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Introducing Computational Thinking
to K-5 in a French Context
Vanea CHIPRIANOV, Laurent GALLON
University of Pau & Pays Ad...
2
Defining Computational Thinking (CT)
 solving problems;
 designing systems;
 conditional logic;
 iterative, recursiv...
3
Digital literacy vs Informatics/Programming
How to use computers and numerical devices in general
How to program compute...
4
1 Billion Euro to initiating all children, from kindergarden high
school, both to programming and digital literacy
Intro...
5
Superior Curricula Council + Bulletin Officiel de l'Education
Nationale no 11, 26 November 2015
Introducing CT to K-5 in...
6
(Some of the) Big questions
 At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ?
 Which content, learning objectives, method...
7
French School System
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
from G.-L. Baron, B. ...
8
Child cognitive and affective development
 At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ?
 Both affective and cognitive...
9
Survey of WG5 ITiCSE 2016 (to be published)
 At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ?
Introducing CT to K-5 in a F...
10
Child cognitive and affective development
 Piaget's cognitive development stages, for 7-11 years old :
– Concrete oper...
11
The curricula

Which content, learning objectives, methods, and environments are suitable to
learn CT concepts at each...
12
The curricula – French specificities

French curricula for 2014-2015 + 2015-2016
– NO programming
– STEM section : acq...
13
The curricula – Activities

Papert's contructionism :
– children learn deeply when they build their own meaningful pro...
14
The curricula – Activities

Why Code.org ?
– strives to propose a full K-12 path (coherence between levels)
– puzzle-b...
15
The curricula – Robots

Introductory lesson

Carpet with Code.org-like puzzles

Dash robots
– Blocky-like programmin...
16
Strategies of teaching/delivery

Co-teaching class teacher + ''scientist''

Whole-class directions and demonstrations...
17
The project – Initial partners
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
2 CS resea...
18
The project - Initial partners 2014-2015
 3 (4) elementary school teachers
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V...
19
Lessons learned - Teachers

Essential role:
– stimulate pupils, give possitive attitudes
– adapt the curricula to thei...
20
Lessons learned - Teachers

Professional development
– possible major barrier
– initial 3-hour training
– additional t...
21
Map of partner schools 2015-2016
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
22
Lessons learned - Children

Co-constructing knowledge
– children discover the material : tablettes, robots, software
–...
23
Lessons learned – Administrators of learning

School directors, personnel of the Ministry of Education

Their support...
24
Lessons learned – Researchers and universities

The better the CS level of our beginner students, the easier for teach...
25
Robotics encounters 2015-2016
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
26
Research project 2016-2020

Partners in “PERSEVERONS” - Let's persevere !
– Superior School of Teaching and Education
...
Thank you
CONTACT
Vanea CHIPRIANOV
Assistant Professor
LIUPPA, UPPA
vanea.chiprianov@univ-pau.fr
28
Robotics encounters 2015-2016 : supervisors
Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context
V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/20...
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Presentation at the 21st Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE), 2016.07, Arequipa, Peru. More details about the paper at https://sites.google.com/site/vaneachiprianov/papers .

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Introducing Computational Thinking to K-5 in a French Context

  1. 1. Introducing Computational Thinking to K-5 in a French Context Vanea CHIPRIANOV, Laurent GALLON University of Pau & Pays Adour, France Vanea CHIPRIANOV Assistant Professor LIUPPA, UPPA Monday, 11 July 2016
  2. 2. 2 Defining Computational Thinking (CT)  solving problems;  designing systems;  conditional logic;  iterative, recursive and parallel thinking;  using abstraction and pattern generalizations;  problem decomposition and remixing;  critical thinking;  creativity;  systematic processing of information and algorithmic notions of flow of control;  symbol systems and representations;  thinking in terms of prevention, protection, and recovery from worst-case scenarios;  debugging and systematic error detection;  efficiency and performance constraints;  using heuristic reasoning to discover a solution ;  teamwork, communication, leadership;  seeing programming as a collaborative, distributed effort - computational participation ;  assessment. => generalization of Computer Science(CS) for a larger demographic? Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  3. 3. 3 Digital literacy vs Informatics/Programming How to use computers and numerical devices in general How to program computers and numerical devices (+ How to use computers and numerical devices in general) Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  4. 4. 4 1 Billion Euro to initiating all children, from kindergarden high school, both to programming and digital literacy Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  5. 5. 5 Superior Curricula Council + Bulletin Officiel de l'Education Nationale no 11, 26 November 2015 Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  6. 6. 6 (Some of the) Big questions  At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ?  Which content, learning objectives, methods, and environments are suitable to learn CT concepts at each developmental stage ?  How to integrate CT teaching time with other important learning fields?  How to best prepare and sustain teachers in acquiring the necessary CT skills?  How to take into account national/local curriculum specificities? Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  7. 7. 7 French School System Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016 from G.-L. Baron, B. Drot-Delange, M. Grandbastien, and F. Tort. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives. Trans. Comput. Educ., 14(2):11:1–11:27, 2014.  Classes of about 20-30  One teacher per class, all subjects included.
  8. 8. 8 Child cognitive and affective development  At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ?  Both affective and cognitive attributes develop easier and are easier to change in the early years => ? student exposure to CT and STEM in general, earlier in their life, may create and maintain their affect towards these subjects  Equity: students of all backgrounds, genders, ... => critical to include CT integrated learning at the earlier elementary levels Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  9. 9. 9 Survey of WG5 ITiCSE 2016 (to be published)  At what age should CT Education (CTE) start ? Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  10. 10. 10 Child cognitive and affective development  Piaget's cognitive development stages, for 7-11 years old : – Concrete operational stage: • abstract, hypothetical thinking is not yet developed, and children can only solve problems that apply to concrete events or objects. • able to use inductive reasoning, but they struggle with deductive reasoning. • begin to think in more scientific and trial-and-error fashion, using hypothetical-deductive reasoning, making plans which they test in a systematic manner. Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  11. 11. 11 The curricula  Which content, learning objectives, methods, and environments are suitable to learn CT concepts at each developmental stage ?  Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) standards Level 1 (grades 3-6) : 1. Understand and use the basic steps in algorithmic problem-solving. 2. Develop a simple understanding of an algorithm (e.g., sequence of events) using computer-free exercises. 3. Demonstrate how a string of bits can be used to represent alphanumeric information. 4. Describe how simulation can be used to solve problems. 5. Make a list of sub-problems to consider while addressing a larger problem. 6. Understand the connections between CS and other fields. 7. Construct a program as a set of step-by-step instructions to be acted out (e.g., make a sandwich activity). 8. Implement problem solutions using a block-based visual programming language. Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  12. 12. 12 The curricula – French specificities  French curricula for 2014-2015 + 2015-2016 – NO programming – STEM section : acquiring a scientific awareness and approach/method => introduced CT in light of a scientific, systematic investigation, discovery/inquiry-based aproach => introduced as part a project of Support on Science and Technology in Elementary School (in fr. ASTEP) • dedicated school time (7-8 classes/year) • a ''scientist'' accompanies an elementary school teacher • How to integrate CT teaching time with other important learning fields ? • How to best prepare and sustain teachers in acquiring the necessary CT skills? Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  13. 13. 13 The curricula – Activities  Papert's contructionism : – children learn deeply when they build their own meaningful projects in group and reflect on the process.  Lesson plan (based on Code.org – Course 2): – 10 lessons – introductory + last lesson : programming as objective to control robots – CT concepts : algorithm, programming, loop, conditional/test – alternation of unplugged and computer activities • unplugged : based on pupils’ previous knowledge (e.g. algorithm - teeth brushing • computer : puzzles based on concepts introduced with unplugged activities – individually – in groups – advice to the teacher => inquiry-based pedagogy Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  14. 14. 14 The curricula – Activities  Why Code.org ? – strives to propose a full K-12 path (coherence between levels) – puzzle-based games solved with a visual programming language of Blocky type – inquiry, fun – CT key concepts – alternation of unplugged with computer-based activities => facilitates transfer – simple to complex – class-management and monitoring system => individual progress + possibility of parent involvement Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  15. 15. 15 The curricula – Robots  Introductory lesson  Carpet with Code.org-like puzzles  Dash robots – Blocky-like programming language => facilitate transfer Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  16. 16. 16 Strategies of teaching/delivery  Co-teaching class teacher + ''scientist''  Whole-class directions and demonstrations (learning by example)  Independent + collaborative work : – available material : individual, pairs, groups of 4-6  Reflection time for sharing solutions with the entire class – included, but not always possible in practice  Sometimes a third ressource person needed – technical problems – teacher to pupil ratio too small (30 children classes) Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  17. 17. 17 The project – Initial partners Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016 2 CS researchers French Ministry of Education counselor, Fréderic Carrincazeaux
  18. 18. 18 The project - Initial partners 2014-2015  3 (4) elementary school teachers Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016 Florence Rassinier + Mélisa Devaux Sandra Saint-German Sophie Evangelista
  19. 19. 19 Lessons learned - Teachers  Essential role: – stimulate pupils, give possitive attitudes – adapt the curricula to their environment, pupils, material – ensure the delivery of the curricula – main motivation : providing better opportunities for children  Enthusiastic  Coaching/training – essential  Teacher feedback on curricula : – groups of 4 (robots) – reduce to 3 • => 2015-2016: – divide the class in two vs more material => more groups => bigger strain on teacher – more time for sharing, observing, evaluating Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  20. 20. 20 Lessons learned - Teachers  Professional development – possible major barrier – initial 3-hour training – additional training during classes – individual work – Not feasable for scalability!  2015-2016 – additional 3-hour training – MAI : teachers in charge of digital literacy – ''trainers''/''scientists'' – MOOCS? Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  21. 21. 21 Map of partner schools 2015-2016 Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  22. 22. 22 Lessons learned - Children  Co-constructing knowledge – children discover the material : tablettes, robots, software – time-consuming, but active and discovery-based pedagogy – waw factor and accomplishment feelings  Multi- and trans-disciplinarity – english (foreign language), math – group working : social and language skills – spatial orientation : • guiding an on-screen character through a 2D labyrinth – 2016-2017 : • physical education • geography Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  23. 23. 23 Lessons learned – Administrators of learning  School directors, personnel of the Ministry of Education  Their support – instrumental – permission to enter the school – scaling-up : MAI - teachers in charge of digital literacy – training sessions – manage the shared material  => ability to address large diversity of children : – urban + rural – girls + boys – various ethnic and social background – help ensure equity and equal access to opportunities Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  24. 24. 24 Lessons learned – Researchers and universities  The better the CS level of our beginner students, the easier for teachers (us) and the further we can go in our courses !  Begin constructing a community of practice : – local elementary schools – personnel of the Ministry of Education – local Superior School of Teaching and Education – reinforces connections – enables further research actions – rapid transfer of ideas from research into practice – mutual support Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  25. 25. 25 Robotics encounters 2015-2016 Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  26. 26. 26 Research project 2016-2020  Partners in “PERSEVERONS” - Let's persevere ! – Superior School of Teaching and Education – University of Bordeaux – INRIA – Partners for extra-curricular activities – Partners for popularization of science  1 million euro  Investigate how digital literacy and programming may influence perseverence and fight against dropout  From kindergarten, through elementary, middle and highschool  More interweeving of CT/CS with other disciplines  More rigorous experimentation and evaluation protocols  More diversity and focus on children in difficult situations for various reasons  Teacher training modules, approaches Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016
  27. 27. Thank you CONTACT Vanea CHIPRIANOV Assistant Professor LIUPPA, UPPA vanea.chiprianov@univ-pau.fr
  28. 28. 28 Robotics encounters 2015-2016 : supervisors Introducing CT to K-5 in a French context V. Chiprianov, L. Gallon 11/07/2016

Presentation at the 21st Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE), 2016.07, Arequipa, Peru. More details about the paper at https://sites.google.com/site/vaneachiprianov/papers .

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