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Study and Transformation of Occupational Health and Safety techniques in Construction industry in India


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Study and Transformation of Occupational Health and Safety techniques in Construction industry in India

  1. 1. BABARIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY PROJECT - 1 (2170001) TEAM ID - 63561 TEAM MEMBER : (7th semester Civil-2)  SHAH AAKASH 140053106017  VALA VATSAL 140053106024  PATEL CHIRAG 110050106023  VIDJA CHIRAG 120050106009 GUIDE:  FINHASALI CHINWALA Assistant Professor, BITS Edu Campus
  2. 2. Study and Transformation of Occupational Health and Safety techniques in Construction industry in India
  3. 3. Abstract 3
  4. 4. Abstract  In this new era of rapid construction, the upcoming technologies have reached heights but the situation for workers and their safety is pity during the construction process. The routine work for most of the workers is hard and they get drained out after the completion of the work. More often they experience major to minor hazards during work and bad occupational health due to many problems like poor management, lack of personal protective equipment, lack of provision of insurance, improper safety measures and absence of guidelines provided to control hazard, shortage of emergency aids, continuous and lengthy working periods without a break and shortness of nutritious food. Hence proper maintenance of equipment should be carried out and a detailed safety check list for any work with all safety measures should be provided well in advance to prevent hazards. Construction is project based where different parties work together to achieve a common goal.
  5. 5. What is our Aim? 5
  6. 6. In India there are many accidents happen during construction causing major injuries and causalities of workers. Aim
  7. 7. Even if we have modern technology and equipments, accidents during construction can happen. To prevent workers against any of such hazards may happen during construction the following should be carried out  Safety equipment  Provision of safety & health guidelines before the starting of work  Routine work chart for worker indicating shifts and break details  Medical and physical fitness certificate  Warning signs  Insurance Aim
  8. 8. What is Scope of this project? 8
  9. 9. If we provide adequate safety and heath measures for the workers during construction then we can achieve:  Increase in the efficiency of the workers  Improved health of workers  Less accidents and injuries  Quality of the construction may be improved Scope
  10. 10. Literature Review
  11. 11. Literature Review Sr. No. Name of Paper Author Date Conclusion 1. Safety in Indian Construction Karan Singh 11/11/2014 2. Basics of Occupational Safety nd Health Bagmita Bhagawati August 2015 Construction organizations are faced with the challenge of having to closely monitor their safety management systems to minimize occupational hazards, while simultaneously trying to sustain profits in a competitive marketplace. The most effective accident and disease prevention begins when work processes are still in the design stage when safe conditions can be taken into consideration, rather than attempting to solve problems after they have already developed. The aim of occupational safety and health should be to achieve healthy and safe working environment as healthy workers will be better motivated which will contribute better-quality products and services.
  12. 12. Literature Review Sr. No. Name of Paper Author Date Conclusion 3. Alhajeri, M. February 2014 4. Amal ElSafty1, Adel ElSafty2, Maged Malek3 15/08/2015 This research found that larger contractors tend to perform better compared to smaller companies generally because they have greater resources to do so. Health and safety in the construction industry: challenges and solutions in the UAE There are many benefits to focusing on occupational health and wellness of the workers. Safety consciousness is a vital professional qualification for construction worker. Workers should always be provided with a safety phone number for emergency situations, and continuous advice. Construction Safety and Occupational Health Education in Egypt, the EU, and US Firms
  13. 13. Literature Review Sr. No. Name of Paper Author Date Conclusion 5. S. Kanchana 1, P.Sivaprakash 2, and Sebastian Josep h3 06/12/2015 Construction industries are faced with the challenge of having close monitor of their labour safety management systems to minimize occupational hazards. In both small and large construction sites, more number of accidents occurred due to body injuries accounting to 44.1% and 26.4%, respectively. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites
  14. 14. Hence, we have modern technology & equipments, In the last few years major hazards during construction were happened in India and in the world. Some of the examples are mentioned in the next slides
  15. 15. Example #1 Kolkata flyover collapse ~ Background  On March 31, 2016, The construction for the 2.2- kilometre (1.4 mi) Vivekananda flyover in Kolkata was contracted in 2008 and the work began in 2009.
  16. 16. Example #1 Kolkata flyover collapse ~ Incident  At 12:40 pm IST on 31 March 2016, a 150 m (490 ft) span of steel of the bridge collapsed, trapping many pedestrians and vehicles underneath.  The incident took place at the busy Rabindra Sarani - K K Tagore road crossing. 27 people were killed and at least 80 others were injured.  As of 1 April, over 100 people were still unaccounted for.
  17. 17. Example#1Kolkataflyovercollapse
  18. 18. Example#1Kolkataflyovercollapse
  19. 19. Example #2 Wall collapse in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh  Seven construction workers were killed when a huge earthen mound caved in at the site of an under-construction shopping complex near Harihar Cinemas at Lakshmipuram in Guntur on Saturday, 14 May 2016 evening.  The workers were engaged in building the compound wall when the earthen mound around the pit caved in burying them in mud and slush. Fire and emergency personnel at the site where a huge earthen mound caved in at Guntur in Andhra Pradesh on Saturday.
  20. 20. Example#3WallcollapseinGuntur
  21. 21. Example#3WallcollapseinGuntur
  22. 22. Example #3 Mecca crane collapse, Saudi Arabia  On 11 September 2015, a crawler crane toppled over onto the Masjid al-Haram, the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.  111 people were killed and 394 injured  The Saudi Civil Defence authority confirmed that a crane collapsed through the ceiling of the mosque during strong winds created by a powerful storm.
  23. 23. Example #3 Mecca crane collapse  There were strong sand storms in the region over the preceding week.  The authority said an hour before the disaster that Mecca was experiencing medium to heavy rains.  There were also reports of winds of more than 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph).
  24. 24. Example #3 Mecca crane collapse ~ About Crane  The German-made crawler crane LR 11350  Involved in the incident is operated by the Saudi Binladin Group, who are heading the expansion of the Grand Mosque and also responsible for a large amount of major building contracts in Saudi Arabia.
  25. 25. Example #3 Mecca crane collapse ~ Condition after collapse
  26. 26. Example #3Meccacranecollapse
  27. 27. How much Important of Safety in India nowadays…
  28. 28. Current Scenario on Construction sites related to Safety and Health of Worker
  29. 29. Current Construction site conditionInINDIA 60% fatality occurs from height less than 5 meter
  30. 30. Material and Equipment #1 Cement Storage  Bulk quantity of Cement bags  Loading against wall, loading up to the ceiling that may fall on workers
  31. 31. #2 Bad Storage  Corroded equipments affect worker's health and safety Material and Equipment
  32. 32. #3 Bad Fire Protection  Fire extinguisher is out of date  Not easily available during emergency  Workers are not aware how to operate it Material and Equipment
  33. 33. #4 Gas cylinder kept horizontally anywhere Material and Equipment
  34. 34. #5 Bad hand tools Material and Equipment
  35. 35. #6 Unsafe Ladder Material and Equipment
  36. 36. #7 Unsafe access Material and Equipment
  37. 37. #8 Access of Child  As shown in image, Contractor hires children for construction work. Worker’s Condition
  38. 38. #9 Bad Light / Visibility and Ventilation Worker’s Condition
  39. 39. #10 Unsafe Sitting / sleeping Places Worker’s Condition
  40. 40. #11 Unsafe manual material handling  Without glows  Without safety shoes Worker’s Condition
  41. 41. #12 Unsafe act-standing on moving vehicle Worker’s Condition
  42. 42. And Many more… Worker’s Condition
  43. 43. Fall Protection – The Problem  As per New OSHA standards in 1995, Fatal injuries involving falls increased by 20 from the preliminary count to 700 cases.  Falls are serious safety concerns at the jobsite.  Falls are one of the leading causes of worker deaths in construction.
  44. 44. Fall Protection – The Problem  Roofs  Structures (non roofs) ex: Steel, wood frame  Scaffold  Ladders  Holes Where are Worker Falling?
  45. 45. Fall Protection – The Problem Where are Worker Falling?
  46. 46. Fall Protection – The Solution
  47. 47. Fall Protection – The Problem  Fall protection protects workers from fall hazards.  Fall protection doesn’t mean bulky or cumbersome equipment.  It doesn’t interfere with work tasks and it doesn’t get in the way of co-workers – when used properly Unguarded open-sided floor
  48. 48. Fall Protection – The Problem
  49. 49. Without safety…
  50. 50. Fall ProtectionProblem&Solution
  51. 51. Fall ~ Without signs boards
  52. 52. Fall Protection – The Solution
  53. 53. Checklist
  54. 54. To provide guidelines to the workers, contractors, engineers etc. at construction sites and to observe the construction site wither enough safety and health measures are taken or not. We will prepare a manual which includes guidelines a checklist for common works of the construction
  55. 55. How we can improve? Stop Child Labour at site
  56. 56. How we can improve? All fall protection equipments must be inspected at the beginning of each 8-hour shift by an authorized person Written or electronic records of inspection should be kept on file for service life of product.  Conduct periodic inspections  Is fall protection is placed?  Take pictures of people doing it right Inspections
  57. 57. How we can improve?  Adequate supply of hard hats  Adequate supply of eye protection  High visibility clothing  Adequate supply of hearing protection  Glove/hand protection appropriate for the task  Foot guards Personal Protective Equipment
  58. 58. How we can improve?  Excavation and protection plan  Adequate shoring on hand  Compètent excavation Person on site Excavations
  59. 59. How we can improve?  Guardrails on side with both top and mid-rails  Handrails  Evenly spaced threads  Foot clearance Stairs
  60. 60. How we can improve?  Training specific for users  Inspections before use  Fall protection required above 10 feet.  Suspended scaffolds need independent fall arrest from the scaffold Scaffolds
  61. 61. How we can improve?  Scaffolds must be fully planked, secured and overlapped.  Falling object protection required.  Inspect planks for damage or overloading. Scaffold Planking
  62. 62. How we can improve?  Train workers  When to use fall arrest  How to wear fall arrest Training
  63. 63. How we can improve?  Safety Poster  No Smoking  Crane signal poster  Specific Local Requirements  No Alcohol, Drugs, Firearms  Danger Electrical Hazard Keep Out  Danger Construction Area Keep Out  Danger Construction Area Hard Hat Required  Warning Scaffold Under Construction Do Not Use  Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals Posting Requirements (Sign Board)
  64. 64. How we can improve? Posting Requirements (Sign Board)
  65. 65. How we can improve?  Fall protection and rescue plan  Handrails  Slip resistant threads  Slip resistant shoes  Fall restraint systems  Guard rail post at 8 feet  Mobile scaffolding is provided with positive locking casters and guardrails  Adequate safety harnesses  Flagging at 6 feet  Workers protected at height of 6 feet Fall Protection
  66. 66. How we can improve? Fall Protection
  67. 67. Checklist  If people are not wearing the fall arrest, what is the consequence? Enforcement
  68. 68. How we can improve?  Decking is the most common activity that historically killed iron workers Safety Nets Used for Decking
  69. 69. How we can improve?  List of approved doctors or clinics  Well stocked first aid kit present on the job si te  At least one person on each shift with valid F irst Aid Certificate First Aid and Medical
  70. 70. How we can improve?  A fire prevention plan has been developed for this job site  Fire extinguishers are available on the job site  Fire extinguishers: one for each 3000 sq. feet of building  Fire extinguishers check on tagged on regular basis Fire Prevention
  71. 71. How we can improve?  Equipment in good repair  Equipment clean  Inspection log up to date  All glass is free from cracks and breaks  Back up alarms in working order  Seat belts in use  Fire extinguisher in equipment Equipment (motorized)
  72. 72. Some Videos related to Our Project… Videos
  73. 73. Accidents in… Construction Vehicle  Poor visibility  Driver Not suitable for heavy vehicle driving
  74. 74. Electrical Panel Repair Results in Electrocution Accidents in…
  75. 75. Construction Laying Stone… Sprains and Strains
  76. 76. Conclusion  In this semester we have studied present scenario of worker’s safety and health issues during construction. We have provided the possible solutions to improve it & for the betterment of the workers . Because the construction sites are very diverse and many activities and works are going on. So to know whether enough safety and health measures are provided to the workers or not; we have prepared a checklist. With the help of this checklist we will analyse various construction sites in the next semester.
  77. 77. Tentative work scheduled to be done • Introduction • Aim & Scope • Literature Review • Preparation of checklist Workflow 7th 8th Semester • Visiting various sites • Filling the checklist • Detailed analysis & conclusion
  78. 78. Reference 1. OSHA—Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “OSHA Forms for Recording Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses,” 2003. osha300form1-1-04.pdf 2. OSHA—Occupational Safety and Health Administration. “OSHA Regulations (Standards-29 CFR),” 2006. 3. OSHA—Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,” 2009. 4. Innovative Solutions to Safety and Health Risks in the Construction, Health Care and HORECA Sectors, European Agency for Safety and Health atWork (EU-OSHA), Bilbao, Spain, 2011.
  79. 79. Reference 5. 2015, 6. EU-OSHA–European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Accident Prevention in the Construction Sector, 2003 7. “SP70:2001, Handbook on Construction Safety Practices”, (Reprint 2007)”, Published by Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002. 8. “Safety health and welfare on construction sites A Training Manual”, International Labour Office, Geneva. 9. “SP7:2005, National Building Code of India 2005”, Second Revision 2005, Published by Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002.
  80. 80. 80