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Dairy fermented products

production of fermented food products:
acidophilus milk

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Dairy fermented products

  2. 2. Contents • Production of Cheese • Production of Fermented milks: a. Yogurt b. Kumiss c. Kefir d. probiotics e. Acidophilus milk
  3. 3. CHEESE : a fermented food product • It is a dairy fermented food product which is made from milk . • All cheese result from lactic acid fermentation of milk which result in coagulation of milk protein. • Lactococcus lactis is used as starter culture.
  4. 4. salting Raw milk is obtained from cow 8 7 5 6 1 2 Lactobacillus, Rennet enzyme Cooled at 32 degree C 3 4 The cheese curd is packed for ripening with or without adding additional microorganism. 9 Processed cheese is produced 10 Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium camemberti, Propionibacterium .
  5. 5. Cheeses are Classified by degree of hardness and texture Soft cheeses Semisoft cheeses Hard cheeses Softer cheeses are ripened by aerobic bacterium and molds on surface soft cheese are ripened for only about 1 to 5 month Ripened by lactic acid bacteria in interior hard cheese are ripened for 3 to 12 month Camembert, mozzarella cheese Feta , blue cheese Swiss cheese
  6. 6. • 1. Cheddar (lactococcus lactis) Cheddar is a hard variety with about 40% moisture and has a diverse selection of tastes that range from mild to sharp. This is dependent upon the age of the cheese. 2. Swiss (Propionibacterium) Swiss cheese is a firm cheese with a sweet, mildly nutty flavour. This cheese is known for the holes or eye formation that develop as it ripens. These holes or eyes range in diameter from ½ inch to 1 inch and begin forming when the cheese is about 3 weeks old. • 3. Camembert (Penicillium camemberti) • Camembert has a soft texture with a buttery taste and mushroom smell. It tastes best when it is at room temperature and the center becomes soft and it is a mold-ripened cheese.
  7. 7. Substrate and microorganism used in fermented milk production Foods and products Raw ingredients Fermenting organism Kumiss Raw mare’s milk Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, “torula spp.” Kefir milk Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, “torula spp.” Yogurt Milk , milk solid Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus Acidophilus milk Milk Lactobacillus acidophilus
  8. 8. kefir • Kefir is produced by Yeast-lactic fermentations. • product has an ethanol concentration of up to 2%. • Kefir products tend to be foamy and frothy, due to active carbon production. The co2 produced during fermentation carbonate the drink. • It is produced by e use of kefir “grains” as an inoculum which contain two species of bacteria and yeasts held together by coagulating milk. • Kafiran is a water soluble polysaccharide which account for 24% of kefir grain. Organism used: Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, “torula spp.”
  9. 9. Koumiss : produced in Russia. • It is a fizzy, greyish white drink , traditionally made from mare’s milk. • Starter culture: Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, “torula spp.” and lactose fermenting yeast. • The final product contain about 2% alcohol and acidity up to 1.4% Raw mare milk Inoculated with mixed yeast and LAB flora These bacteria dispersed throughout the product and don’t form discrete particles
  10. 10. Yogurt • Yogurt is a semisolid fermented milk product, produced by the action of two bacteria – Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. • In addition, yogurt may contain bifidobacteria and supplementary flora like Lactobacillus acidophilus for improving its therapeutic significance.
  11. 11. Water content of milk is reduced by adding milk solids Homogenization is the process of breaking down the fat molecules in milk so that they stay integrated rather than separating as cream. homogenization also prevents creaming and wheying off during incubation and storage. Stability, consistency, body and texture are enhanced by homogenization. Standardization of milk refers to the adjustment which means rising or lowering of fat Processed yogurt Flowchart of yogurt production
  12. 12. Probiotics • Probiotics have been defined as selected viable microorganisms used as dietary supplements .having potential for improving health or nutrition of man or animal following ingestion. • Milk products also serve as the important delivery vehicles for probiotic bacteria Most of them can readily utilize lactose as an energy source for growth. • The primary probiotic bacteria associated with dairy products are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and bifidobacteria
  13. 13. Benefits of probiotics
  14. 14. Acidophilus milk Acidophilus milk is produced by using Lactobacillus acidophilus . • L. acidophilus may modify the microbial flora in the lower intestine, thus improving general health, and it often is used as a dietary adjunct. • Many microorganisms in fermented dairy products stabilize the bowel micro flora, and some appear to have antimicrobial properties. • It minimizing lactose intolerance, lowering serum cholesterol, and possibly exhibiting anticancer activity. • Several lactobacilli have antitumor compounds in their cell walls. Such findings suggest that diets including lactic acid bacteria, especially L. acidophilus, may contribute to the control of colon cancer
  15. 15. Hold the product at 37 0C until a smooth curd develop
  16. 16. THANKYOU 