Nagarjuna (931 AD) was born at fort Daihakin Gujarat. His writings are RASARATNAKARA,ayurvedic treatises UTTARATANTRA,AROGYAMANJARI, KAKSHAPUTATANTRA,YOGASARA & YOGASTAK. In his treatise, he also listed the appartures thatwas used by earlier alchemists, the possibility oftransmutation of base metals into gold. Till today these methods are used tomanufacture imitation jewelry.
Aryabhata belong to the period of 476-550 AD. One of his major works was Aryabhattiyawritten in 499 AD. The book dealt with many topics likeAstronomy, SphericalTrigonometry, Arithmetic, Algebra & PlaneTrigonometry. Aryabhata’s computation of the Earth’scircumference as 39,968.0582 KM was only 0.2%smaller than the actual value 40,075.0167 KM. This approximation was a significantimprovement over the computation by Greek’swhose calculation error is 5-10%.
Kanada belongs to the period of 600BCE. He was the founder of “VAISHESHIKDARSHAN” one of the six principlephilosophies of India. He stated that “Every object of creationis made of atoms which inturn connect witheach other to form molecules.” His statement ushered in the atomictheory for the first time ever in theworld, nearly 2500 years before JohnDalton.
Bhaskara was born in1114 AD in Vijayapura. He wrote Lilavati on Mathematics, Bijaganita on Algebra, Siddhanta Siromani on Mathematical Astronomy, Vasanabhasya of Mitaksara views on Siddhanta Siromani. He gave the numbers from Eka (1) to Parardha(10^17). Where the English could calculate up to millions &billions (10^9).
• Pingala presents the firstever known description ofBinary Numeral System.• His discussion of thecombinators ofmeter, corresponds to thebinomial theorem.• Pingala’s work also containsthe basic idea of Fibonaccinumber (called Maatraameru).
• Manava belonged to 750-690 BC.• Manava’s Sulabhasutra, like all theSulabhasutra’s, contained approximate construction of circlesfrom rectangles & Squares from circles.
• Katyayana belong to 3rd century BC.• He dealt with the Sulabhasutras composed of rightsided triangles, rectangles & Rhombuses.• His text on Sulabhasutras dealt with geometry, &extended the treatment of the Pythagorean theorem.
Charaka the “Father of Anatomy”was of 300 BC. He was the first physician topresent the concept ofdigestion, metabolism & immunity. He knew the fundamentals ofgenetics like sex determination & fewcauses of genetic disorders. Charaka wrote a book calledCharaka Samhita which contained120 Chapters.
• Baudhayana (800 BC) was noted asthe earliest author of Sulabhasutras.• His book is called as BaudhayanaSulabhasutras.• The known Pythagorean Theorem isbelieved to have been invented byBaudhayana.• This theorem is used to calculateRight Angled Triangle.
• Aryabhata-II (around 920 AD) had composedMahasiddhanta, a book on mathematical astronomy.• It contained 18 chapters.• The first 12 chapters contain astronomy, the longitudes ofplanets, eclipses of sun & moon, the rising & setting ofplanets.• In Mahasiddhanta he gives in about twenty verses detailedrules to solve equations like by=ax+c.
• Panini was born in present dayPakistan (near Rawalpindi).• He was a Sanskrit grammarianwho gave a comprehensive &scientific theory ofPhonetics, Phonology & Morphology.• A treatise called Astadhyayi isPanini’s major work.• The construction ofsentences, compound nounsetc., explained in a manner similar tomodern world.
• The dharmasutra of Apastamba (600 BC) forms a largerKalpasutra of Apastamba.• The mathematics given in Sulabhasutras is there to enable theaccurate construction of altars needed for sacrifice.• The general linear equation is solved in the ApastambaSulabhasutra’s.• He also gives remarkably accurate value for namely1+1/3+1/(3*4)-1/(3*4*34) which gives an answer up to 5decimal places exactly.
• The mathematician who first framed rules of operation for zero wasBramhagupta.• He was the founder of a branch of higher mathematics called“Numerical Analysis”.• He declared in his book Bramhaguptasiddhanta that addition orsubtraction of zero to or from any quantity, negative or positive doesn’taffect it.• About gravitation he said that “bodies fall towards earth as it is thenature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it is the nature of water toflow.”
Divanji Varahamihra (505-587 AD) wrotePanchasiddhatika Brihatsamhitha. Varahamihra made some importantmathematical discoveries. His Brihatsamhitha discusses the topics likeheavenly bodies, their moments &conjunctions, meteorological phenomena. His claim that plants & termites serve asindicators of ground water is now receivingattention in scientific world.
Sage Parasara is called the Father ofBotany. He classified flowering plants intovarious families 2000 years beforeLinnaeus. Parasara described plant cells-inner &outer walls, sap-color matter which notvisible to the naked eye. Nearly 3000 years after Robert Hookeusing a micro scope described the outer &inner walls & sap color material.
Acharya Kapila (Father ofCosmology) was the founder ofSankhya Philosophy. His extraordinary & extrasensoryperceptions, observations & revelationon the secrets of creation, brought himthe recognition as Father ofCosmology. His pioneering work threw light onthe nature & principles of ultimateSoul.
Susruta was the first physician toadvocate what is today known as“Caesarean” operation. He wrote a book called Susruta Samhita. It has description of 1120 illness, 700medicinal plants, a detailed study onAnatomy, 64 preparations from mineralsources & 57 preparations based on animalsources. He was expert in removing urinarystones, locating & treating fractures & eyeoperations for cataract.
Patanjali (2nd Century BC) is thecompiler of the Yoga Sutras animportant collection of aphorisms onYoga practice. Research is in progress inlaboratories all over the world to probefurther the merits of yoga. What Patanjali advocated severalcenturies is now receiving attention itdeserves.