Communication: Channles, Models and Barriers of Communication


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Communication: Channles, Models and Barriers of Communication

  1. 1. Communication: Channels, Models and Barriers Vasantha Raju N. Librarian Govt. First Grade College Periyapatna MyLISA OPENS (Orientation Program for Enthusiasts of NET/SLET Exam) in Library & Information Science November 10, 2013 SBRR Mahajana First Grade College, Jayalakshmipuram, Mysore
  2. 2. Derivation of the Word Communication and What is Communication? English word ‘Communication’ is derived from the Latin noun- ‘Communis’ and Latin verb ‘Communicare’ means- ‘to make common’
  3. 3. What is Communication? Communication is “the imparting, conveying or exchange of ideas and knowledge whether by speech, writing or signs”. - The Oxford English Dictionary Communication is the “the transfer of thought and message as contrasted with transportation of goods and person”. - The Columbia Encyclopedia of Communication
  4. 4. • In ordinary usage the verb “to communicate” means i) To exchange thoughts, feelings, information; ii) To make known; iii) To make common; iv) To have a sympathetic relationship. In the noun form “communication” refers to i) The exchange of symbols, common message, information; ii) The process of exchange between individual through a common system of symbols; iii) The art of expressing ideas and iv) The science of transmitting information. Source:
  5. 5. Elements of Communication • Elements of basic communication system: • Source: The source of communication is the sender who has a message to impart. The sender has to decide how to communicate a message, which channel is to be selected for the message and what type of strategies should be planned so that the message makes the desired response. The sender provides verbal or non-verbal cues that can be received, interpreted and responded to by the receiver. • Message: Message is a set of signs and symbols which are given by the source to create meanings for the receiver. Simply put, message is the content which is shared between the participants in the communication process. To make the message effective, the sender has to understand the nature and profile of the receiver of the message, his/her needs and expectations and possible response to the message. This is important in both face-to-face as well as mediated situations. • Channel: Channel is the medium used to communicate a message from the sender to receiver. The channel could be spoken word, printed word, electronic media, or even non-verbal cues such as signs, gestures, body language, facial expressions, etc. In modern communication parlance, the word 'channel' mostly refers to mass communication media such as newspapers, radio, television, telephone, computers, internet etc. The selection of an appropriate channel is crucial for the success of communication. • Receiver: Communication cannot take place without a receiver for whom the message is meant. We receive a message, interpret it and derive meaning from it. Source: IGNOU Course Material for Journalism and Mass Communication
  6. 6. Communication Models Models Model Type Main Components of the Model Lasswell Model (1948) Linear Who Says What In Which Channel To Whom With What Effect Shannon and Weaver Linear Communication Model (1949) Source Encoder Channel Decoder Destination Noise Feedback Charles Osgood and others (1957) Message Decoder Interpreter Encoder Message Decoder Linear Also known as Mathematical Theory of Communication
  7. 7. Models Type Main components of the model Also known as Bruce Westely and Malcolm MacLean (1957) Based on Newcomb (1953) Non-Linear Messages Source (advocacy roles) Gatekeepers (channels roles) Receivers (behavioral system roles) Feedback Newcomb models (1953) Linear Source Message Channel Receiver S-M-C-R Model Wilbur Schramm (1973) Relational Source Encoder Signal Decoder Receiver D. Lawerence Kincaid (1979) Convergence Information Uncertainly Convergence Mutual Understanding Mutual agreement Collective action Network of relationships David Barlo (1960) Source: Uma Nerula. (2006). Communication models. Atlantic : New Delhi.
  8. 8. Shannon-Weaver’s Model of Communication Sender : The originator of message or the information source selects desire message. Encoder : The transmitter which converts the message into signals. Receiver : The destination of the message from sender. Noise: The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message. Source:
  9. 9. Channels of Communication • There are two types of channels of communication Channels of Communication Informal Channels Formal Channels
  10. 10. Channels of Information Communication Informal Communicator Conversation Informal discussion Correspondence others Recipients Channels Formal Journal articles Research reports Books Patents Standards A-V presentations Others Fig-1: Channels of Information Communication Source: Prasher, P.G. (1987). Information and its communication. ILA Bulletin, 23(3) , 95-116. Invisible College
  11. 11. Invisible College • Invisible college concept came to the picture in 17th century in London • Small group of researcher started to meet in various places to discuss the experimental method of scientific inquiry propounded by Francis Bacon • Robert Boyle of Royal Society, London, coined the term “invisible college” • Informal channel (invisible college) is both oral as well as written (formal channel-largely in written) • Unfiltered, informal communications produced by communities of people who share an interest in a common subject or discipline. E-mail, personal conversations, conference papers, unpublished diaries, meeting minutes, phone calls, newsletters, memoranda, and other sources that may not pass through the usual publishing, broadcasting, and distribution channels. • Information sharing (dissemination) in informal channel is restricted to small group.
  12. 12. Barriers in Communication • R.G. Prasher has identified two types of barriers in information communication They are: – Barriers of communication encountered by the communicator – Barriers of communication encountered by the recipient in accessing information
  13. 13. Communicator Political factors Employer’s policy Language Financial constraints Recipient's attitude Noise Time-lag Heavy cost of communication channels Others Barriers Barriers Information communication Barriers encountered by the communicator Fig-1: Information communication Barriers encountered by the communicator Source: Prasher, P.G. (1987). Information and its communication. ILA Bulletin, 23(3) , 95-116. Recipients
  14. 14. Size of Knowledge Heavy inflow of Documents Classified documents Language Political reasons Non-availability of foreign documents Financial constraints Technological know-how Ignorance of user others Barriers Communicator Barriers Information Communication Barriers Encountered by Recipients Recipients Fig-2: Information Communication Barriers Encountered by Recipients Source: Prasher, P.G. (1987). Information and its communication. ILA Bulletin, 23(3) , 95-116.