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  1. 1. Logo’ s
  2. 2. DEFINITION • A logo is a graphical element (ideogram, symbol, emblem, icon, sign) that, together with its logotype (a uniquely set and arranged typeface) form a trademark or commercial brand. • A logo's design is for immediate recognition. The logo is one aspect of a company's commercial brand, or economic or academic entity. • Logos are also used to identify organizations and other non-commercial entities.
  3. 3. HISTORY • Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals (c.2300 BCE), coins (c.600 BCE), trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, watermarks, silver hallmarks and the development of printing technology. • As the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries, photography and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
  4. 4. • The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. • Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, and Jules Ché ret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors.
  5. 5. • By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avantgarde artistic movement in Europe & United States and elsewhere • The visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism • The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. • Today there are many corporations, products, brands, services, agencies and other entities using an ideogram (sign, icon) or an emblem (symbol) or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo.
  6. 6. SIGN • We see signs everywhere like 'BUY THIS!', 'BUY THAT!', 'DON'T' TOUCH THIS!, 'DON'T TOUCH THAT!', DANGER, NO SMOKING. • Signs basically tell us what to do and what not to • Signs also give us information. • Samples of various signs:
  7. 7. SYMBOLS • A symbol is something such as an object, picture, written word, or particular mark that represents (or stands for) Association, Brand or Company. • Symbols indicate (or serve as a sign for) and represent ideas, concepts, or other abstractions. • Sample of Symbols
  8. 8. What is a Logo? What Function Does it Serve? • A logo is the visual identity of a brand, a mark that represents an organization and makes it instantly recognizable to an audience • Identity built on the use of a set of colors, font(s) and imagery to symbolize a brand and set it apart from others • Logo should be unique identifying symbol, and should represent company services, values, characteristics
  9. 9. Types of Logo’s • There are a number of ideas floating around about what a logo really is. If we were to ask most people what a logo is, they would have a variety of different answers, but they would probably all be right in one way or another. • The reality is, there are a number of different types of logo “marks” you could choose to utilize for yourself. In this article, we’ll briefly explain the 5 main types of logos and show some examples of each you’ll probably recognize.
  10. 10. 1.Symbol or Icon • This type of logo represents the company in a simple but bold manner. In most cases, the image is abstract and stylized to give visual interest. • Most companies that use this type of logo will have a very simple main logo, but may choose to create additional alternative versions that appear a little more flashy. • The human mind can easily remember a simple form much easier than a complex one. • Examples:
  11. 11. 2.Word Mark • These are uniquely styled text logos that spell out the company or brand name. Many times, custom fonts are created specifically for brands to use across all their marketing and branding collateral. Some examples include Facebook, Disney and Sony.
  12. 12. 3.Letter Mark • Lettermark’s are exclusively typographic. They use a symbol representing the company through the use of its initials or the brands first letter. Many companies choose to use this type of logo because their initials can better graphically illustrate the company better than the full name (name is too long), the name is hard to pronounce, or it’s just not distinct enough to carry its own weight. Some companies and organizations that use lettermarks include Hewlett-Packard, Chanel and General Electric.
  13. 13. 4.Combination Mark • These logos combine a word mark and a symbol or icon to give the flexibility for the use of either or both elements across a variety of applications. A well-designed combination mark looks just as good with the elements separate as it does with them together. You might recognize some combo marks like Hawaiian Airlines, Adidas and Sprint.
  14. 14. 5.Emblem • An emblem logo encases the company name within the design. Some examples include Starbucks, the NFL and Harley-Davidson Motorcycles.
  15. 15. Elements of Logo Design  CAPTURE PERSONALITY • Logo should clearly express a company’s identity. • Should tell people who they are, what they do, how they work and how they want to be seen by the rest of the world.  SIMPLICITY • People are drawn to clean, uncluttered logos because they can easily recognize it at a glance. • Busy, crowded logos with intricate details or elaborate pictures are distracting.
  16. 16.  COLOUR PALETTE • 80% of the world’s most recognizable logos use either 1 or 2 colours. • Generally 1 to 3 colours are used to keep things simple • More than three colours is distracting to the eye and less memorable  PROPORTIONALITY • A logo should function as one complete unit. • Width shouldn’t be much greater than the height. • Logos that are too tall are hard to read when reduced or enlarged. • The design should work well on any sized media – from business card to billboard.  FONTS • A font that suits the personality of your business.
  17. 17.  ORIGINALITY • Distinguish your company from its competitors. • Should be unique, one-of-a-kind. • Should be “ownable” – you want to be able to trademark the logo design.  PRACTICAL, USEABLE, ADAPTABLE • Too many colours will cost you a fortune every time you need to print business cards or letterhead. • Should be able to easily convert to black and white . • Should be created in vector format so you can resize when needed without loss of image quality.
  18. 18. Have you ever wonder how the first Apple logo looks in 30 years back? Did you know Volkswagen was Hitler’s idea? Or how the IBM logo changes over the time? Or where the Mercedes-Benz Brand And The Three-Pointed Star logo came from?
  19. 19. Logo Design & their Significance.
  20. 20. This logo doesn’t seem to hide much at first sight, but it gives you a little insight in the philosophy behind the brand. First of all, the yellow swoosh looks like a smile: want to have the best Customer Satisfaction. The swoosh also connects the letters a to z, meaning that this store has everything from a to z.
  21. 21. This is probably one of the best known logos with a hidden meaning. If you look closely, you'll see an arrow that's formed by the letters E and x. This arrow symbolizes speed and precision, two major selling points of this company.
  22. 22. Continental is a manufacturer of tyres. You could actually see this in their logo, because the first two letters create a 3-dimensional tyre.
  23. 23. Toblerone is a chocolate-company from Bern, Switzerland. Bern is sometimes called The City of Bears. They have incorporated this idea in Toblerone logo, because if you look closely, you’ll see the silhouette of bear.
  24. 24. At first glance, this logo looks simply like the initials for Baskin Robins but if you take a second look, you will see the number 31 in the acronym (highlighted in a pink color). This stems from the idea that Baskin Robbins sells 31 types of ice cream, one for each day of the month.
  25. 25. Sony vaio is well known brand of laptops. But did you know that the vaio logo also had a hidden meaning? Well, the first two letters represent the basic analogue signal. The last two letters look like a 1 and 0, representing the digital signal.
  26. 26. Carrefour is one of the biggest European retailers and its also French of crossroads. The logo symbolizes this world via two opposite arrows. They also added the first letter of the name, because if you look closely you'll see the letter C in the negative space between the two arrows
  27. 27. Unilever is one of the biggest producers of food, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. They produce a huge amount of different products and they wanted to reflect this in their logo. Each part of logo has a meaning. For example: the heart represents love , care and health – feeling good, a bird is a symbol of freedom. Relief from daily chores – getting more out of life.
  28. 28. At first, this logo might not make much sense. But if you look closely, you'll see the number 1 in the negative space between the F and red stripes. I also love how this logo communicates feeling of speed.
  29. 29. The Sun logo is one of the most famous ambigrams in the world. You can read the brand name in every direction; both horizontally and vertically. This logo was designed by Professor Vaughan Pratt of the Stanford University.
  30. 30. The NBC (National Broadcasting Company) is one of the biggest American television networks. I think most of you have already seen the peacock in this logo. The peacock has 6 different tail feathers, referring to the six divisions at the time that this logo was created. The peacocks head is flipped to the right to suggest it was looking forward, not back.
  31. 31. Each & Every letter has its own Significance Concept Strategy -
  32. 32. Evolution of corporate brand logos
  33. 33. APPLE • When Apple was started, the logo was a complicated picture of Isaac Newton sitting under a tree. This had been designed by Jobs and Wayne, with the inscription: “Newton … A Mind Forever Voyaging Through Strange Seas of Thought … Alone.” • Rob Janoff simplifIed the logo, which turned out to be a great idea. Rob created the ‘Rainbow Apple’ • Janoff, however, said in an interview that though he was mindful of the “byte/bite” pun (Apple’s slogan back then: “Byte into an Apple”), he designed the logo as such to “prevent the apple from looking like a cherry tomato.”
  34. 34. XEROX
  35. 35. The Principles of Effective Logo Design
  36. 36. The Principles of Effective Logo Design 1. A logo must be simple A simple logo design allows for easy recognition and allows the logo to be versatile & memorable. Good logos feature something unexpected or unique without being overdrawn.
  37. 37. The Principles of Effective Logo Design 2. A logo must be memorable •Following closely behind the principle of simplicity, is that of memorability. •An effective logo design should be memorable and this is achieved by having a simple, yet, appropriate logo.
  38. 38. The Principles of Effective Logo Design 3. A logo must be timeless • An effective logo should be timeless that is, it should stand the test of time. • Will the logo still be effective in 10, 20, 50 years?
  39. 39. The Principles of Effective Logo Design 4. A logo must be versatile •An effective logo should be able to •work across a variety of mediums and applications. • For this reason a logo should be designed in vector format, to ensure that it can be scaled to any size.
  40. 40. The Principles of Effective Logo Design 5. A logo must be appropriate How you position the logo should be appropriate for its intended purpose. For example, if you are designing a logo for children’s toys store, it would be appropriate to use a childish font & color scheme.
  41. 41. Game Time Folks!  Logos will appear on the next screen. Think about it and try to guess the brand.