Lesson 1Test and Their Uses in Educational Assessment
Test defined• A test is a systematic procedure for measuring an individual’s behavior (Brown, 1991). This definition implies that it has to be developed following specific guidelines. It is a formal and systematic way of gathering information about learners’ behavior, usually through paper-and- pencil procedure (Airisan, 1989).
Uses of Test Tests serve a lot of function for school administrators, supervisors, teachers, and parents, as well .(Arends, 1994; Escarilla & Gonzales, 1990).
Uses of Test School administrators utilize test results for making decisions regarding the promotion or retention of students; improvement or enrichment of the curriculum; and conduct of staff development programs for teachers.
Uses of TestSupervisorsuse test results in discovering learning areas needing special attention and identifying teachers’ weaknesses and learning competencies not mastered by the students.
Uses of Test Teachers,on the other hand, utilize tests for numerous purposes. Through testing, teachers are able to― gather information about the effectiveness of instruction; give feedback to students about their progress; and assign grades.
Uses of Test Parents,too, derive benefits from test administered to their children. Through test scores, they are able to determine how well their sons and daughters are faring in school and how well the school is doing its share in educating their children.
Types of TestsAs to mode of response:Oral test- it is a test wherein the test taker gives his answer orally.Written tests- it is a test where answers to questions are written by test taker.Performance test- it is one in which the test taker creates an answer or a product that demonstrates his knowledge or skill, as in cooking and baking.
Types of TestsAs to ease of quantification of response:Objective test- it is a paper and pencil test wherein students’ answers can be compared and quantified to yield a numerical score.Subjective test- it is a paper-and-pencil test which is not easily quantified as students are given the freedom to write their answer to a question, such as an essay test.
Types of TestsAs to mode of administration:Individual test- it is a test administered to one student at a time.Group test- it is one administered to a group of students simultaneously.
Types of TestsAs to test constructor:Standardized test- it is a test prepared by an expert or specialist.Unstandardized test- it is one prepared by teachers for use in the classroom, with no established norms for scoring and interpretation of results.
Types of TestsAs to mode of interpreting results:Norm-referenced test- it is a test that evaluates a student’s performance by comparing it to the performance of a group students on the same test.Criterion-referenced test- it is a test that measures a student’s performance against an agreed upon or pre-established level of performance.
Types of TestsAs to nature of the answer:• Personality test- it is a test designed for assessing some aspects of an individual’s personality.• Intelligence test- it is a test that measures the mental ability of an individual.• Aptitude test- it is test designed for the purpose of predicting the likelihood of an individual’s success in a learning area or field of endeavor.• Achievement test- it is a test given to students to determine what a student has learned from formal instruction in school.• Summative test- it is a test given at the end of instruction to determine students’ learning and assign grades.
Types of TestsAs to nature of the answer:• Diagnostic test- it is a test administered to students to identify their specific strengths and weaknesses in past and present learning.• Formative test- it is a test given to improve teaching and learning while it is going on.• Socio-metric test- it is a test used in discovering learners’ likes and dislikes, preferences, and their social acceptance, as well as social relationships existing in a group.• Trade test- it is a test designed to measure an individual’s skill or competence in an occupation or vocation.
Step 1 Take clear, detailed notes in class and review your notes every night. A nightly review will help reinforce the concepts you learned that day and allow you to identify any areas that are causing you problems well before the test.
Step 2Set aside a specific time for studying each day. Choose a quiet place and allot a certain amount of time for each subject.
Step 3Get up and take a break from time to time. If you are too tired or bored, youll never follow through with studying. If you have trouble concentrating, arrange your study schedule in several shorter time periods rather than one long study session
Step 4 Attempt to master the most important or difficult concepts first. Those will be the area’s most likely to be covered by the test and should occupy a significant percentage of your study time.
Step 5Take notes as you read though chapters in your textbook. Writing down information can help you retain it better and can make it easier to review key facts.
Step 6Work with a classmate and quiz each other on the material. If you cant find anyone to work with, develop your own review questions.
Step 7Listen closely when your professor or teacher tells you that certain subject matter will be on the test. It probably will be and it will be a good idea to make sure that you understand that information completely.
Step 8Practice for the test. If you know from past experience that your teacher likes to include essay questions on the test, write out a few essay answers pertaining to the main concepts of the chapter. Chances are that one of those concepts will be covered on the test.
Step 9Maintain a positive attitude on the day of the test. Remind yourself that you are well- prepared, confident and ready to face the challenges that the test presents.
The Key to Effective Testing Objectives The specific statements of the aim of the instruction; it should express what the students should be able to do or know as a result of taking the course; the objectives should indicate the cognitive level, affective level and psychomotor level of expected performance.
The Key to Effective Testing Instruction It consists all the elements of the curriculum designed to teach the subject including the lesson plans, study guide, and reading and homework assignment, the instruction should corresponds directly to the objectives.
The Key to Effective Testing Assessment The process of gathering, describing or quantifying information about the performance of the learner; testing components of the subject; weight given to the different subject matter areas.
The Key to Effective Testing Evaluation Examining the performance of students and comparing and judging its quality. Determining whether or not the learner has met the objectives of the lesson and the extent of understanding.
Lesson 4Factors to Consider whenConstructing a Good Test
ValidityValidity is the degree to which the testmeasures what is intended to measure theusefulness of the test for a given purpose. Avalid test is always reliable.
ReliabilityReliability refers to the consistency of score obtained by the same person when retested using the same instrument.
AdministrabilityAdministrability the test should directeduniformly to all students so that the scoresobtained will not vary due to factors otherthan differences of the students’ knowledgeand skills. There should a clear provision forinstruction for the students, proctors and eventhe one who will check the test.
ScorabilityScorability the test should be easy to score,directions for scoring is clear, provide theanswer sheet and the answer key.
AppropriatenessAppropriateness the test item that theteachers construct must assess the exactperformances called for in the learningobjectives. The test item should require thesame performance of the student as specifiedin the learning objectives.
AdequacyAdequacy the test should contain a widesampling of items to determine theeducational outcomes or abilities so that theresulting scores are representatives of thetotal performance in the areas measured.
FairnessFairness the test should not be biased to theexaminees. It should not be offensive to anyexaminees subgroups. A test can only be goodif it is also fair to all test takers.
ObjectivityObjectivity represents the agreement of two or more raters or a test administrator concerning the score of a student. If the two raters who assess the same student on same test cannot agree on score, the test lacks objectivity and the score of neither judge is valid, thus, lack of objectivity reduces test validity in the same way that lack reliability influence validity.
Productive Uses of TestsLearning Analysis: Test are used to identify the reasons or causes why students do not learn and the solutions to help them learn.
Productive Uses of TestsImprovement of Curriculum:Poor performance in a test may indicate that the teacher is not explaining the material effectively, the textbook is not clear, the students are not properly taught.
Productive Uses of TestsSelection: When enrolment opportunity or any other opportunity is limited, a test can be used to screen those who are more qualified.
Productive Uses of TestsResearch: Tests can be feedback tools to find effective methods of teaching and learn more about students, their interests, goals and achievements.
Productive Uses of TestsEvaluation of Learning Program: Tests should evaluate the effectiveness of each element in a learning program.
Unproductive Uses of TestsGrading:Tests should not be used as the only determinants in grading student.
Unproductive Uses of TestsLabeling:It is often a serious disservice to label a student, even if the label is positive.
Unproductive Uses of TestsThreatening:Tests lose their validity when used as disciplinary measures.
Unproductive Uses of TestsUnannounced Testing:Surprise Test are generally not recommended.
Unproductive Uses of TestsAllocating Funds:Some schools exploit tests to solicit for funding.
Classification of TestsAdministrationa. Individual- given orally and requires the examinees’ constant attention since the manner of answering may be as important as the score.b. Group- for measuring cognitive skills to measure achievement. Most tests in schools are considered group tests where different test takers can take the tests as a group.
Classification of TestsScoringa. Objective- independent scores agree on the number of points the answer should receive.b. Subjective- answers can be scored through various ways. These are then the given different values by scores, the essays and performance tests.
Classification of TestsSort of Response being emphasizeda. Power- allows examinees a generous time limit to be able to answer every item. The questions are difficult and this difficulty is what is emphasized.b. Speed- with severely limited time constraints but the items are easy and only a few examinees are expected to make errors.
Classification of TestsTypes of Response the Examinees must makea. Performance- requires students to perform a task. This is usually administered individually so that the examiner can count the errors and measure the time the examinee has performed in each task.b. Paper and pencil- examinees are asked to write on paper.
Classification of TestsWhat is measureda. Sample- limited representative test designed to measure the total behaviour of the examinee, although no test an exhaustively measure all the knowledge of an individual.b. Sign test- diagnostic test designed to obtain diagnostic signs to suggest that some form of remediation is needed.
Classification of TestsNature of the Groups being compareda. Teacher-made-test- for use within the classroom and contains the subject being taught by the same teacher who constructed the test.b. Standardized test- constructed by test specialist working with curriculum experts and teachers.
Table of SpecificationsThe writing of test items should beaccompanied with a carefully prepared set oftest specifications. The function of thespecifications is to describe the achievementdomain being measured and to provideguidelines for obtaining a representativesample of test tasks.
A Table of Specifications is:• a plan to help teachers decide the subject matter in which to test.• the teacher’s blueprint in constructing a test for classroom use.• a test map that guides the teacher, TOS ensures that there is a balance between items that test lower level thinking skills and those with higher order thinking skills in the test.• TOS acts in the same way as concept map to analyze content areas.• a two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number or points which will be associated with each topic / written in a grid or matrix.
The simplest TOS consist of four columns:(a) level of objective to be tested(b) statement of objective(c) item numbers where such an objective is being tested(d) number of items and percentage out of the total for that particular objective
Steps in Preparing TOS• List down the topics covered for inclusion in the test.• Determine the objectives (Bloom’s Taxonomy) to be assessed by the test.• Determine the percentage allocation of the test items for each topic.
Guidelines in Writing Test Items• Avoid wording that is ambiguous and confusing.• Use appropriate vocabulary and sentence structure.• Keep questions short and to the point.• Write items that have one correct answer.• Do not provide clues to the answer.
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