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understanding verb tense.ppt

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understanding verb tense.ppt

  1. 1. Understanding verb tense What are the verb tenses? Present and present perfect Past and past perfect Future and future perfect Consistency of tense Modals Review A Review B
  2. 2. What are the verb tenses? Verbs do a lot of work in sentences. They show actions and states of being. They even take different forms to show time. flies flew will fly
  3. 3. Gwen plays guitar in a jazz band. The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or state of being expressed by the verb. Past Future Present Present Perfect She has played in the band for three years. Future Future Perfect Perfect tenses indicate that something happened or existed before a specific point in time. Gwen will play in a concert tomorrow. She will have played in ten concerts by April. Past Gwen played last year as well. Past Perfect She had played violin before then. Present What are the verb tenses?
  4. 4. The tenses of verbs are formed from the four principal parts of verbs. Present Participle Base Form Past Past Participle smile choose [is] smil [is] choos ing smile d cho se [have] smile d [have] cho sen ing What are the verb tenses?
  5. 5. Each tense has a progressive form, which is used to express continuing action or state of being. What are the verb tenses? Present progressive am, are, is talking Past progressive was, were talking Future progressive will (shall) be talking Present perfect progressive has, have been talking Past perfect progressive had been talking Future perfect progressive will (shall) have been talking
  6. 6. What are the verb tenses? Present and present perfect The present tense expresses an action or a state of being that is occurring now, at the present time. Today we honor our veterans. Polly is marching in the parade. (Progressive form)
  7. 7. What are the verb tenses? Present and present perfect The present tense is also used in these ways: In Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck shows us the extremes of life during the depression. to discuss a literary work (literary present) In 1927, Charles Lindbergh flies nonstop across the Atlantic. to make historical events seem current (historical present) The sun rises in the east. to express a general truth We recycle our aluminum cans. to show a customary or habitual action or state of being We travel to Utah next month. to express future time
  8. 8. What are the verb tenses? Present and present perfect The present perfect tense • is usually formed using the helping verb have or has plus the past participle • expresses an action or a state of being that occurred at an indefinite time in the past Mike has been in several parades. He has played the drum in all of them.
  9. 9. What are the verb tenses? Present and present perfect The present perfect tense is also used to express an action or state of being that began in the past and continues into the present. In this case, perfect means complete. Yoko has been taking flute lessons for six years. Mr. Lee has taught music at our school since 2004. (Progressive form)
  10. 10. What are the verb tenses? Past and past perfect The past tense expresses an action or a state of being that occurred in the past but did not continue into the present. They were swinging for a long time. The two friends shared the large swing. (Progressive form)
  11. 11. What are the verb tenses? Past and past perfect The past perfect tense • is usually formed using had plus the past participle • expresses an action or a state of being that ended before another past action or state of being occurred After Maria had gone home, Kim was bored. She asked her dad about the time that he had been a lifeguard at the beach.
  12. 12. What are the verb tenses? Future and future perfect The future tense • is usually formed using will or shall plus the base form • expresses an action or a state of being that will occur My family will ride the train to Chicago. We will be arriving at five o’clock. (Progressive form)
  13. 13. What are the verb tenses? Future and future perfect The future perfect tense • is usually formed using will have or shall have plus the past participle • expresses an action or a state of being that will end before another future action or state of being By the time you receive this letter, she will have returned home. After this trip, he will have been to Chicago three times.
  14. 14. [End of Section] Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as indicated in parentheses. 1. I do not miss the bus. (Change to future.) 2. Were they at the party? (Change to past perfect.) 3. By then, Keith had returned. (Change to future perfect.) 4. The team will practice for an hour with no break. (Change to future perfect progressive.) 5. My sister dances well. (Change to past.) On Your Own What are the verb tenses?
  15. 15. Consistency of tense Do not change needlessly from one tense to another. To describe events that occur at the same time, use verbs in the same tense. Sara peeked over the fence and saw a cornfield. Sara peeks over the fence and sees a cornfield. past tense past tense present tense present tense
  16. 16. Consistency of tense For events that occur at different times, use verbs of different tenses to show the sequence of events. The pitcher wished that he had practiced more before the game. past tense past perfect tense The action of wishing happened after the action of practicing was complete.
  17. 17. Consistency of tense For events that occur at different times, use verbs of different tenses to show the sequence of events. Yesterday, Nina told us that her brother works every week at the senior center. past tense The action of telling occurred at a specific time in the past. The action of working occurs now. present tense
  18. 18. Consistency of tense [End of Section] On Your Own Proofread the paragraph for unnecessary changes of verb tense. Change the verbs to make the tenses consistent. (1) I was in my room Saturday morning, planning to study for two hours. (2) To my surprise, Nancy Chang drops by. (3) She dashed into the house, runs up the stairs, and calls my name. (4) What she wanted was a fishing companion. (5) As I get my fishing gear together, I was so happy. (6) On our way to the lake, we notice some dark clouds. (7) We wished we checked the weather first.
  19. 19. Modals A modal is a helping verb that is joined with a main verb or an infinitive to express an attitude toward the action or state of being of the main verb. Helping verbs used as modals can could may might must ought shall should will would
  20. 20. Modals The modal can or could is used to express ability. Tammy can play point guard in the second half. The team could have made better shots.
  21. 21. Modals The modal may is used to express permission or possibility. Yes, you may borrow my sweater. I might give some of my clothing to charity. The modal might is used to express possibility. Permission My clothes closet may be too full. Possibility
  22. 22. Modals The modal must is used most often to express a requirement. Sometimes, must is used to express an explanation. We must conserve energy in our homes. My brother must have left the lights on. Requirement Explanation
  23. 23. Modals The modal ought is used to express an obligation or a likelihood. Reggie ought to study harder for math quizzes. The next quiz ought to be more difficult than the last one. Obligation Likelihood
  24. 24. Modals The modal will or shall is used to express future time. After reviewing the entries, the panel will announce the winner. I shall enter my painting in the contest.
  25. 25. Modals The modal should is used to express a recommendation, an obligation, or a possibility. Terrell should leave soon to catch the bus. All students should get to school on time. Recommendation Obligation Possibility Should you arrive late, please go to the office first.
  26. 26. Modals The modal would is used to express the conditional form of a verb. In other words, it is used to express a situation that is contrary to fact. If the weather had been more pleasant, they would have gone on a picnic. Mrs. Chang would be happy to prepare food if you bring the plates and forks.
  27. 27. Modals Would can also be used to express future time in a subordinate clause when the main verb in the independent clause is in the past tense. They promised us that they would bring the music. past tense verb Main clause They promised us that they would bring the music. Subordinate clause modal expresses future time
  28. 28. Modals Would is sometimes used to express Every day she would wake early and feed the hens. Would you like a nice, fresh salad? • an action that was repeated in the past • an invitation or offer • a polite request Would you please bring me those books?
  29. 29. Modals [End of Section] Supply an appropriate modal for each sentence. 1. Jen _____ have cleaned out the garage yesterday. 2. _____ you please help Merrill with that large box? 3. You _____ probably guess what I am about to say. 4. If the train had been faster, we _____ have arrived sooner. 5. I’m not certain, but I think Dad _____ be cooking stew for dinner tonight. On Your Own
  30. 30. Review A Change the tense of each boldface verb to the tense indicated in parentheses. 1. The otter swam to the edge of the pond. (present perfect) 2. Our class will read Shakespeare’s Macbeth. (future progressive) 3. The three sisters regularly meet for lunch. (past) 4. Each student chooses a lab partner. (past perfect) 5. Wasps were entering the house through the torn screen. (present)
  31. 31. Review B [End of Section] 1. Colleen _____ almost reach the light bulb. (shows ability) 2. Jack _____ repair the bicycle tomorrow. (future tense) 3. Most of the girls _____ already left. (present perfect) 4. I _____ attend the concert if only I had more time. (shows a condition) 5. Tamara opens the refrigerator and _____ inside. (consistent tense) Supply an appropriate modal, helping verb, or main verb to complete each sentence correctly. The hints in parentheses will help you.
  32. 32. The End

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