CHAPTER 6 SYSTEM DESIGNMicrocontroller and applications ILLUSTRATED BY Varsha Patil
THE MICROCONTROLLER BASEDDESIGN STEPS 6.4.1 Methodology Steps STEP I Justification STEP II Operations Definition STEP III Instruction Set Definition STEP IV Architecture Definition STEP V Arithmetic Logic Unit (Design and Implementation) STEP VI The Register File STEP VII The Instruction Register STEP VIII Data Path for data processing and Control Signal Table STEP IX The PC, Jump and data transfer instructions STEP X The Control Unit
Increased productivity yields shorter development cycles with more product features and reduced time to market,Reduced Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) costs,Design reuse is enabled,Increased flexibility to design changes,
MICROCONTROLLER PERFORMANCEFACTORS(a) Speed, size, power cost design time and manufacture cost. (b) Architecture : (i) Von Neumann, (ii) Harvard (c) Chip Area. (d) Simulation and hardware implementation.
Factors to be considered for designing aDAS While designing data acquisition system following factors are required to be considered : • Is it a fixed or a mobile application ? • Type of input/output signal : digital or analog ? • Frequency of input signal ? • Resolution, range, and gain ? • Continuous operation ? • Compatibility between hardware and software. Are the drivers available ? • Overall price.
Algorithm, Total Number of Lines required : (A) Algorithm : 1. Start. 2. Select the channel. 3. A Low – High transition on ALE to latch in the address. 4. A Low – High transition on Start to reset the ADC’s SAR. 5. A High – Low transition on ALE. 6. A High – Low transition on start to start the conversion. 7. Wait for End of cycle (EOC) pin to become high. 8. Make Output Enable pin High. 9. Take Data from the ADC’s output. 10. Make Output Enable pin Low. 11. Stop. (B) Total Number of Lines required : The total numbers of lines required are total 12 lines, which contain some of the lines like : • Data lines : 8 numbers. • ALE line : 1 number. • START line : 1 number • EOC line : 1 number Output Enable line : 1 number • We can directly connect the OE pin to Vcc. Moreover instead of polling for EOC just put some delay so instead of 12 lines we will require 10 lines. • We can also provide the clock through the controller thus eliminating the need of external circuit for clock.
9 CASE STUDY 2 : ROBOT DEVELOPMENTTypes of RobotsTechnologies That Go to Make up a Robot 3 Classes of Robots6 Advantages of Robots7 Disadvantages of Robots
Interfacing Diagram for AT89C2051 and H-Bridge Driver L293D(With 5 Volt Power Supply Arrangement)
LM324 Comparator IC Used for Sensing Black Strips
signaling. Inputs Function Vin H = H C = H; D = L Turn Right Vin H = H C = L; D = H Turn Left C=D Fast Motor Stop Vin H = L C = X; D = X Free Running Motor Stop L = Low, H = High, X = Don’t Care Use of L293 forms an H-Bridge for bidirectional DC motor driver
: Connection and Timing Diagram for LineTracking Sensor
CASE STUDY OF KEYBOARD CONTROLLED ROBOTIC CARUSING 89C51 MICROCONTROLLER
Case I : Clockwise Direction : When A0 = high; A3 = high; & A1 = low; A2 = low. The motor rotates in clockwise direction. Case II : Anti-Clockwise Direction : When A0 = low; A3 = low; & A1 = high; A2 = high. The motor rotates in anti-clockwise direction. Case III : Motor Stops the Rotation When A0 = low; A3 = low; A1 = low; A2 = low The motor stops the rotation.
Circuit Diagram of IR Transmitter Fig. 6.20 : Circuit diagram of IR rtransmitterand Receiver
What is TCP/IP ? (IMP) (a) TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. (b) TCP/IP is the communication protocol for communication between computers on the Internet. (c) A computer communication protocol is a description of the rules computers must follow to communicate with each other. (d) TCP/IP defines how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected to the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them. The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture(1) Main unit (2) Data acquisition module (3) Data processing module
Data Processing Module andThe Moving Characteristics of the Wheel Control
Interfacing ATmega8535 with CMPS03(Left) and the Wheel Rotation Counter (Right