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Els clústers industrials italià:
reptes i perspectives de futur
valentina.demarchi@unipd.it
I Workshop d’Economia Valencia...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Agenda
•  The (persistent) relevance of IDs for the Italian e...
I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Italian anomaly of
the ‘70s and ‘80s
•  Traditional s...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
(Marshallian) industrial districts:
backbone of the Italian e...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
(Marshallian) industrial districts:
firms and employment growt...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
(Marshallian) industrial districts:
innovation (3)
I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
1970 (Tecnica) 1974 (SIDI) ‘70 (Alpinestar)
1982 (Roces) ...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
A persistent relevance for the
Italian economy…
Source:  Inte...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
…But under different premises
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000...
Local clusters in global chains:
understanding the key
transformations at stake
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
IDs at the globalization challenge: why
the Marshallian config...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
1. Global competition of intermediate and final
goods & riorga...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
2. Rising importance of global lead firms and
concentration of...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Prato	
Textile	
Bassano	
Furniture	
Belluno	
Eyewear	
Montebe...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The fading out of the Marshallian model: an
increasing hetero...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Is there still a ‘ID effect’ or which IDs
are still characteri...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
2.ReductionintheID
population
High Decline Hierarchization
Lo...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
High
Low/null
Low/null High
Is it possible to identify trajec...
Investigating the determinants of
the trajectories: lessons from
selected Veneto IDs
I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Footwear
(Riviera del
Brenta)
Eyewear
(Belluno)
Sport Sys...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Belluno eyewear: few home-grown global
lead firms driving ...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Montebelluna sportsystem: evolution via
diversification, i...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Montebelluna sportsystem:
diversification (2)
0.0
10.0
20....
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Montebelluna sportsystem:
key actors of the change (3)
A ...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Riviera del Brenta footwear: evolving
by manufacturing fo...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
The Riviera del Brenta footwear: manufactu-
ring capabilities...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
What the key determinants of the different
ability to find a su...
Trajectories of evolution in Italian IDs:
what lessons for local development?
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
ID reproducing (on different premises) in
global markets: gett...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Local clusters in global chains:
still a role for (manufactur...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Evolving evolutionary trajectories:
what roles for policy mak...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
Veneto region and Comunitat
Valenciana: space for comparison?...
I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi
References
•  De Marchi, V., Grandinetti R. (2012). "Dove sta...
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The evolution of Italian industrial districts: challenges and perspectives

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Keynote lecture at the I Workshop d’Economia Valenciana (http://www.econval.org), 4th November 2016, University of Valencia,
- reporting hard facts on the key transformations affecting Italian clusters in the last decade;
- describing three evolutionary trajectories out of the traditional industrial district model, based on fresh evidence on the experience of the Belluno eyewear, Riviera del Brenta footwear and Montebelluna Sportsystem districs (ID);
- suggest the determinants of the most resilient ID trajectories within Global Value Chains (GVC)

Published in: Economy & Finance
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The evolution of Italian industrial districts: challenges and perspectives

  1. 1. Els clústers industrials italià: reptes i perspectives de futur valentina.demarchi@unipd.it I Workshop d’Economia Valenciana Universitat Politècnica de València 4/11/16
  2. 2. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Agenda •  The (persistent) relevance of IDs for the Italian economy •  The key transformations that affected IDs in the last 15-20 years and how they affected the Marshallian configuration •  Interpreting the change: key trajectories of ID evolution in Global Value Chains •  The determinants of trajectories of ID resilience in the global economy
  3. 3. I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Italian anomaly of the ‘70s and ‘80s •  Traditional sectors •  Low technological content •  Small or micro enterprises BUT •  High growth rates •  Leadership in international markets •  Flexibility, innovation, customization
  4. 4. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi (Marshallian) industrial districts: backbone of the Italian economy (1) Industrial districts • A population of firms (mostly SMEs) • Specialization in a specific business field •  Limited territorial area • Division of labour and inter-organizational relationships (Marshallian) Industrial districts • Interpenetration between production and social structures
  5. 5. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi (Marshallian) industrial districts: firms and employment growth (2) Source: Elaboration on ISTAT CENSUS data 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Local firms (bars, left axis) and employees (lines, right axis) in the gold jewellery IDs AREZZO ALESSANDRIA VICENZA
  6. 6. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi (Marshallian) industrial districts: innovation (3)
  7. 7. I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi 1970 (Tecnica) 1974 (SIDI) ‘70 (Alpinestar) 1982 (Roces) 1982 (Lotto)
  8. 8. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi A persistent relevance for the Italian economy… Source:  Intesa  San  Paolo  (2015).  2014  data Source:  ISTAT  Census  2011.  2011  Data
  9. 9. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi …But under different premises 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Local firms (bars, left axis) and employees (lines, right axis) in the gold jewellery IDs AREZZO ALESSANDRIA VICENZA Source: Elaboration on ISTAT CENSUS data See also: De Marchi, Gereffi, Lee (2014), European Planning Studies
  10. 10. Local clusters in global chains: understanding the key transformations at stake
  11. 11. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi IDs at the globalization challenge: why the Marshallian configuration is fading out MARSHALLIAN IDs Interpenetration between PRODUCTION and SOCIAL structures a) LARGER FIRMS EMERGING (higher concentration) b) DECREASING NUMBER OF FIRMS AND EMPLOYEES (reduction in the ID population) ExternalInternal 1.  Global competition of intermediate and final goods & international organization of productive activities 2. Rising importance of global lead firms and concentration of distribution activities 3. Increasing presence of immigrant entrepreneurs and workers 4. Local entrepreneurship shortage
  12. 12. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi 1. Global competition of intermediate and final goods & riorganization of productive activities at the global level (1) Source: OSEM (2008). Survey data Share of firms of the Montebelluna ID that have delocalized production activities, by size class
  13. 13. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi 2. Rising importance of global lead firms and concentration of distribution activities •  Global lead firms focusing on higher value-added activities (mostly retailing) orchestrating production across global chains: !  IKEA – With 31.9 billion sales in 2015 (+114.1% as of 2005) is by far the largest furniture retailer worldwide. Its home-furnishing articles are realized mostly by 978 suppliers (subcontractors) based in 50 countries (just 13% of employees working in production units). !  Wal-mart, Nike, Apple, LVMH,…. •  Estimates suggest that now 80% of world trade depend on such global chains (UNCTAD, WIR 2013) •  Increasing relevance of groups and medium/large sized companies within the IDs
  14. 14. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Prato Textile Bassano Furniture Belluno Eyewear Montebelluna Sportsystem The fading out of the Marshallian model: an increasing heterogeneity across and within IDs Source: Intesa San Paolo (2015) “Economia e Finanza dei distretti industriali”. Note: size of the circles indicate firms’ turnover in 2014
  15. 15. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The fading out of the Marshallian model: an increasing heterogeneity across and within IDs (2) Bassano Furniture Livenza Furniture Source: Intesa San Paolo (2015) “Economia e Finanza dei distretti industriali”. Note: size of the circles indicate firms’ turnover in 2014
  16. 16. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Is there still a ‘ID effect’ or which IDs are still characterized by a ID effect? Turnover variation (median values) International competitiveness and innovation (2014) Share of Exporters Patents every 100 firms Source: Intesa San Paolo (2015) “Economia e Finanza dei distretti industriali”. Note: median values reported
  17. 17. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi 2.ReductionintheID population High Decline Hierarchization Low Reproducing ID 1. Concentration at firm level Low Med/High MARSHALLIAN Out of the Marshallian configuration: is it possible to identify trajectories? See also: De Marchi and Grandinetti (2012), Studi Organizzativi; De Marchi and Grandinetti (2014), Competition & Change
  18. 18. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi High Low/null Low/null High Is it possible to identify trajectories? An application to the Veneto region Decline Source: Our elaboration based on Movimprese and AIDA data FOOTWEAR MARBLE SPORTSYSTEMLEATHER GLASS FURNITURE (TV) CERAMICSFURNITURE (VR) JEWELLERY EYEWEAR 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Hierarchization Reproducing ID 2.ReductionintheIDpopulation (numberoffirms,2004-2014) 1. Concentration (turnover, HH index on 2014 data) - - - - - -
  19. 19. Investigating the determinants of the trajectories: lessons from selected Veneto IDs
  20. 20. I Workshop de la Economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Footwear (Riviera del Brenta) Eyewear (Belluno) Sport System (Montebelluna)
  21. 21. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Belluno eyewear: few home-grown global lead firms driving to hierarchization   Belluno eyewear Var firms 04-14 -49.8% Var. employment 04-14 28.0% Turnover by top firm 46.9% Activities mostly performed locally Pre-production, production & post production activities Upgrading trajectories Vertical Integration, control of retailing activities Key local companies Global leaders (Luxottica, Safilo) Global lead firms Homegrown   Firms Incidence on ID turnover Large (turnover >50mil) 7 97.5% Medium (10-50mil) 6 0.7% Small (<10 mil.) 81 1.8% Source: Own elaboration on AIDA data. Note: data refer to 2012 and to limited liability companies only. ID composition, by size
  22. 22. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Montebelluna sportsystem: evolution via diversification, innovation, branding (1)   Belluno eyewear Montebelluna Sportsystem Var firms 04-14 -49.8% -12.6% Turnover by top firm 46.9% 27.9% Activities mostly performed locally Pre-production, production & post production activities Pre-production (some post-production) Upgrading trajectories Vertical Integration, control of retailing activities Product diversification, internationalization of sourcing, branding (OBM) Key local companies Global leaders (Luxottica, Safilo) Internationally recognized OBMs; global leaders (Geox); suppliers of services, machineries Global lead firms Homegrown Homegrown and foreign
  23. 23. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Montebelluna sportsystem: diversification (2) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2008 Winter shoes Technical shoes Other (shoes+clothing) Source: Own elaboration on OSEM data Apre-ski boots, trekking shoes, ski boots,… Football, tennis, moto shoes, rollerblades,… ID turnover by market segment, ‘85-’08 City shoes, clothing
  24. 24. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Montebelluna sportsystem: key actors of the change (3) A number of capable OBM renowned on global markets (niche), developing global supply chains and retaining selective relationship with other ID firms KIBS or other specialized suppliers, relying on the ID as context for sperimentation but working mostly for global firms
  25. 25. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Riviera del Brenta footwear: evolving by manufacturing for global brands (1)   Belluno eyewear Montebelluna Sportsystem Riviera del Brenta footwear Var. firms 04-14 -49.8% -12.6% -2.4% Turnover by top firm 46.9% 27.9% 21.2% Activities mostly performed locally Pre-production, production & post production activities Pre-production (some post-production) Production Upgrading trajectories Vertical Integration, control of retailing activities Product diversification, internationalization of sourcing, branding (OBM) From OBM to OEM (producing for global brands) Key local companies Global leaders (Luxottica, Safilo Internationally recognized OBMs; global leaders (Geox); suppliers of services, machineries Capable OEMs Global lead firms Homegrown Homegrown and foreign Foreign Source: De Marchi, Gereffi, Grandinetti (2017) Routledge
  26. 26. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi The Riviera del Brenta footwear: manufactu- ring capabilities attracting global brands (2)
  27. 27. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi What the key determinants of the different ability to find a suitable position in the new global context?     Decline Hierarchization Reproducing Global leadfirms Homegrown (inside-out)   Present Present Foreign (outside-in) Local dynamicactors Capable OEMs (manufacturing cap.) Present (variety) Highly-specialized suppliers (specialized manuf. cap.) Capable OBM (post- production capab.) Capable local institutions    
  28. 28. Trajectories of evolution in Italian IDs: what lessons for local development?
  29. 29. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi ID reproducing (on different premises) in global markets: getting back to the firm •  Italian ID transforming out of the Marshallian model: !  Shrinking population & local relational fabric !  Increasing importance of larger firms •  Globalization spurring increasing heterogeneity across (and within) IDs: !  Decline, hierarchization, reproducing trajectories •  Moving the focus from the system to (key) firms: !  Global lead firms !  (Variety of) local dynamic actors
  30. 30. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Local clusters in global chains: still a role for (manufacturing) SMEs? •  Variety of (dynamic) SMEs necessary for ID resilience !  Integrating local and global knowledge & supporting (selective) local relationships !  Beyond the (solo) ‘local lead firm’ •  Finding a suitable position in GVC via different roles, depending on key assets (manufacturing – OEM; branding & retailing – OBM; innovation - specialized suppliers) •  Back to manufacturing (again)? !  Innovation-production nexus !  Anchor for global lead firm presence !  Diversification and new markets development
  31. 31. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Evolving evolutionary trajectories: what roles for policy making? •  Different trajectories, which may evolve over time !  tailored policies supporting the achievement of thriving trajectories !  Role of (entrepreneurial) district institutions •  Vulnerable actors !  enabling consolidation (e.g., via network contracts) •  Global knowledge integration (vs. over-embeddedness) !  supporting integration with ‘beneficial’ global actors •  Supporting reproducibility of key assets attracting (local and foreign) companies !  Maintaining (e.g., ‘make’ skills training) !  Communicating & nurturing (e.g., context for global awareness & trust recreation
  32. 32. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi Veneto region and Comunitat Valenciana: space for comparison? •  Several commonalities opening up space for experiences exchange: !  Manufacturing and ID relevance !  Embedding in Global Value Chains !  Entrepreneurship (in diversified sectors) !  Innovation capabilities !  Reproducing IDs and local dynamic actors
  33. 33. I Workshop d’economia Valenciana 4/11/16 Valentina De Marchi References •  De Marchi, V., Grandinetti R. (2012). "Dove stanno andando i distretti industriali? Un tentativo di risposta a partire da un'indagine in Veneto", Studi Organizzativi, 2, 142-175 •  De Marchi V., Lee J., Gereffi G. (2014), "Globalization, Recession and the internationalization of industrial districts: evidence from the Italian gold jewellery industry", European Planning Studies, 22(4): 866-884. •  De Marchi, V., & Grandinetti, R. (2014). “Industrial Districts and the Collapse of the Marshallian Model: Looking at the Italian Experience”. Competition & Change, 18(1): 70-87. •  De Marchi V., Grandinetti R. (2016) “Lo Sportsystem di Montebelluna: il distretto dalle sette vite”, Economia e Società Regionale, 34(1) •  De Marchi V., Gereffi G., Grandinetti R (2017) “Describing the change: evolutionary trajectories of industrial districts in global value chains”, in De Marchi V., Di Maria E., Gereffi G. (eds) “Local clusters in Global Value Chains: linking actors and territories through manufacturing and innovation”, Routledge •  Intesa San Paolo (2015) “Economia e Finanza dei distretti industriali” •  OSEM (2008) “Rapporto OSEM 2008 e previsioni 2009” •  UNCTAD (2013) “World Investment Report 2013. Global value chains: investment and trade for development”

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