Genera of the Old World Pyrgotidae  (Diptera: Tephritoidea) with the special review of the fauna of the Oriental Region   ...
Catalog of the Family Pyrgotidae of the World   <ul><li>Prepared in 2001-2004 </li></ul><ul><li>592 records in species dat...
The Catalog: Problems   <ul><li>Species were poorly described  (no essential characters) </li></ul><ul><li>Most species un...
The Catalog: Tasks   <ul><li>Study of all available type material on the Old World Pyrgotidae  (except Australian) </li></...
What the Pyrgotids are?   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission
What the Pyrgotids are?   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Pyrgotidae are the sister-group of the Tephritidae ...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Pyrgotis are the ...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Head shape is believed to be an adaptation for emergin...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Occipital slit is present in all species, including th...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Females in certain species have so-called  femoral org...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Oviscape  is strong, conical and non-compressible dors...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Oviscape apex  is different from that in Tephritidae <...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Mediodorsal lobe  is sometimes very long ( Adapsilia )...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Abdominal sternites 1 and 2 fused (except in  Teretrur...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Females sometimes have densely spinulose abdominal ter...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Non- abdominal friction structures  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Aculeus </li></ul><ul><li>Acute, stiletto-like, with s...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Ventral receptacle  </li></ul><ul><li>Not known in  De...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Male genitalia  </li></ul><ul><li>Epandrium without se...
Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance   <ul><li>Male genitalia  </li></ul><ul><li>Hypandrium with the ...
Classification of the Pyrgotidae   <ul><li>Aczél (1956): Toxurinae    Pyrgotinae   (Teretrurini + Pyrgotini) </li></ul><ul...
Classification of the Pyrgotidae   <ul><li>Basal lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Descoleia Nosferatumyia Teretrura Pyrgotosoma...
Classification of the Pyrgotinae   <ul><li>Basal lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Prodalmanniini Toxurini Pyrgotini  (Pyrgotina...
Pyrgotinae   <ul><li>Monophyly is well supported: </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal sternites 1+2 fused </li></ul><ul><li>Sursty...
Pyrgotinae   <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>Prodalmanniini  ( Australia ) (Sc at acute angle  P...
Pyrgotinae   <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pyrgotini ( Sc at acute angle  P ; ocelli lackin...
Pyrgotinae   <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.  Adapsiliina  (Old World, including Australia,...
Pyrgotinae Prodalmanniini and Toxurini are strictly Australasian and not considered here
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Geloemyia group of genera: 3-4 dc, facial ridge reduced, R4+5 setulose, surstyli posteriorly...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Geloemyia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotomyia  Hendel 1934 =  Metropina  Enderlei...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: 1-2 dc, facial ridge usually well-developed, surstyli not posteri...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>[ Genus nova 1 ] ( Adapsilia hirtoscutellata  g...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Plectrobrachis  Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><l...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Trichopeltia  Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera  Macquart 1843 </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera  Macquart 1843 =  Prosyrogaster  Ro...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera  Macquart 1843 Oriental species </l...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Diasteneura  Hendel 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>6.1....
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota  Coquillett 1900 =  Peltodasia  Ender...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota  Coquillett 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Tw...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Euphya  Wulp 1885 </li></ul><ul><li>8.1.   Euph...
Subtribe Adapsiliina  <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Siridapha  Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>9.1...
<ul><li>Tephritopyrgota  Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>=  Tephritocampyclocera  Hendel 1934  new synonym </li></ul><ul><li...
Subtribe Pyrgotina  <ul><li>Tephritopyrgota  Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>  Madagascan species are almost as diverse as t...
Subtribe Pyrgotina  <ul><li>Tephritopyrgota  Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>  Oriental and East Palaearctic fauna are less ...
Subtribe Pyrgotina  <ul><li>Rhagostira  Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>=  Tephritocampylocera  Hendel pro parte major </...
Subtribe Pyrgotina  <ul><li>Tylotrypes  Bezzi 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>11.1.   Tylotrypes immsi  Bezzi 1914  India </li></ul...
Subtribe Pyrgotina  <ul><li>Pyrgotina  Malloch 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>=  Platynostira  Enderlein 1942  syn. n. </li></ul><...
Subfamily Toxopyrgotinae subfam. n.  <ul><li>Toxopyrgota  Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Toxopyrgota inclinata  Hendel 1914...
Aknowledgements   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission To all the curators of museums who kindly borrowed almost all the k...
Aknowledgements   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Work was supported by the Belgian Federal Office for Scient...
Aknowledgements   Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Special thanks : Alan Norrbom, Lucrecia Rodriguez and Gary ...
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Valery Korneyev. 2008. Genera of the Old World Pyrgotidae

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A presentation of the lecture on the 4th Meeting of Tephritoidea Taxonomists, Gatlinburg, USA, 2008

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Valery Korneyev. 2008. Genera of the Old World Pyrgotidae

  1. 1. Genera of the Old World Pyrgotidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) with the special review of the fauna of the Oriental Region Valery A. Korneyev I.I.Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
  2. 2. Catalog of the Family Pyrgotidae of the World <ul><li>Prepared in 2001-2004 </li></ul><ul><li>592 records in species database </li></ul><ul><li>187 records in genera database </li></ul><ul><li>330 valid / 381 available species names </li></ul><ul><li>46 valid / 83 available genus names </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 330-340 species recognized in collections; many names are possible synonyms </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Catalog: Problems <ul><li>Species were poorly described (no essential characters) </li></ul><ul><li>Most species unrecognizable w/o examination of types </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of genera extremely confused </li></ul><ul><li>Generic position of almost all Old World species is obscure </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Catalog: Tasks <ul><li>Study of all available type material on the Old World Pyrgotidae (except Australian) </li></ul><ul><li>Redescription. Figures. New characters </li></ul><ul><li>Testing monophyly of genera </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of diagnoses of genera </li></ul><ul><li>and generic position of species </li></ul>
  5. 5. What the Pyrgotids are? Photo by Mike Boone, with permission
  6. 6. What the Pyrgotids are? Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Pyrgotidae are the sister-group of the Tephritidae </li></ul><ul><li>All pyrgotids are believed to be parasites of adult scarabs (Melolonthidae & Cetoniidae). Almost no data on biology </li></ul><ul><li>No comprehensive diagnosis of the family. Monophyly ? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Pyrgotis are the flies active in the dusk. </li></ul><ul><li>Females are highly specialized for ovipositing into and for emergence of adults from adult scarab bodies: </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse frictional structures (brushes, suckers) for attaching them firmly to beetle bodies during oviposition and to pierce abdominal sternites </li></ul>
  8. 8. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Head shape is believed to be an adaptation for emerging from the crusty beetle body (very large ptilinum => soft gena => movable face). </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally sclerotized head skeleton: orbital plate=> parafacialium=> subocular plate </li></ul><ul><li>Epiclypeal (epistomal) sclerite = secondarily sclerotized oral cavity membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Strong occiput and deep occipital slit </li></ul><ul><li>Synapomorphy of the Pyrgotidae </li></ul>
  9. 9. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Occipital slit is present in all species, including the genera Descoleia, Nosferatumyia, Teretrura, Pyrgotosoma and Toxopyrgota </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotids are rather uniform in coloration and wing pattern (mostly dusk activity) </li></ul><ul><li>~90% have no ocelli </li></ul><ul><li>R 2+3 vein with stump vein (in ~60%) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Gelomyia sp. n. (Namibia) </li></ul><ul><li>Gelomyia sp. n. (Namibia) </li></ul><ul><li>Euphya tripunctata . (Moluccas) </li></ul><ul><li>Tephritopyrgota tripunctata . (Madagascal) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Females in certain species have so-called femoral organ , a bare area on anterior surface of the midfemur, a structure of unknown function: </li></ul><ul><li>either a sort of timpanal organ (Malloch 1931; Chen 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>or merely a “gall” for better grip around the beetle body </li></ul><ul><li>It is common in the subtribe Adapsilina; closely related species often differ in position, shape or absence of the f.o. Non-applicable in phylogenetic analysis (high homoplasy) </li></ul><ul><li>Rare, but present in the subtribe Pyrgotina, but here it is small and probably non-homological? </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota caffra ( Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Trichopeltia scutellina ( Sri Lanka) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Oviscape is strong, conical and non-compressible dorso-laterally (in ~97%) </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely almost flat and soft (Teretrurinae, Descoleia, Toxopyrgota ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbous oviscape without eversible membrane ovipositor in Epice </li></ul><ul><li>Gelomyia sp. n. (Namibia) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotosoma flavida ( Chile) </li></ul><ul><li>Teretrura tinctipennis ( Chile) </li></ul>Epice sp. ( Australia)
  12. 12. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Oviscape apex is different from that in Tephritidae </li></ul><ul><li>In Pyrgotinae, eversible membrane is thick </li></ul><ul><li>It bears 1 pair of lateral lobes with the field of trichoid and campaniform sensilla at base </li></ul><ul><li>Medioventral lobe is taenia-like, unpaired, similar to that in the Tephritidae </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Mediodorsal lobe is sometimes very long ( Adapsilia ) </li></ul><ul><li>often strongly reduced or absent </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotina tephritoides ( Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotomyia ciliata ( Africa) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Abdominal sternites 1 and 2 fused (except in Teretrura , Pyrgotosoma, Descoleia , and Nosferatumyia ) </li></ul><ul><li>= Synapomorphy of Pyrgotinae? </li></ul><ul><li>In Toxopyrgota, sternites 1+2 are fused with visible seam </li></ul><ul><li>In Teretrura , Pyrgotosoma, Descoleia , and Nosferatumyia sternites 1 & 2 are fused without a seam </li></ul><ul><li>Teretrura tinctipennis ( Chile) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxopyrgota inclinata ( Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Tylotrypes immsi ( Nepal) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Females sometimes have densely spinulose abdominal tergites </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota echinata ( Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>Tephritopyrgota echinogaster ( Madagascar) </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera kenyana ( Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Trichopewltia scutellina ( Sri Lanca) </li></ul><ul><li>Or on the contrary, bare sternites with cellular surface </li></ul>
  16. 16. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Non- abdominal friction structures </li></ul><ul><li>Foretrochanter with spinulae ( Eupyrgota ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mid– and hindcoxae with brushes of thick setae (some Tephritopyrgota, Siridapha , and all Trichopeltia) </li></ul>Trichopeltia mindanensis ( Philippines) Eupyrgota caffra ( Aftica)
  17. 17. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Aculeus </li></ul><ul><li>Acute, stiletto-like, with sternite 8 reduced, membranous </li></ul><ul><li>Setae reduced (except in Prodalmannia present on tergite 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly modified ovipositor in Epice spp. </li></ul>Teretrura flaveola ( Chile) Eupyrgota latipennis ( Africa) Adapsilia coarctata ( Europe) Prodalmannia variabilis ( Australia) Epice sp. ( Australia)
  18. 18. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Ventral receptacle </li></ul><ul><li>Not known in Descoleia and Nosferatumyia </li></ul><ul><li>With spherical apical chamber in ALL other Pyrgotidae </li></ul><ul><li>Morula-like or snake-like petal in Teretrura </li></ul>Teretrura flaveola ( Chile) Prodalmannia variabilis ( Australia) Trichopeltia mindanensis ( Philippines) Teretrura tinctipennis ( Chile)
  19. 19. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Male genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Epandrium without setae (most Pyrgotina, all Adapsilina) or with setae (Pyrgotinae: Toxurini, some Pyrgotini, Teretrurinae, Descoleia, Nosferatumyia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Surstyli without prensisetae (except in Descoleia , Nosferatumyia and Toxopyrgota ) </li></ul>Eupyrgota echinata ( Africa) Nosferatumyia no ( Madeira) Geloemyia trifasciata ( Madagascar) Descoleia teretrura ( Argentina) Pyrgotosoma flavida ( Chile) Tephritopyrgota microceras ( Far East Palaearctics)
  20. 20. Morphological characters and their taxonomic significance <ul><li>Male genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypandrium with the phallic guide (absent in Descoleia , Nosferatumyia and Toxopyrgota ) </li></ul><ul><li>A synapomorphy of the Pyrgotinae? </li></ul>Geloemyia trifasciata ( Madagascar)
  21. 21. Classification of the Pyrgotidae <ul><li>Aczél (1956): Toxurinae Pyrgotinae (Teretrurini + Pyrgotini) </li></ul><ul><li>D.K.McAlpine (1990): Teretrurinae ( 2 genera: Teretrura and Pyrgotosoma ) Pyrgotinae ( Toxurini + Pyrgotini ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Classification of the Pyrgotidae <ul><li>Basal lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Descoleia Nosferatumyia Teretrura Pyrgotosoma Toxopyrgota Pyrgotinae </li></ul>Teretrurinae
  23. 23. Classification of the Pyrgotinae <ul><li>Basal lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Prodalmanniini Toxurini Pyrgotini (Pyrgotina and Adapsilina) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pyrgotinae <ul><li>Monophyly is well supported: </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal sternites 1+2 fused </li></ul><ul><li>Surstyli without prensisetae </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic guide present </li></ul><ul><li>Oviscape rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Face with sclerotized pentagonal area dorsal of clypeus (epiclypeal sclerite or epistomal plate) </li></ul><ul><li>Stump vein present (secondarily lost in some species) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pyrgotinae <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>Prodalmanniini ( Australia ) (Sc at acute angle P ; ocelli present P ; aculeus with long setulae P ) 2 or more genera: Adapsona , Prodalmannia </li></ul><ul><li>Toxurini (Australia, New Guinea) ( Sc bowed at 90° SA ; ocelli present P ; aculeus non-setulose A ) 11 genera, > 60 species, ~10 undescribed (New Guinea) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pyrgotinae <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pyrgotini ( Sc at acute angle P ; ocelli lacking A ; aculeus non-setulose A ; ocelli lacking A ) </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Pyrgotina (Old World, except Australia; New World) ( no subocular sclerite, gena soft P ; medioventral lobe (unpaired taenia) ending with hook, or ovipositungus (Steyskal 1978) SA ; glans very simple, no neck, ring-like sclerite around gonopore SA ) >60 species of 13 genera in Americas; >20 species in Madagascar; >35 in mainland Africa; >5 in Asia (Oriental and Palaearctic) Madagascan fauna is represented only by species assigned to Tephritopyrgota , but these species are almost as diverse as American Pyrgotina. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pyrgotinae <ul><li>Monophyletic groups recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. Adapsiliina (Old World, including Australia, not in Madagascar) ( subocular sclerite strong A ; medioventral lobe without a hook P ; glans of more diverse and complex morphology, not as in Pyrgotina) >60 species of 13 genera in Americas; >20 species in Madagascar; >35 in mainland Africa; >5 in Asia (Oriental and Palaearctic) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Pyrgotinae Prodalmanniini and Toxurini are strictly Australasian and not considered here
  29. 29. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Geloemyia group of genera: 3-4 dc, facial ridge reduced, R4+5 setulose, surstyli posteriorly produced, oviscape apex without lobes except ventral, aculeus spear-like </li></ul><ul><li>Geloemyia Hendel 1908 = Trichempodia Malloch 1930 new synonym = Parageloemyia Hendel 1934 new synonym = Dicranostira Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Geloemyia stylata Hendel 1908 Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia = Trichempodia cockerelli Malloch 1930 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Geloemyia nigrofasciata (Hendel 1933) new combination China, Korea, Russia = Parageloemyia ornata Hering 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Geloemyia quadriseta (Hendel 1933) new combination China, Korea </li></ul><ul><li>1.4. Geloemyia trifasciata (Enderlein 1942) new combination Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>1.5. Geloemyia globa (Shi 1996) new combination China </li></ul><ul><li>1.6. Geloemyia wonjuensis (Kim & Han 2001) new combination Korea, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1.7. Geloemyia sp. 1 new species Namibia </li></ul>Geloemyia trifasciata ( Madagascar) Geloemyia sp. n. ( Namibia) Trichempodia cockerelli ( Thailand) Geloemyia stylata ( Vietnam)
  30. 30. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Geloemyia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrgotomyia Hendel 1934 = Metropina Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>2.1. Pyrgotomyia ciliata Hendel 1934 Africa = Metropina richteri Steyskal 1977 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Pyrgotomyia temporalis (Enderlein 1942) new combination Africa </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. Pyrgotomyia sp. n. 1 Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Hendelpyrgota Vanschuytbroek 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Hendelpyrgota longicornis Vanschuytbroek 1963 Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Porpomastix Enderlein 1942 = Paradapsilia Chen 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>4.1. Porpomastix foveolata Enderlein 1942 Far East Palaearctics, Indochina </li></ul><ul><li>4.2. Porpomastix sp. n. 1 India </li></ul>
  31. 31. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: 1-2 dc, facial ridge usually well-developed, surstyli not posteriorly produced, oviscape apex with 4 pairs of lobes except ventral, aculeus widened at base </li></ul><ul><li>Adapsilia Waga 1843 </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Adapsila coarctata Waga 1843 Europe, Far East Asia = Adapsilia alini Hering 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Adapsila verrucifer Hendel 1933 China, Korea, Russia; Oriental Region = A. cornugaster Kim & Han 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Adapsila trypetoides Chen 1947 China, Oriental Region </li></ul>
  32. 32. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>[ Genus nova 1 ] ( Adapsilia hirtoscutellata group) </li></ul><ul><li>2.1. Campylocera myopina Wulp 1880 Indonesia: Java </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Adapsilia magnicornis Hendel 1908 Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. Adapsila hirtoscutellata Hendel 1933 China, Oriental Region </li></ul><ul><li>2.4. Adapsila myopoides Chen 1947 China, Oriental Region </li></ul><ul><li>2.4. Euthioza latigenis Enderlein 1942 Indonesia: Sumatra </li></ul><ul><li>2.4. Euthioza sumatrana Enderlein 1942 Indonesia: Sumatra </li></ul>Euthioza latigenis ( Sumatra) Campylocera myopina ( Java) Adapsilia magnicornis ( Sri Lanka) Euthioza sumatrana ( Sumatra) Adapsilia hirtoscutellata ( Sumatra)
  33. 33. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Plectrobrachis Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Plectrobrachis filigena Enderlein 1942 Indonesia: Sumatra </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. Plectrobrachis hispida (Kim & Han 2001) new combination Korea </li></ul><ul><li>3.3. sp. n. 1 Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>3.4. sp. n. 2 Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>3.5. sp. n. 3 Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>3.6. sp. n. 4 Indonesia </li></ul>Plectrobrachis filigena ( Java)
  34. 34. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Trichopeltia Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>4.1. Trichopeltia squalida (Walker 1861) comb. n. India; Turkey = Adapsilia scutellata Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>4.2. Trichopeltia longicornis (Wulp 1885 ) comb. n. Indonesia: Java </li></ul><ul><li>4.3. Trichopeltia scutellina (Hendel 1934 ) comb. n. India; Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>4.4. Trichopeltia mindanensis (Hennig 1936 ) comb. n. Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>4.5. Trichopeltia penicillaticoxis Enderlein 1942 Indonesia: Sumatra; Malaysia (Peninsular) </li></ul>Trichopeltia mindanensis ( Philippines) Trichopeltia penicillaticoxis ( Sumatra) Trichopeltia longicornis ( Java) Trichopeltia mindanensis ( Philippines)
  35. 35. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera Macquart 1843 </li></ul><ul><li>The largest genus in the group (>40 nominal species) </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly in the Afrotropical Region </li></ul><ul><li>Identity, including redescription of the type species </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic characters: costa reduced between R4+5 and M; facial carina high; epiclypeal sclerite very low; male cerci usually fused </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently monophyletic, though monophyly has not been rigorously tested </li></ul>Campylocera ferruginea ( Africa)
  36. 36. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera Macquart 1843 = Prosyrogaster Rondani 1875 new synonym = Hypotyphla Hendel 1908 new synonym = Prohypotyphla Hendel 1934 new synonym = Clemaxia Enderlein 1942 = Dicrostira Enderlein 1942 = Congopyrgota Vanschuytbroeck 1963 new synonym </li></ul>Hypotyphla loewi ( Africa) Campylocera angustigennis ( Africa) Campylocera ferruginea ( Africa) Clemaxia angustigenis ( Africa) Congopyrgota hyalipennis ( Africa)
  37. 37. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylocera Macquart 1843 Oriental species </li></ul><ul><li>= Prosyrogaster Rondani 1875 new synonym = Teliophleps Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>5.1. Campylocera chelionota ( Rondani 1875) comb. n. </li></ul><ul><li>= Campylocera robusta Wulp 1880 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>= Campylocera hirsuta Aldrich 1928 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>= Teliophleps apicalis Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>5.2. Campylocera thoracalis Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>5.3. Campylocera rufina Bezzi 1916 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Diasteneura Hendel 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>6.1. Diasteneura laticeps Hendel 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>6.2. Diasteneura variceps Curran 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>6.3. Diasteneura similis Steyskal 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>6.4. Diasteneura basilewskyi Vanschuytbroeck 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>6.5. Diasteneura obscura Vanschuytbroeck 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>6.6. Diasteneura sp. n. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>6.7. Diasteneura sp. n. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently also a synonym of Campylocera </li></ul><ul><li>Most species are known from holotype (either males or females only) and not dissected. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota Coquillett 1900 = Peltodasia Enderlein 1942 = Apyrgota Hendel 1908 new synonym = Acropyrgota Hendel 1914 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>= Taeniomastix Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul>Eupyrgota vespiformis ( Africa) Eupyrgota sublatipennis ( Africa) Eupyrgota vespiformis ( Africa) Eupyrgota spinifemur ( Africa) Eupyrgota spinifemur ( Africa)
  40. 40. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Eupyrgota Coquillett 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Two subgenera: Eupyrgota s. str. & Taeniomastix with several groups of species </li></ul><ul><li>Palaearctic and Afrotropical species have been revised recently (Kim & Han 2000; Korneyev 2006 a & b) </li></ul><ul><li>20 described and 5 undescribed species in Oriental and Australasian Regions </li></ul>Eupyrgota nocturna ( India) Eupyrgota sumatrana ( Sumatra) Eupyrgota (=Apyrgota) scioida ( Moluccas) Eupyrgota fusca ( Japan)
  41. 41. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Euphya Wulp 1885 </li></ul><ul><li>8.1. Euphya tripunctata (Doleschall 1857) Indonesia: Moluccas </li></ul><ul><li>8.2. Euphya bistrigata Enderlein 1942 Indonesia: Java; Philippines = Euphya davisi Steyskal 1973 syn. n. </li></ul><ul><li>8.3. sp. n. 1 New Guinea </li></ul>Euphya bistrigata ( Java) Euphya bistrigata ( Java) Euphya tripunctata ( Moluccas)
  42. 42. Subtribe Adapsiliina <ul><li>Adapsilia group of genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Siridapha Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>9.1. Siridapha longina (Hendel 1914) Africa: Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>9.2. Siridapha filipalpis Enderlein 1942 Africa: Cameroun </li></ul><ul><li>9.3. Siridapha ophionea Enderlein 1942 Africa: Cameroun </li></ul><ul><li>9.4. Siridapha muluguensis Vanschuytbroeck 1963 Africa: Zaire </li></ul><ul><li>= Peltodasia mageraensis Vanschuytbroeck 1963 Africa: Zaire syn.n. </li></ul><ul><li>9.5. Siridapha sp. n. 1 Africa: Zaire </li></ul><ul><li>9.5. Siridapha sp. n. 2 Africa: Tanzania </li></ul>Siridapha filipalpis ( Cameroun) Siridapha ophionea ( Fernando Po) Siridapha sp. n. ( Tanzania) Siridapha muluguensis ( Zaire)
  43. 43. <ul><li>Tephritopyrgota Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>= Tephritocampyclocera Hendel 1934 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>= Stypina Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>= Euthioza Enderlein 1942 new synonym </li></ul><ul><li>> 40 described species, most diverse fauna in Madagascar </li></ul>Subtribe Pyrgotina Tephritopyrgota belzebuth ( Africa) Tephritopyrgota passerina ( Africa) Tephritopyrgota gowdei ( Africa) Tephritopyrgota carbonaria ( Africa)
  44. 44. Subtribe Pyrgotina <ul><li>Tephritopyrgota Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li> Madagascan species are almost as diverse as the rest of the Pyrgotina, but at least some were improperly placed </li></ul>Tephritoprgota spinosa ( Madagascar) Tephritoprgota rutricauda ( Madagascar) Tephritoprgota rufonigra ( Madagascar) Tephritoprgota laevigaster ( Madagascar) Tephritopyrgota haltericauda ( Africa)
  45. 45. Subtribe Pyrgotina <ul><li>Tephritopyrgota Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li> Oriental and East Palaearctic fauna are less diverse </li></ul><ul><li>9.1. Tephritopyrgota ferruginea (Walker 1914) India, Indochina, Korea = Adapsilia longicaudata Kim & Han 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>9.2. Tephritopyrgota microceras (Portschinsky 1892) comb. n. Far East Russia, Korea </li></ul><ul><li>= Adapsilia tenebrosa Kim & Han 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>9.3. Tephritopyrgota miliaria Hendel 1933 China: Szechwan </li></ul><ul><li>9.4. Tephritopyrgota yunnanensis Shi 1996 China: Yunnan </li></ul><ul><li>9.5. Tephritopyrgota sp. n.1 China: Taiwan </li></ul>Tephritoprgota ferruginea ( India)
  46. 46. Subtribe Pyrgotina <ul><li>Rhagostira Enderlein 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>= Tephritocampylocera Hendel pro parte major </li></ul><ul><li>= Tephritohypotyphla Vanschuytbroeck 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>10.1. Rhagostira irrorata (Malloch 1929) comb.n. Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>10.2. Rhagostira breviseta (Hendel 1934) comb.n. Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>10.3. Rhagostira abessinica (Hennig 1937) comb.n. Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>10.4. Rhagostira erlangeri Enderlein 1942 Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>10.5. Rhagostira latigena Enderlein 1942 Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>10.6. Rhagostira nana Enderlein 1942 Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>10.7. Rhagostira biseta (Vanschuytbroeck 1963) comb.n. Zaire </li></ul><ul><li>10.8. Rhagostira masaiensis (Vanschuytbroeck 1963) comb.n. Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>10.9. Rhagostira brincki (Vanschuytbroeck 1967) comb.n. RSA </li></ul>Rhagostyra latigena ( Africa) Rhagostira breviseta ( Africa) Rhagostyra erlangeri ( Africa)
  47. 47. Subtribe Pyrgotina <ul><li>Tylotrypes Bezzi 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>11.1. Tylotrypes immsi Bezzi 1914 India </li></ul><ul><li>11.2. Tylotrypes biseta (Shi 1996) comb. n. China: Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>11.3. Tylotrypes sp. n. 1 China: Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>11.4. Tylotrypes sp. n. 2 China: Fujian </li></ul><ul><li>11.5. Tylotrypes sp. n. 3 Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>11.6. Tylotrypes sp. n. 4 Indonesia: Borneo </li></ul><ul><li>11.7. Tylotrypes sp. n. 5 Thailand </li></ul>Tylotrypes immsi ( India) Tylotrypes immsi ( India) Tylotrypes immsi ( India)
  48. 48. Subtribe Pyrgotina <ul><li>Pyrgotina Malloch 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>= Platynostira Enderlein 1942 syn. n. </li></ul><ul><li>12.1. Pyrgotina muiri (Hendel 1914) RSA </li></ul><ul><li>12.2. Pyrgotina tephritoides (Hendel 1914) RSA </li></ul><ul><li>12.3. Pyrgotina tipuloides (Hendel 1914) RSA </li></ul><ul><li>12.4. Pyrgotina turbata (Enderlein 1942) comb. n. RSA </li></ul><ul><li>12.5. Pyrgotina antidorcas Bruggen 1961 RSA </li></ul><ul><li>12.6. Pyrgotina sp. n. 1 Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>12.7. Pyrgotina sp. n. 2 Kenia </li></ul><ul><li>12.8. Pyrgotina sp. n. 3 Namibia </li></ul>Tylotrypes immsi ( India) Pyrgotina tephritoides ( South Africa) Pyrgotina tephritoides ( South Africa) Pyrgotina turbata ( South Africa) Pyrgotina tipuloides ( South Africa)
  49. 49. Subfamily Toxopyrgotinae subfam. n. <ul><li>Toxopyrgota Hendel 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Toxopyrgota inclinata Hendel 1914 Tropical Africa </li></ul>
  50. 50. Aknowledgements Photo by Mike Boone, with permission To all the curators of museums who kindly borrowed almost all the known types and material: A.L.Norrbom, A.Kirk-Spriggs, D. Grimaldi, D. Notton, E. Marais, J.Cummings, N. Evenhuis, M. von Tschirnhaus, P.Limbourg, B. Merz, M.De Meyer, M. Mostovsky, K. van Achterberg, B.Brugge, J.Ziegler, L.Papp, R.Urban, H.-Y.Han, H.-P.Tschorsnig, P.Sehnal, M.Kotrba, W. Schacht, C.Daugerone, J.Stevington
  51. 51. Aknowledgements Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Work was supported by the Belgian Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs stipend in 2005-2006 and Short-Term Visitor Grant (Smithsonian Institution) in 2008 and by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Program on Biodiversity in 2006-2010 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Aknowledgements Photo by Mike Boone, with permission <ul><li>Special thanks : Alan Norrbom, Lucrecia Rodriguez and Gary Steck for organization of the meeting </li></ul>
  53. 53. Thank you for attention!

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