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Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering

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The ability to model business knowledge is one of the core competences in the discipline of Information Systems. In addition, the modeling of business processes and structures has found wide acceptance in study programs for economic sciences. In addition to the knowledge of modeling paradigms, notations and tools, an effective acquisition of skills in this area also requires a deeper understanding of a professional domain, preferably from the point of view of a service provider or producer. Exercises that only rely on the analysis of existing business models or on the implementation of purely textual descriptions are not sufficient to establish a deeper understanding of the subject as well as an effective competence acquisition. The paper aims to show how a didactic concept, which takes up existing domain knowledge and explicitly focuses on a positive error culture, contributes significantly to the acquisition of competence in knowledge engineering by students.

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Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering

  1. 1. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 1 Prof. Dr. Vera G. Meister Katowice, April 2017 Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering An Approach based on Learning from Errors
  2. 2. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 2 Agenda 06.04.2017Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors ▪ Definition of the Subject Domain ▪ Relevant Competencies ▪ Scope of Competency Acquisition in KE ▪ Learners and their Prerequisites ▪ Didactic Setting ▪ Opportunities of Errors ▪ “Learning from Errors” in Theory and Practice ▪ Survey and Results ▪ Lessons Learned
  3. 3. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 3 Knowledge in Organizations 09.04.2017 Can be found in … ➢ determined structures – organization charts ➢ described procedures – process models ➢ Implemented processes – programs and rules ➢ the heads of employees. Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors It is typically … ➢ heavily fragmented and continiously changing, ➢ distributed along departments, groups, and persons, ➢ requires human interpretation to be accessed. Knowledge Engineering is the processing of organizational knowledge in a way, that it becomes - described uniquely and unambiguously, - both contentally and formally. Formal Modeling Comp.: Studer, R.; Benjamins V.R.; Fensel, D.: Knowledge Engineering - Prinicples and Methods. Data & knowledge engineering 25.1-2 (1998): 161-197.
  4. 4. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 4 Items to be Modeled 09.04.2017Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors 1. Business processes a) Predefined procedures e. g. order processing in eCommerce b) Knowledge-intensive case processing e. g. development of individual quotations 2. Decisions e. g. about the proper discount for a customer 3. Vocabularies, glossaries and thesauri e. g. for a specific knowledge domain 4. Structures and relations e. g. in enterprises or between business objects
  5. 5. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 5 09.04.2017Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Subject Domain: Applied Knowledge Engineering DMN Digitized Processes IT Support for Knowledge Work Automated Decisions Big Data Analysis AI & Linked Data SKOS A set of bridging technologies
  6. 6. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 6 Relevant Competencies 06.04.2017 (1) Analyze and define real world problems and structures (2) Communicate with stakeholders (3) Choose adequate levels of abstraction (4) Formalize real world concepts, individuals and their relations (5) Choose the proper notation or specification (6) Apply notations and specifications syntactically correct (7) Choose proper tools and use them adequately (8) Reflect the own work critically Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors
  7. 7. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 7 Scope of Competency Acquisition in Knowledge Engineering 06.04.2017Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Competencies Knowledge Skills Notations Domain Methods Tools Applications Analysis Abstraction Formalization Reflection Patterns
  8. 8. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 8 Learners and their Prerequisites 09.04.2017 ❖ Students at medium and higher levels ▪ Business Administration Master ▪ Business Information System Bachelor ❖ During their study they have already acquired ▪ Basic knowledge about modeling methods and notations ▪ Basic skills on tools and applications ▪ Basic competencies of abstraction and reflection But the most important thing is: deep expertise in a dedicated knowledge domain e. g. from work, from internships or from leisure activities Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors
  9. 9. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 9 06.04.2017 Overall Didactic Setting: One Cycle for each Topic Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors • Domain definition • Knowledge description • Knowledge engineering • Personal consultation • Remote feedback • Group reflection • Reflection questions • Tool-based training • Transfer assignments • Impuls lectures • Video lectures • Reading material Input Transfer ProjectCoaching
  10. 10. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 10 09.04.2017 Opportunities for Errors Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Knowledge Engineering in an individual domain generates a multitude of error oportunities: ▪ choosing an inadequate level of abstraction, ▪ incomplete analysis and description of structures, procedures and relations, ▪ neglecting the restrictions or support options of tools, ▪ incorrect usage of notation syntax, ▪ weak or erroneous implementation of notation logic and semantics, ▪ implementing suboptimal patterns. Knowledge Engineering in an individual domain is a creative work in a complex environment.  Error opportunities cannot be forseen in total. Each error and its discussion may lead to ✓ a deeper understanding of the domain, ✓ more solid modeling skills based on deeper understanding of the notation.
  11. 11. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 11 The Theory of „Learing from Errors“ 10.04.2017 (1) Karl Popper: Objective Knowledge – An Evolutionary Approach. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972, p. 344f. • Horizon of expectations is a kind of a frame of reference • Important kind of problems: experience of something contrary to our expectations – may act on the frame like a bombshell • Learners are forced to reconstruct their whole frame of reference  Horizon of expectations is raised to a higher level, „damaging“ observations are integrated in a new frame of explanation (2) Janosch M. Türling e. a.: Teachers‘ Knowledge about Domain Specific Student Error. In: Eveline Wuttke, Jürgen Seifried (eds.): Learning from Errors at School and at Work. Budrich, Opladen, 2012, p. 96. Three facets of Professional Error Competence of Teachers: a) Knowledge of possible error types b) Available strategies of action/teacher reactions c) A constructive view on errors and their use in classroom interaction Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors
  12. 12. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 12 10.04.2017 The Process of „Learning from Errors“? Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Logical Error: There is a logical problem. First of all, the supplier list should be split into two lists depending on the volume of the year. A parallelization must then be carried out, since both lists are processed further. One (under € 1 million) must be supplemented by the delivery risks and sorted according to this criterion in descending order. Then the top 3 can be selected. The other is sorted according to volume and the top 15 is selected. After combining these two paths, the lists can then be aggregated. Basically one could also do this one after the other, without parallelization. Your modeling implies that only one vendor is checked for its volume. This is not true. To work with loop activities would not be useful either, you will get a list and want to cut this list according to certain criteria. Style Error: This is not clearly specified. Do you mean every year in October? Then write: each October Syntax Error: Within a pool sending and receiving messages doesn’t make sense, since the sequence flow carries all data and documents.
  13. 13. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 13 Improved (final) Model 10.04.2017Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Correct Style Correct Syntax Correct Logic ✓ deeper understanding of the domain ✓ more solid modeling skills ✓ deeper understanding of the notation
  14. 14. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 14 Survey Outline 10.04.2017 ❖ Participants: all active students (N=21) of the course in winter term 2016/17 ❖ Paper questionnaire, anonymized, carried out in February 2017 ❖ Analyzed items: • Self estimation of knowledge and skills at the start and at the end of the course • Usage rates and helpfulness of different forms/media of learning • Possibly missed alternative forms/media of learning • Personal feeling of being confronted with „making errors“ • Agreement with the following statements: ➢ The opportunity to make my own errors and learn from them has contributed significantly to my learning success. ➢ The opportunity to model in my own domain of expertise has contributed significantly to my learning success. Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors
  15. 15. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 15 06.04.2017 Self Estimation of Knowledge and Skills Acquisition Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors Business Vocabularies Business Decisions Business Processes Start End non-existent excellent
  16. 16. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 16 10.04.2017 Usage Rate and Helpfulness of Forms/Media of Learning Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors never used often used most helpful not helpful On-site lectures Video lectures eMail feedback Individual consultation Usage RateHelpfulness
  17. 17. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 17 10.04.2017 Personal Feeling about „Learning from Errors“ Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors bad 19% unfamiliar 38% challenging 38% other 5% • About 75 % had a kind of positive personal feeling assessing the learning setting as unfamiliar (courious) or challenging. • About 25 % gave a negative assessment to the learning setting as unpleasant or too hard.
  18. 18. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 18 10.04.2017 Agreement with Statements Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors (1) The opportunity to make my own errors and learn from them has contributed significantly to my learning success. (2) The opportunity to model in my own domain of expertise has contributed significantly to my learning success. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 totally disagree disagree slightly disagree slightly agree agree totally agree Count 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 totally disagree disagree slightly disagree slightly agree agree totally agree Count ➢ About 2/3 agree with the statements, 1/3 disagree.
  19. 19. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 19 10.04.2017 Lessons Learned Competency Acquisition in Applied Knowledge Engineering ∙ An Approach based on Learning from Errors (1) Students in the Business Administration programs are not very familiar with the presented learning setting. They evaluated the course challenging, maybe too hard. (2) All active students achieved at least good results, in an oral feedback round they all reported about growing motivation because of personal domain expertise and intensive coaching. (3) The competency acquisition during that short period can be estimated as above- average, mostly due to substantial practice in individual modeling. (4) The same applies to the effort of the lecturer to give that different feedback on a multitude of models and development steps.  Example result page: http://univera.de/FHB/KITP16/Eichler/
  20. 20. Technische Hochschule Brandenburg · Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences Page 20 Thank you for your attention! Prof. Dr. Vera G. Meister • vera.meister@th-brandenburg.de • +49-175-5634180 Research Group Business Modeling and Knowledge Engineering (BMaKE)

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