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Asteraceae family ppt y vani


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Asteraceae or aster family is a large family among Dicots with ornamental and medicinal herbs.The name Asteraceae comes from the word Aster"means star in Greek.Previously it is known as compositae; composite inflorescence.

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Asteraceae family ppt y vani

  1. 1. The Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family) are an exceedingly large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiosperma)
  3. 3. The family has more than 23,600 currently accepted species, spread across 1,620 genera and 13 subfamilies The name "Asteraceae" comes from Aster, the most prominent genus in the family, that derives from the Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, and is connected with its inflorescence star form. As for the term "Compositae", more ancient but still valid, due to the presence of composite flowers
  4. 4. Most members of Asteraceae are herbaceous, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines, or trees. It is most common in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes
  5. 5. Roots and stems Asteraceae generally produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are generally erect but can be prostrate to ascending. Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. These can be fleshy or woody depending on the species
  6. 6. Leaves The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex (particularly common among the Cichorioideae). The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed.
  7. 7. The most evident characteristic of Asteraceae is perhaps their inflorescence: a specialized capitulum, technically called a calathid or calathidium, but generally referred to as flower head or, alternatively, simply capitulum. The capitulum is a contracted raceme composed of numerous individual sessile flowers, called the florets, all sharing the same receptacle. A set of bracts forms an involucre surrounding the base of the capitulum
  8. 8. At the base of the head, and surrounding the flowers before opening, is a bundle of sepal-like bracts or scales called phyllaries, which together form the involucre that protects the individual flowers in the head before opening. The individual heads have the smaller individual flowers arranged on a round or dome-like structure called the receptacle. The flowers mature first at the outside, moving toward the center, with the youngest in the middle.
  9. 9. A radiate head has disc flowers surrounded by ray flowers. A ligulate head has all ligulate flowers. When a sunflower family flower head has only disk flowers that are sterile, male, or have both male and female parts, it is a discoid head. Disciform heads have only disc flowers, but may have two kinds (male flowers and female flowers) in one head, or may have different heads of two kinds (all male, or all female).
  10. 10. Pistillate heads have all female flowers. Staminate heads have all male flowers. Sometimes, but rarely, the head contains only a single flower, or has a single flowered pistillate (female) head, and a multi- flowered male staminate (male) head.
  11. 11. A ray flower is a 3-lobed, strap-shaped, individual flower in the head of the Asteraceae family. Sometimes a ray flower has 2 lobes. The corolla of the ray flower may have 2 tiny teeth opposite the 3 lobed strap, or tongue. Sometimes, the 3:2 arrangement is reversed, with 2 tips on the tongue, and 0 or 3 tiny teeth opposite the tongue. A ligulate flower is a 5 tipped, strap-shaped, individual flower .
  12. 12. A disk flower (or disc flower) is a radially symmetric (i.e., with identical shaped petals arranged in circle around the center) individual flower in the head, which is ringed by ray flowers when both are present. Sometimes ray flowers may be slightly off from radial symmetry, or weakly bilaterally symmetric, as in the case of desert pincushions Chaenactis fremontii
  13. 13. The individual flowers in a head have 5 fused petals (rarely 4), but instead of sepals, have threadlike, hairy, or bristly structures called pappus, which surround the fruit and can stick to animal fur or be lifted by wind, aiding in seed dispersal
  14. 14. The florets have five petals fused at the base to form a corolla tube and they may be either actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. Ray florets are always highly zygomorphic and are characterised by the presence of a ligule, a strap-shaped structure on the edge of the corolla tube consisting of fused petals. Above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small.
  15. 15. There are usually five stamens. The filaments are fused to the corolla, while the anthers are generally connate (syngenesious anthers), thus forming a sort of tube around the style . The pistil consists of two connate carpels. The style has two lobes. Stigmatic tissue may be located in the interior surface or form two lateral lines. The ovary is inferior and has only one ovule, with basal placentation.
  16. 16. Fruits and seeds. The fruit of the Asteraceae is achene-like, and is called a cypsela (plural cypselae). Although there are two fused carpels, there is only one locule, and only one seed per fruit is formed. It may sometimes be winged or spiny because the pappus, which is derived from calyx tissue often remains on the fruit (for example in dandelion). In some species, however, the pappus falls off (for example in Helianthus).
  17. 17. Importance of Compositae Food Sunflower is one of the world's main oil crops; lettuce, endive, globe artichoke and chicory are some of the other food plants in the family. Examples of culinary herbs are tarragon and chamomile.
  18. 18. Herbal Tea And other beverages Chamomile, which comes from two different species, the annual Matricaria recutita (or German chamomile) and the perennial Chamaemelum nobile (also called Roman chamomile). Calendula (also called the pot marigold) is grown commercially for herbal teas and the potpourri industry. Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) is used as a medicinal tea.
  19. 19. Compositae have also been used for industrial purposes. Common in all commercial poultry feed, marigold (Tagetes patula) Marigold oil, extracted from Tagetes minuta, is used in the cola and cigarette industries. Pollen from ragweed Ambrosia is among the main causes of so-called hay fever Many members of Asteraceae are copious nectar producers and are useful for evaluating pollinator populations during their bloom. Centaurea (knapweed), Helianthus annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago (goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. Solidago produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honey bees over winter.
  20. 20. Medicine In general, many Compositae are used as herbal medicines all over the world. Arnica has been used for centuries in wound healing. Vernonia amygdalina is used by both man and chimpanzee against intestinal parasites. Over 200 species of the family are used in folk medicine. timber or as wood for woodcarving.
  21. 21. Insecticide Powdered remains of Anthemideae have been found in the abdominal cavity of the mummy of Ramses II, probably as an insecticide. Inula species are called fleabane, because of their use. Pyrethrum, made from the fruit of Tanacetum cinerariifolium, is an excellent natural insecticide and can be used without harm to mammals. The genera Chrysanthemum, Pulicaria, Tagetes, and Tanacetum contain species with useful insecticidal properties. Horticulture Chrysanthemums, Crown daisies, Oxeye daisies, Marigolds, Cosmos, Aster, Goldenrod, Everlasting, Dahlia .. Many members of the family are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, and some are important ornamental crops for the cut flower industry. Some examples are Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Calendula, Dendranthema, Argyranthemum, Dahlia, Tagetes, Zinnia, and many others.
  22. 22. Other uses Although the family consists mainly of herbs or shrubs, some species grow to tree size and several of these are used for timber: Muhuhu (Brachylaena) is used as timber or as wood for woodcarving. Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is a source of hypoallergenic latex.
  23. 23. Achillea millefolium, yarrow (Anthemideae). Aromatic foliage
  24. 24. Artemisia australis,
  25. 25. Matricaria discoidea
  26. 26. Tetramolopium filiforme
  27. 27. Osteospermum sp.
  28. 28. Ageratum conyzoides
  29. 29. Tridax procumbens,
  30. 30. Tagetes lucida,
  31. 31. Cyanthillium cinereum
  32. 32. Pluchea indica