The Eastern Front 1941-1945 War in the Soviet Bloc
Background <ul><li>Aug 23, 1939-  Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was signed. A Military Alliance was signed, lasting for t...
The Game Plan
Invasion of Poland <ul><li>Sept 1, 1939-  Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 17, 1939-...
German Blitzkrieg German Bf 110 Bomber German Stuka Dive-Bomber German Air Force (Luftwaffe) German Armored Division Panze...
Strength Comparison <ul><li>Germany : 56 divisions 4 brigades </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 guns 2,700 tanks </li></ul><ul><li>...
Three Reasons for Polish Defeat <ul><li>1.) Polish forces mobilized too late. The Polish leadership hesitated in making a ...
 
June 22, 1941 The Largest Full Scale Land Invasion… Ever.
 
Operation Barbarossa  <ul><li>Hitler wanted to conquer the Soviet Union for Lebensraum, or living space for the Aryan Peop...
Battle Plan <ul><li>This massive force was divided into three army groups: North, Center, South. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Gr...
 
Soviet Reaction <ul><li>Stalin had ample evidence of a German Invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Late mobilization results in hea...
Germany’s Initial Success <ul><li>To the North, Army Group A reached Leningrad, and began a 900 day siege on the city. </l...
Military Showcase German Panzer IV Soviet T-34 Germany Panzer V Soviet Yak Fighters
Battle of Moscow Oct 1941 – Jan 1942 <ul><li>Hitler’s assumption: When Moscow falls, the Soviet Union falls.  </li></ul><u...
At the outskirts of Moscow
Battle of Stalingrad Aug 21, 1942 – Feb 2, 1943 <ul><li>Rattinkrieg (Rat War) Urban Warfare fought within the city of Stal...
Battle of Kursk July 3- Aug 23, 1943 <ul><li>Largest Tank Battle to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans had 2,700 tanks, 800,0...
 
Factors in German Defeat <ul><li>Corporal Hitler- Hitler made poor decisions during the invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Genera...
The Eastern Front 1943-1945 <ul><li>Soviet forces gradually pushed the German Army back to Berlin.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thro...
 
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The Eastern Front

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The Eastern Front

  1. 1. The Eastern Front 1941-1945 War in the Soviet Bloc
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Aug 23, 1939- Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was signed. A Military Alliance was signed, lasting for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Economic Cooperation- Hitler agreed to give Stalin 200 million marks in exchange for raw materials- petroleum, grain, cotton, iron. </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Secret Protocol- Nazi Germany and Communist Russia agreed not to fight each other. They also decided to annex territories between their borders. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Game Plan
  4. 4. Invasion of Poland <ul><li>Sept 1, 1939- Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 17, 1939- Soviet Union invades Poland from the East, as planned in the secret protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 6, 1939- German and Soviet forces occupies the entirety of Poland. The Polish government never surrendered. </li></ul>
  5. 5. German Blitzkrieg German Bf 110 Bomber German Stuka Dive-Bomber German Air Force (Luftwaffe) German Armored Division Panzer IV Panzer III
  6. 6. Strength Comparison <ul><li>Germany : 56 divisions 4 brigades </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 guns 2,700 tanks </li></ul><ul><li>1,300 aircraft Total: 1,800,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Casualties </li></ul><ul><li>16,343 dead </li></ul><ul><li>27,280 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>320 missing </li></ul><ul><li>Poland: </li></ul><ul><li>39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 950,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Casualties </li></ul><ul><li>66,000 dead </li></ul><ul><li>133,700 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>694,000 captured </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three Reasons for Polish Defeat <ul><li>1.) Polish forces mobilized too late. The Polish leadership hesitated in making a military decision. Many tanks were unable to fire their first shots. The majority of the Polish Air Force was destroyed before they took off. </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Polish defenses were spread too thin along the 800 mile front. The German attack came from the North, South and West. </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Britain and France failed to come to the aid of Poland. </li></ul>
  8. 9. June 22, 1941 The Largest Full Scale Land Invasion… Ever.
  9. 11. Operation Barbarossa <ul><li>Hitler wanted to conquer the Soviet Union for Lebensraum, or living space for the Aryan People. He viewed the Russians (Slavs) as inferior untermenschen (subhuman). </li></ul><ul><li>June 1941 Hitler ignores the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and invades the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wehrmacht attacked with 188 divisions, 3,300 tanks, 2,700 aircrafts, 7,000 artillery, 600,000 vehicles, 650,000 horses, and 100,000 wagons. (3.3 Million Men) </li></ul>
  10. 12. Battle Plan <ul><li>This massive force was divided into three army groups: North, Center, South. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Group North- Attack from the North, targeting the city of Leningrad. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Group Center- Penetrate central Soviet territory and encircle Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Group South- Capture the oil fields located in the Crimean Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Employ the Double Encirclement Strategy. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Soviet Reaction <ul><li>Stalin had ample evidence of a German Invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Late mobilization results in heavy casualties on the Soviet side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin decreed executive order no. 227, which asked for all political officers to shoot deserters of battle; “Not a Step Back” was the slogan. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviets managed to relocate their industrial heartland to Eastern Russia. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Germany’s Initial Success <ul><li>To the North, Army Group A reached Leningrad, and began a 900 day siege on the city. </li></ul><ul><li>By Oct 1941, Army Group Center was 40 miles away from Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Group South was 60 miles away from the oil fields, until Hitler changed his mind and ordered the attack on Stalingrad. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Military Showcase German Panzer IV Soviet T-34 Germany Panzer V Soviet Yak Fighters
  14. 17. Battle of Moscow Oct 1941 – Jan 1942 <ul><li>Hitler’s assumption: When Moscow falls, the Soviet Union falls. </li></ul><ul><li>German forces had reached the outskirts of Moscow by Oct 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 1941, Soviet began counter offensives. Soviet continued to pour fresh reserves into the battlefield. At one point, the Red Army fielded over 250 divisions on the Eastern Front. </li></ul><ul><li>German forces were pushed back by Soviet resistance. </li></ul>
  15. 18. At the outskirts of Moscow
  16. 19. Battle of Stalingrad Aug 21, 1942 – Feb 2, 1943 <ul><li>Rattinkrieg (Rat War) Urban Warfare fought within the city of Stalingrad. </li></ul><ul><li>The German war machine bogged down in the city. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Stalingrad’s surface was destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>German supply line was eventual cut off. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets deployed the double encirclement strategy and destroyed the German army. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets suffered 1.1 million casualties in this battle alone, more than the total casualties suffered by the United States in the entire war. </li></ul><ul><li>A psychological turning point, as morale in the German army was diminishing. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Battle of Kursk July 3- Aug 23, 1943 <ul><li>Largest Tank Battle to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans had 2,700 tanks, 800,000 infantry and 2,000 aircrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets had 3,300 tanks, 1.5 million men, and 2,400 aircrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet split German army into two and inflicted massive casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Marks the last intiative launched by Germany. Soviet victory even though the Russians suffered more casualties. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Factors in German Defeat <ul><li>Corporal Hitler- Hitler made poor decisions during the invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>General Mud and General Winter </li></ul><ul><li>German supply line stretched thin. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union possessed unlimited manpower. </li></ul><ul><li>German military leaders were overconfident. </li></ul><ul><li>Allied intelligence was superior. </li></ul><ul><li>Allied bombing campaign was successful in reducing Germany’s production efficiency. </li></ul>
  19. 23. The Eastern Front 1943-1945 <ul><li>Soviet forces gradually pushed the German Army back to Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the war, Hitler dedicated 80% of Germany’s military power on the Eastern Front. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union suffered the most casualties out of the Allied powers, totally to about 6 million people. </li></ul>

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