors by their simplicity or complexity. 2.Determine the rigidity or flexibility of your work environment. 3.Consider what delivers the most value. 4.Leverage your organizational goals. 5.List your organizational and team values. • Even better: Build your own, like the CHOOSE/ADAPT/BUILD YOUR OWN PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY
  57. 57. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 61 CONFIDENTIAL TAKE-AWAY MESSAGE 1. Project management methodology is key in your innovation factory, to increase the success rate of innovation 2. Understand the difference between project management models, methodologies, methods and tools 3. Start a project with understanding your wickedest problem based on a multi-disciplinary risk analysis 4. Define a study logic upfront and select/customize your project management methodology based on the risks and unknowns involved 5. Make sure you have a FabLab & Incubator department to validate design propositions in early stages on both technical as commercial aspects. 6. In case of virtual innovation factories (based on external resources and partners) make sure your project management methodology and underlying study logic is fully understood by all parties
  58. 58. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 62 CONFIDENTIAL QUESTIONS? Thank you for your attention
  59. 59. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 63 CONFIDENTIAL QUESTIONS? Thank you for your attention
  60. 60. 2.3 Behind the Waterfall methodology 64 CONFIDENTIAL One group, five brands Our services are marketed through 5 brands each addressing specific missions in product development. INTEGRATED PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ON-SITE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OPTICAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

What are the differences between popular innovation project management methodologies? Why does project management often fail? Learn how risk assessment should define your methodology in order to become a real innovation factory. The waterfall methodology has been promoted for years as the best practice for IR&D management. These days agile and scrum are increasingly popular as alternative. Hater or believer? Good or bad? Get guided through our body of knowledge as published in the Inspire Toolbox.

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