Video Summaries Journey of Man Guns, Germs and Steel When the Moors Ruled in Europe Engineering an Empire: The Aztecs & The Maya Conquistadors: Hernan Cortes & Francisco Pizarro Cracking the Maya Code Vanessa Telles
The Journey of Man Left: Spencer Wells, author, genetecist, anthropologist and documentarian Right: Book written by Spencer Wells that the documentary “Journey of Man” is based off of. The film “Journey of Man” follows Spencer Wells on his quest to discover human migration patterns out of Africa. He proposes that humans began in Africa and spread to eventually cover the globe. His theory is based on genetic sampling from populations all over the world.
Journey of man Wells with a group of Africans that he believes represent the closest genetic link to the first humans. A map representing the migration pattern from East African to the rest of the world. - Wells states that the first man is from East Africa approximately 60,000 years ago. - Wells uses gene markers on the Y-chromosome to trace origins, so samples were collected from men all over the world. - Humans adapted to whatever environment they settled in. - Europeans with less exposure to sunlight than Africans, developed lighter skin. - Settlers in Siberia grew shorter, stouter trunk regions as well as shorter arms and legs to combat extreme cold.
Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond on the right with native Papua New Guineans. Jared Diamond attempts to solve the riddle of global human inequality in the documentary “Guns, Germs and Steel”. Central to his thesis are geographic location and natural resources.
Guns, Germs and Steel Map of communication routes between civilizations. Climate change would be vastly different in a north/south route, but only moderately different east/west. Farming with the aid of domesticated animals. Notice it is one man with a very large plot of land. Farming done by hand, without domesticated animals. Notice the number of workers and the smallness of the plot of land. -Natural resources play a huge role in growth and technology. -In the Fertile Crescent there were several species of large animals and plants capable of being domesticated. There are virtually no large animals native to the Americas and the native plants lack the nutrition of other plant species. -Successful farming created specialization of work which encouraged technological growth, including the development of superior weaponry. -Human proximity to domesticated animals created immunity to diseases that countries without animals lacked. -Technology was spread and adapted on a East/West route.
When the Moors Ruled Europe Host Bettany Hughes Map showing the route that Moors traveled from North Africa across the straight of Gibraltar to conquer Spain “ When the Moors Ruled Europe” relates the mostly unknown story of when Spain was conquered by the Moors in the 8th century. The documentary focuses on the many contributions that the Muslims made to science, medicine, mathematics, architecture and culture. Under Moor rule Spain flourished.
When the Moors Ruled Europe Stunning architecture from the Moors - In 711 Moors from North Africa crossed into Spain via the Straight of Gibraltar. They conquered the ruling Visigoths. - Spain under Moor rule turned into a city ahead of it’s time. - Greek texts that had virtually been forgotten about were rediscovered and translated. - Architecture abounded with new places of worship and capitals. - Advances in medicine were made and became the standard of care for centuries even after the Moors were banished. - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ordered all Muslims out of Spain Queen Isabella King Ferdinand
Engineering an Empire: The Aztecs & The Maya Map of the Capital of the Aztec Empire Tenochtitlan Map of Maya territory with significant Maya areas in red. The episode about the Aztecs focuses on the Capital city of Tenochtitlan. It was an engineering marvel built in the middle of a lake. The Aztecs used a variety of engineering feats to make this city in the lake possible. The Maya episode focuses on Palenque, Chichen Itza and Tikal. The Maya were expert builders that utilized precise placement of structures to keep things in alignment.
Engineering an Empire: The Aztecs & The Maya Rendering of Tenochtitlan as it was Ruins of Tenochtitlan today Fields Aqueducts - Aztecs created fields anchored by pilings in the lake to grow food. - Aqueducts brought water for plant irrigation. - The capital city had elaborate pyramids. - The city on the lake was accessed through causeways built by the Aztecs. Temples at Tikal Observatory at Chichen Itza Entrance to royal tomb at Palenque - Many intricate temples in Tikal are still standing. - Long after the ruins were discovered in Palenque, an underground Royal Tomb was found in the Temple of Inscriptions. - A rounded dome top on one of the buildings in Chichen Itza and it’s alignment have made many believe that it was used as an observatory.
Conquistadors: Hernan Cortes & Francisco Pizarro Hernan Cortes Francisco Pizarro Map of Empires The episode of Hernan Cortes tells the story of how Hernan Cortes was able to overcome the Aztecs in their capital city Tenochtitlan that was situated in the middle of a lake and only accessible via watercraft or the causeways. The episode of Francisco Pizarro tells the story of how Francisco Pizarro was able to defeat the Inca despite being vastly outnumbered.
Conquistadors: Cortes & Pizarro Moctezuma leader of the Aztecs The Spanish were initially only able to enter the city via the causeways Atahualpo leader of the Inca Rendering of the 1st meeting between Atahualpo and the Spaniards. The Incan trail - The Spanish used Incan roads which alerted messengers who told Atahualpo. - Atahualpo was so confident, he greeted the Pizarro while being carried. -Pizarro captured Atahualpo and demanded gold in return for his life. -Despite getting the promised treasure, Pizarro had Atahualpo garroted anyway. -Cortes found a native interpreter named, La Malinche, who helped secure enemies of the Aztecs to join the fight. -The causeways at first protected the Aztecs, but Cortes built boats and canoes of other natives were used.
Cracking the Maya Code “ Cracking the Maya Code relates the history of the discovery of Mayan hieroglyphs and their subsequent various interpretations throughout history.
Cracking the Maya Code David Stuart Hieroglyphs at Palenque Dresden Codex - The Dresden Codex was shipped to Spain by Hernan Cortes - Eric Thompson was the first pioneer in interpretations, although many of his theories would eventually be proven wrong. - Yuri Knorosov was a Russian linguist who first speculated that some of the glyphs represented phonetic sounds. - David Stuart, Linda Schele, Peter Mathews and Merle Greene are responsible for the most current and accurate interpretations. - They revealed that the glyphs represented both whole worlds and sounds. - This led to a more accurate picture of who the Maya were and dispelled early theories that they were a very peaceful civilization.