Stress management Among Teenagers


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Stress Management on Teenager...
The Project covers a research which concludes the stress level among teenagers...
It also includes other important topics related to Stress

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Stress management Among Teenagers

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  3. 3. DECLARATION I Miss. VAISHNAVI S. S. SIKARWAR of T.Y.BMS. (Bachelor Degree of Management Studies Semester – V) hereby declare that I have completed the project on “A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT AMONG TEENAGERS.” In the academic year 2013-2014. The information submitted is true and original to best of my knowledge. ________________ ________________ Date of Submission. Signature of Student (VAISHNAVI S. S. SIKARWAR) 3
  4. 4. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project titled as ―A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT AMONG TEENAGERS‖ has been completed by Miss. VAISHNAVI S. S.SIKARWAR of T.Y.BMS. (Semester-V) examination in academic year 2013-2014. The information submitted is true and original to the best of knowledge. __________________ ______________________ (Dr. T. P. Madhu Nair) (Prof. Poonam Kakkad) Principal ____________________ (Prof.Neelam Pareek) Program Coordinator _____________________ External Examiner Project Guide 4
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to extend my gratitude to Prof. Neelam Pareek for providing guidance and support during the course of project. She has been a great help through the making of the project. I would like to thank the University Of Mumbai for giving me the opportunity to work on such a relevant topic. I would also like to thank the college faculty and the librarian and the Principal Dr. T.P.Madhu Nair for their help and other who are indirectly responsible for the completion of this project. In addition I would like to take this opportunity to thank our BMS Coordinator Prof. Poonam Kakkad for being there always to guide me and for extending her full support. DATE: PLACE: MUMBAI ____________________________ Signature of Student (VAISHNAVI S. S. SIKARWAR) 5
  6. 6. PREFACE It is universally accepted that optimum levels of stress can act as a creative, motivational force that can drive people to achieve incredible feats (Eustress). Chronic or traumatic stress (distress) on the other hand, is potentially very destructive and can deprive people of physical and mental health, and at times even of life itself. Despite all of this having been well documented and the repeated exposure about stress management by many experts, teenagers today, still are suffering high level of stress life. My research is just a small initiative towards teenagers to make them aware about stress and its management. This project is based on the principles of crisis intervention and critical incident stress management for teenagers. This data is not to be studied for professional level. Instead, it seeks to provide teenagers with the knowledge and skills to better understand, recognize and manage their stress. Learn to think of challenges as opportunities and stressors as temporary problems, not disasters. Practice solving problems and asking others for help and guidance rather than complaining and letting stress build. Make goals and keep track of your progress. Make time for relaxation. Be optimistic. Believe in yourself. Be sure to breathe. And let a little stress motivate you into positive action to reach your goals. 6
  7. 7. CONTENTS Sr. No. TOPICS Page No. 1. 9-19 CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION TO STRESS 1.1 Sample Size 1.2 Sample Unit 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Hypothesis 1.5 Stress in biological terms 1.6 Good-stress V/S Bad-stress 2. CHAPTER 2 - TYPES OF STRESS 20-26 2.1 Chronic stress 2.2 Compressive stress 2.3Time stress 2.4 Anticipatory stress 2.5 Situational stress 2.6 Encounter stress 2.7 Acute stress 2.8 Emotional stress 2.9 Physical stress 2.10 Social stress 3. CHAPTER 3 – STRESS MANAGEMENT 27-38 3.1 Why stress management? 3.2 How to keep stress under control. 3.3 Stress testing 7
  8. 8. 4. CHAPTER 4 - TEENAGERS AND STRESS 39-62 4.1 Causes for stress among teenagers. 4.2 Result of stress among teenagers 4.3 Stress management for teenager 4.4 Importance of Stress Management 4.5 Famous stress testing method for teenager 5. CHAPTER 5 – DATA INTERPRETATION AND 63-76 ANALYSIS 5.1 Pie-Chart Interpretation 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Recommendation 6. CHAPTER 6- APPENDIX(Questionnaire) 77-79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 8
  10. 10. Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular events. It's the body's way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness. The events that provoke stress are called stressors, and they cover a whole range of situations — everything from outright physical danger to making a class presentation or taking a semester's worth of your toughest subject. A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted; others are still being researched and debated. During this time, there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is, as it is something we have all experienced. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not. Definition: Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that ―stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.‖ Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that ―demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.‖ 10
  11. 11. In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and negative stress, depending on each individual‘s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as Eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and an increased 11
  12. 12. workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, and bereavement stressors, to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from an accident. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one, or a prized possession. Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress. 12
  13. 13. 1.1 SAMPLE SIZE I have taken 100 teenagers. As I wanted to cover all teenage groups I distributed my questionnaire among different age groups of teenage that is from 14years19years and got to know about their general point of view towards stress and stress management. 1.2 SAMPLE UNIT My sample unit is Teenagers as my research is to study stress among them. Teenagers face stress because of many problems thus I tried covering all kinds of them considering their age, financial status and studies. 13
  14. 14. 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the level of stress among the teenagers. 2. The study aims to help teenagers get rid of stress. 3. To examine whether stress and stress management is important. 4. To study the opinion of teenagers towards stress. 5. To study the status of stress in a teenager‘s life. 14
  15. 15. 1.4 HYPOTHESIS 1. ―Teenagers are stressed without any doubt‖ 2. ―Teenagers feel stressed mostly because of academic reasons‖. 3. ―If ask teenagers they would never want stress‖. 4. ―Stress management is important‖. 5. ―Teenagers feel physically and mentally unhealthy because of stress‖. 15
  16. 16. 1.5 STRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TERM Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, and inability to Concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. The human body responds to stressors by activating the nervous system and specific hormones. The hypothalamus signals theadrenal glands to produce more of the hormones adrenaline and cortisol and release them into the bloodstream. These hormones speed up heart rate, breathing rate, blood 16
  17. 17. pressure, and metabolism. Blood vessels open wider to let more blood flow to large muscle groups, putting our muscles on alert. Pupils dilate to improve vision. The liver releases some of its stored glucose to increase the body's energy. And sweat is produced to cool the body. All of these physical changes prepare a person to react quickly and effectively to handle the pressure of the moment. This natural reaction is known as the stress response. Working properly, the body's stress response enhances a person's ability to perform well under pressure. But the stress response can also cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. 17
  18. 18. 1.6 GOOD STRESS V/S BAD STRESS The stress response (also called the fight or flight response) is critical during emergency situations, such as when a driver has to slam on the brakes to avoid an accident. It can also be activated in a milder form at a time when the pressure's on but there's no actual danger — like stepping up to take the foul shot that could win the game, getting ready to go to a big dance, or sitting down for a final exam. A little of this stress can help keep you on your toes, ready to rise to a challenge. And the nervous system quickly returns to its normal state, standing by to respond again when needed. But stress doesn't always happen in response to things that are immediate or that are over quickly. Ongoing or long-term events, like coping with a divorce or moving to a new neighborhood or school, can cause stress, too. Long-term stressful situations can produce a lasting, low-level stress that's hard on people. The nervous system senses continued pressure and may remain slightly activated and continue to pump out extra stress hormones over an extended period. This can wear out the body's reserves, leave a person feeling depleted or overwhelmed, weaken the body's immune system, and cause other problem Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative, with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. In our everyday lives, stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable; hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress, and what is bad. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress, and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. There are 4 main categories of stress, namely Eustress, Distress, Hyper stress and Hypo stress. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. Here‘s how we differentiate between them. 18
  19. 19. Eustress: This is a positive form of stress, which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles, resulting in a higher heart rate. TEENAGERS before a examination would do well with Eustress, allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. Distress: We are familiar with this word, and know that it is a negative form of stress. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes, and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is intense, but does not last for long. On the other hand, chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Hyper stress: This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. Examples include highly stressful studies, assignments and coaching which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress, you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues, the proverbial straws that broke the camel‘s back. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break, or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. Hypo stress: Lastly, hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress; hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. 19
  21. 21. 2.1 CHRONIC STRESS Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period over which an individual perceives he or she has no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which occurs a release of corticosteroids. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones that remains constant. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system, and damage to mental health. 2.2 COMPRESSIVE STRESS Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). When a material is subjected to compressive stress, then this material is under compression. Usually, compressive stress applied to bars, columns, etc. leads to shortening. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. According to the properties of the material, failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals, some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries, cast iron, glass, etc).In long, slender structural elements -such as columns or truss bars -- an increase of compressive force leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering, compressive stress is represented with positive values. 21
  22. 22. 2.3 TIME STRESS You experience time stress when you worry about time, or the lack thereof. You worry about the number of things that you have to do, and you fear that you'll fail to achieve something important. You might feel trapped, unhappy, or even hopeless. Common examples of time stress include worrying about deadlines or rushing to avoid being late for a lecture. 2.4 ANTICIPATORY STRESS Anticipatory stress describes stress that you experience concerning the future. Sometimes this stress can be focused on a specific event, such as an upcoming presentation that you're going to give. However, anticipatory stress can also be vague and undefined, such as an overall sense of dread about the future, or a worry that "something will go wrong." 2.5 SITUATIONAL STRESS You experience situational stress when you're in a scary situation that you have no control over. This could be an emergency. More commonly, however, it's a situation that involves conflict, or a loss of status or acceptance in the eyes of your group. For instance, getting laid off or making a major mistake in front of your Teachers or relatives or friends are examples of events that can cause situational stress. Situational stress often appears suddenly, For example, you might get caught in a situation that you completely failed to anticipate. To manage situational stress better, learn to be more self-aware. This means recognizing the "automatic" physical and emotional signals that your body sends out when you're under pressure. Conflict is a major source of situational stress. Learn effective conflict resolution skills, so that you're well-prepared to handle the stress of conflict when 22
  23. 23. it arises. It's also important to learn how to manage conflict in meetings, since resolving group conflict can be different from resolving individual issues. Everyone reacts to situational stress differently, and it's essential that you understand both the physical and emotional symptoms of this stress, so that you can manage them appropriately. For instance, if your natural tendency is to withdraw emotionally, then learn how to think on your feet and communicate better during these situations. If your natural response is to get angry and shout, then learn how to manage your emotions. 2.6 ENCOUNTER STRESS Encounter stress revolves around people. You experience encounter stress when you worry about interacting with a certain person or group of people – you may not like them, or you might think that they're unpredictable. Encounter stress can also occur if your role involves a lot of personal interactions with customers or clients, especially if those groups are in distress. For instance, physicians and social workers have high rates of encounter stress, because the people they work with routinely don't feel well, or are deeply upset. This type of stress also occurs from "contact overload": when you feel overwhelmed or drained from interacting with too many people. 2.7 ACUTE STRESS Acute stress is your body's immediate reaction to a new challenge, event, or demand -- the fight or flight response. As the pressures of a near-miss automobile accident, an argument with a family member or a costly mistake at work sink in, your body turns on this biological response. Acute stress isn't always caused by negative stress; it's also the experience you have when riding a roller coaster or having a person jump out at you in a haunted house. Isolated episodes of acute 23
  24. 24. stress should not have any lingering health effects. In fact, they might actually be healthy for you -- as these stressful situations give your body and brain practice in developing the best response to future stressful situations. Acute stress is the most common form of stress among humans worldwide. Acute stress deals with the pressures of the near future or dealing with the very recent past. This type of stress is often misinterpreted for being a negative connotation. While this is the case in some circumstances, it is also a good thing to have some acute stress in life. Running or any other form of exercise is considered an acute stressor. Some exciting or exhilarating experiences such as riding a roller coaster is an acute stress but is usually very fun. Acute stress is a short term stress and in result, does not have enough time to do the damage that long term stress causes. 2.8 EMOTIONAL STRESS A condition which occurs when a person is under stress affecting their emotions. The presence of anxiety, of a depressive mood or of a conflict within the mind because of any kind of emotional situation or problem maybe cause by a loved one, death, relations issues friends, parents etc. Some of the symptoms of behavior during emotional stress are: Mood swings Trouble concentrating Feeling tense and jumpy Crying spells Loss of energy or enthusiasm 24
  25. 25. 2.9 PHYSICAL STRESS Physical Stress has a role in humans as a method of reacting to difficult and possibly dangerous situations. The "fight or flight" response when one perceives a threat helps the body exert energy to fight or run away to live another day. This response is noticeable when the adrenal glands release epinephrine, causing the blood vessels to constrict and heart rate to increase. In addition, cortical is another hormone that is released under stress and its purpose is to raise the glucose level in the blood. Glucose is the main energy source for human cells and its increase during time of stress is for the purpose of having energy readily available for over active cells. Some symptoms of physical stress are: Back pain, stiff neck, headaches Gastrointestinal disturbances - constipation or diarrhea Fatigue Increased blood pressure Heart palpitations Sleeping problem - Insomnia Problems with relationships Shortness of breath Weight gain or loss Teeth grinding 2.10 SOCIAL STRESS Social stress is stress that stems from one‘s relationships with others and from the social environment in general. A person experiences stress when he or she does not have the ability or resources to cope when confronted with an external stimulus (stressor), or when they fear they do not have the ability or resources. An event 25
  26. 26. which exceeds the ability to cope does not necessarily have to occur in order for one to experience stress, as the threat of such an event occurring can be sufficient. This can lead to emotional, behavioral and physiological changes that can put one under greater risk for developing mental disorder and physical illness. Humans are social beings by nature, as they typically have a fundamental need and desire to maintain positive social relationships. Thus, they usually find maintaining positive social ties to be beneficial. In particular, social relationships can offer nurturance, foster feelings of social inclusion, and even lead to reproductive success .As a result, anything that disrupts or threatens to disrupt their relationships with others can result in social stress. This can include low social status in society or in particular groups, giving a speech, interviewing with potential employers, caring for a parents with a chronic illness, meeting new people at a party, the threat of or actual death of a loved one and discrimination. 26
  28. 28. Stress management refers and psychotherapies aimed to at the wide controlling a spectrum of person's levels techniques of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls Eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise positive. Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-being. Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily measureable using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs. Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health practitioners and others for self-help, which may help an individual to reduce stress, provide positive feelings of being in control of one's life and promote general well-being. 28
  29. 29. The effectiveness of the different stress management techniques can be difficult to assess, as few of them have received significant attention from researchers. Consequently, the amount and quality of evidence for the various techniques varies widely. Some are accepted as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy, whilst others with less evidence favoring them are considered alternative. Many professional organizations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or alternative therapies. There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive explanations of mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is necessary to provide a better understanding of which mechanisms actually operate and are effective in practice.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for the study of stress. They measured the physiological responses of animals to external pressures, such as heat and cold, prolonged restraint, and surgical procedures, and then extrapolated from these studies to human beings. Subsequent studies of stress in humans by Richard Rahe and others established the view that stress is caused by distinct, measureable life stressors, and further, that these life stressors can be ranked by the median degree of stress they produce (leading to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale). Thus, stress was traditionally conceptualized to be a result of external insults beyond the control of those experiencing the stress. More recently, however, it has been argued that external circumstances do not have any intrinsic capacity to produce stress, but instead their effect is mediated by the individual's perceptions, capacities, and understanding. 29
  30. 30. It may seem that there‘s nothing you can do about stress. The bills won‘t stop coming, there will never be more hours in the day, and your career and family responsibilities will always be demanding. But you have more control than you might think. In fact, the simple realization that you‘re in control of your life is the foundation of stress management. Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts, emotions, schedule, and the way you deal with problems. 30
  31. 31. 3.1 IMPORTANCE OF STRESS MANAGEMENT? Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the ever increasing demands of life. Surveys show that most Indians experience challenges with stress at some point during the year. In looking at the causes of stress, remember that your brain comes hard-wired with an alarm system for your protection. When your brain perceives a threat, it signals your body to release a burst of hormones to fuel your capacity for a response. This has been labeled the "fight-or-flight" response. Once the threat is gone, your body is meant to return to a normal relaxed state. Unfortunately, the nonstop stress of modern life means that your alarm system rarely shuts off. That's why stress management is so important. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset your alarm system. Without stress management, all too often your body is always on high alert. Over time, high levels of stress lead to serious health problems. Don't wait until stress has a negative impact on your health, relationships or quality of life. Start practicing a range of stress management techniques today. Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demands made upon it. It is the result of our reaction to outside events, not necessarily the events themselves. Not all stress is bad. We each function best and feel best at our own optimal level of physiological arousal. We need some stress to get everyday things done. Too little can lead to boredom and "rust out" - but too much can produce "burn out". Adaptive stress helps us rise to life's challenges. Adrenaline, noradrenaline and glucose flow into our blood: we get a buzz of energy and feel alert, focused, and creative. Negative stress occurs when our ability to cope with life's demands crumbles. If we don't break down the stress chemicals (e.g. through physical activity) they stay in the blood, preventing us from relaxing. Eventually 31
  32. 32. this results in a permanent state of stress. That initial buzz turns to worry, irritability or panic. Challenges become threats; we doubt our ability to do even simple things and problems appear insurmountable. Ever notice that a good laugh has a way of lightening your burdens? Or maybe you‘ve experienced a scenario like one of these. Your day feels completely stressful and overwhelming, but then you coach yourself to step away from the frenzy, collect your thoughts, make a list of what‘s going on– prioritizing what‘s important. Has your list ever helped you discover that perhaps your day is more manageable than it seemed? 32
  33. 33. 3.2 HOW TO KEEP STRESS UNDER CONTROL What can you do to deal with stress overload or, better yet, to avoid it in the first place? The most helpful method of dealing with stress is learning how to manage the stress that comes along with any new challenge, good or bad. Stressmanagement skills work best when they're used regularly, not just when the pressure's on. Knowing how to "de-stress" and doing it when things are relatively calm can help you get through challenging circumstances that may arise. Here are some things that can help keep stress under control: Take a stand against over scheduling: If you're feeling stretched, consider cutting out an activity or two, opting for just the ones that are most important to you. Be realistic: Don't try to be perfect — no one is. And expecting others to be perfect can add to your stress level, too (not to mention put a lot of pressure on them!). If you need help on something, like schoolwork, ask for it. Get a good night's sleep: Getting enough sleep helps keep your body and mind in top shape, making you better equipped to deal with any negative stressors. Because the biological "sleep clock" shifts during adolescence, many teens prefer staying up a little later at night and sleeping a little later in the morning. But if you stay up late and still need to get up early for school, you may not get all the hours of sleep you need. Learn to relax: The body's natural antidote to stress is called the relaxation response. It's your body's opposite of stress, and it creates a sense of well-being and calm. The chemical benefits of the relaxation response can be activated simply by relaxing. You can help trigger the relaxation response by learning simple breathing exercises and then using them when you're caught up in stressful situations. (Click on the button to try one.) And ensure you stay 33
  34. 34. relaxed by building time into your schedule for activities that are calming and pleasurable: reading a good book or making time for a hobby, spending time with your pet, or just taking a relaxing bath. Treat your body well: Experts agree that getting regular exercise helps people manage stress. (Excessive or compulsive exercise can contribute to stress, though, so as in all things, use moderation.) And eat well to help your body get the right fuel to function at its best. It's easy when you're stressed out to eat on the run or eat junk food or fast food. But under stressful conditions, the body needs its vitamins and minerals more than ever. Some people may turn to substance abuse as a way to ease tension. Although alcohol or drugs may seem to lift the stress temporarily, relying on them to cope with stress actually promotes more stress because it wears down the body's ability to bounce back. Watch what you're thinking: Your outlook, attitude, and thoughts influence the way you see things. Is your cup half full or half empty? A healthy dose of optimism can help you make the best of stressful circumstances. Even if you're out of practice, or tend to be a bit of a pessimist, everyone can learn to think more optimistically and reap the benefits. Solve the little problems: Learning to solve everyday problems can give you a sense of control. But avoiding them can leave you feeling like you have little control and that just adds to stress. Develop skills to calmly look at a problem, figure out options, and take some action toward a solution. Feeling capable of solving little problems builds the inner confidence to move on to life's bigger ones — and it and can serve you well in times of stress. 34
  35. 35. Build Your Resilience: Ever notice that certain people seem to adapt quickly to stressful circumstances and take things in stride? They're cool under pressure and able to handle problems as they come up. Researchers have identified the qualities that make some people seem naturally resilient even when faced with high levels of stress. If you want to build your resilience, work on developing these attitudes and behaviors: Think of change as a challenging and normal part of life. See setbacks and problems as temporary and solvable. Believe that you will succeed if you keep working toward your goals. Take action to solve problems that crop up. Build strong relationships and keep commitments to family and friends. Have a support system and ask for help. Participate regularly in activities for relaxation and fun.  Common Stress Busters 1. Take deep breaths/practice deep breathing Watch your thoughts (make them positive) 2. Visualize what you want to happen Feel proud of your accomplishments 3. Don‘t dwell on mistakes or weaknesses Do some muscle relaxation exercises 4. Exercise daily Prepare for tests early 5. Punch a pillow, scream, or kick a can Take one thing at a time 6. Eat a nutritious meal or snack Forgive yourself and others 7. Set realistic goals Do something fun every day 8. Do something nice for someone else Read or watch something inspirational 9. Talk to a parent, friend, minister, teacher, or counselor 10.Eliminate all thoughts or sentences that start with ―What if…‖ 35
  36. 36. 11.Four Steps to Problem Solving: Brainstorm several solutions. Think of the consequences of each solution (both good and bad). Choose a solution. Evaluate your choice with an adult. 36
  37. 37. 3.3 STRESS TESTING Stress testing (sometimes called torture testing) is a form of deliberately intense or thorough testing used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity, often to a breaking point, in order to observe the results. Reasons can include: to determine breaking points or safe usage limits to confirm intended specifications are being met to determine modes of failure (how exactly a system fails) to test stable operation of a part or system outside standard usage Reliability engineers often test items under expected stress or even under accelerated stress in order to determine the operating life of the item or to determine modes of failure. Speaking in scientific terms Stress testing provides information about how your heart works during physical stress. Some heart problems are easier to diagnose when your heart is working hard and beating fast. During stress testing, you exercise (walk or run on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike) to make your heart work hard and beat fast. Tests are done on your heart while you exercise. A stress test can detect the following problems, which may suggest that your heart isn't getting enough blood during exercise: Abnormal changes in your heart rate or blood pressure Symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pain, especially if they occur at low levels of exercise Abnormal changes in your heart's rhythm or electrical activity 37
  38. 38. During a stress test, if you can't exercise for as long as what is considered normal for someone your age, it may be a sign that not enough blood is flowing to your heart. However, other factors besides CHD can prevent you from exercising long enough (for example, lung disease, anemia, or poor general fitness).Doctors also may use stress testing to assess other problems, such as heart valve disease or heart failure. 38
  40. 40. Teens don‘t have jobs or bills and aren‘t raising a family, so teenagers don‘t have as much stress as adults. Not true! Just as with adults, stress is an everyday part of life for teenagers and for children. Yes, they are young, energetic, and resilient, but their lives are also full of changes and challenges that you, an adult, no longer have. The signs and symptoms of stress are similar to those of an adult, but the causes are totally different and will require some differences in management. Also, stressors for adolescents will include issues or situations that seem unimportant to adults. Because adolescents are undergoing major physical and mental changes, their bodies and minds are even more susceptible to major stressors. In addition, adolescents are still acquiring coping skills through experience and role modeling. They are learning from everyone around them: parents, teachers, coaches, and peers. Although their behavior is still closely monitored at school with hall passes and tardy slips and closed campuses, they also spend more time on their own, often driving a car, working a part-time job, babysitting younger siblings, etc. They are beginning to assume adult responsibilities. For a teen, new and different situations can be perceived as more difficult or painful than for an adult who has dealt with similar situations several times. In such a situation, your teen may or may not call on you or another adult for advice. They may cope with the situation by modeling peer behaviors or something they‘ve learned in a movie or on television. The result may be even more stressful to your teen, you, and your entire family. Statistically, girls are more affected by stress than boys, but they will respond by seeking help from others or consciously trying to reduce their stress levels with displays of emotion. Boys tend to ignore stress or engage in riskier behaviors. Both use healthy or unhealthy methods for dealing with stress. You‘ve lived with your teen for years and suddenly he or she is a stranger. Under that adolescent persona is the child you raised, and what you‘ve taught your child 40
  41. 41. about dealing with problems is still there. However, because of radical biological, psychological, and social changes in their lives, teens truly are disoriented, so you will have to model adult coping skills. The process is ongoing. In addition to managing all your other responsibilities, you still have the responsibility of guiding your teen to adulthood. Being young does not prevent you from experiencing stress. You may feel anxious about your body changes, friendships, grades, tests, family issues, homework, and work, lack of sleep, health, extra-curricular activities, your future, or your love life. Stress is a normal part of life and we all can learn how to reduce our stress, or cope with it. 41
  42. 42. 4.1 CAUSES FOR STRESS AMONG TEENAGERS Teenagers, like adults, may experience stress everyday and can benefit from learning stress management skills. Most teens experience more stress when they perceive a situation as dangerous, difficult, or painful and they do not have the resources to cope. Teenagers face a specific kind of stress. It could be problems at home--with parents, with siblings, an alcoholic parent, divorce--or it could be problems at school--pressure from your teachers, pressure from your friends, or pressure from your parents to do well. The teen years are filled with inevitable ups and downs. Most teens are exposed to a variety of stressors that can result in disappointment and feelings of distress. Too much stress can lead to reduced motivation, anger, sadness and physical problems, says licensed counselor Raychelle Cassada Lohmann in arctic .Although just enough stress can be a good thing, stress overload is a different story — too much stress isn't good for anyone. For example, feeling a little stress about a test that's coming up can motivate you to study hard. But stressing out too much over the test can make it hard to concentrate on the material you need to learn. Pressures that are too intense or last too long, or troubles that are shouldered alone, can cause people to feel stress overloaded for Psychology Today.  MAJOR CAUSES OF STRESS AMONG TEENAGERS School Academic pressures are a major source of stress for teens. In addition to fulfilling her own academic dreams, meeting a parent‘s academic expectations can feel like a big weight to carry for a teen. This is particularly true for those who do poorly in school or try to balance school work with extracurricular activities, spending time with friends and chores with little downtime. 42
  43. 43. Family Life A teen is directly impacted by the issues that affect his family. The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry shares that arguments between parents, a strained relationship with parents or siblings, a sick or injured family member and a change in a family‘s financial status are common stressors in a teen‘s life. Even if a teen isn‘t the cause of a family‘s hardship, like financial difficulties or a divorce, the events still affect his life. Social Life During the teen years, young people begin to focus more on their friends and social connections because of the emotional, cognitive and social development that occurs. A young person gains an increased social awareness and starts to care more about how others feel and view her as she develops. In addition to a teen‘s romantic life or the desire for one, helping a friend with problems, bullying and peer pressure can add stress to a young person‘s life. Social Concerns A certain amount of disappointment and distress due to social concerns is inevitable during the teen years. Peer pressure, dating and friendships are some of the most common causes of distress in teens. Bullying and rejection by peer groups or romantic partners can cause extreme feelings of distress. When friendships go awry and romantic relationships break up, teens might feel a strong sense of disappointment but more often than not also experience accompanying feelings of grief, loss, frustration and even depression. 43
  44. 44. Hormones Puberty brings changes to the mind and body that can cause sadness in some teens. The teenage years are characterized by a significant increase in sex hormones. Girls are subjected to increases in estrogen and progesterone. Teenage boys see a typical testosterone increase of 10 times the levels present before puberty. These hormonal shifts can cause emotional changes and turmoil. Academic Issues Academic issues are a primary cause of distress and disappointment for many teens. Teens who don't achieve their full academic potential may become frustrated when they receive poor or failing grades. Similarly, teens who are used to excelling in their courses may feel disappointed and distressed due to the same issues. They may worry about the future and become overwhelmed when thinking about college and careers. Or they may feel distressed because they believe they've disappointed their parents' or their own expectations and teens with learning disabilities may face a number of additional social and emotional issues that can result in disappointment and distress. Family Relationships Family concerns, especially issues such as divorce, illness of a parent or family member, fighting with siblings or parents or any type of abuse, can be a significant cause of teen distress or disappointment. When parents decide to separate or remarry, teens might not only feel an intense sense of disappointment and loss but also experience accompanying feelings of distress or guilt, according to Kids health. 44
  45. 45. Busy Schedules Juggling academics, family obligations, extracurricular activities and relationships can feel like a full-time job to many teens. Packed schedules and not enough time to have fun and de-stress can feel disappointing and lead to distress, especially when teens need to make compromises between activities. A teen may need to choose between attending a family party and a date with a potential romantic partner, or decide whether to skip an athletic event in order to study. And many teens experience the health consequences of frenetic, jammed schedules, says Dr. Anisha Abraham, chief of adolescent medicine at Georgetown University Hospital in a 2008 interview with "The Washington Post. Stresses teens face may also include: High competition for jobs - the feeling that there are no jobs out there Education choices - after high school, paying for college Financial pressures - part time work is scarce and parents don't have as much money as they did 20 years ago Disfunctional families - teens from divorced families, alcoholic, or abusive families. Blended families - teens may feel out of place You're experiencing--or facing--a change in schools. Your physical development is behind or ahead that of most of your classmates. There are problems at home: parents fighting, an alcoholic parent, a serious illness in the family, money worries, a parental separation or divorce, psychological or physical abuse from a parent or sibling. Someone close to you died in the past year--a grandparent, parent or other close relative, a special friend, or a pet. 45
  46. 46. Everyone in your life seems to expect a lot of you now--from the coach at P.E. to all your teachers and your parents. You're feeling a lot of conflicting things: sometimes loving and sometimes feeling close to hating your parents; wanting to be on your own, but sometimes secretly wishing you could be a little kid and totally taken care of again; feeling close to, yet competitive with, a good friend; wanting to be a good person, but feeling that, lots of times, you fall short. Having a job Extra-curricular activities that are time consuming Not fitting in to a social group School expectations Parent expectations Being unable to prioritize things -- it all seems important Being pushed & pulled by different classes Lack of preparedness from middle school Schoolwork Parents Romantic relationships Problems with friends Siblings School demands and frustrations Negative thoughts and feelings about themselves Changes in their bodies Problems with friends and/or peers at school Unsafe living environment/neighborhood Separation or divorce of parents 46
  47. 47. Chronic illness or severe problems in the family Death of a loved one Moving or changing schools Taking on too many activities or having too high expectations Family financial problems Some teens become overloaded with stress. When it happens, inadequately managed stress can lead to anxiety, withdrawal, aggression, physical illness, or poor coping skills such as drug and/or alcohol use. When we perceive a situation as difficult or painful, changes occur in our minds and bodies to prepare us to respond to danger. This Fight, flight, or freeze at response includes faster heart and breathing rate, increased blood to muscles of arms and legs, cold or clammy hands and feet, upset stomach and/or a sense of dread. The same mechanism that turns on the stress response can turn it off. As soon as we decide that a situation is no longer dangerous, changes can occur in our minds and bodies to help us relax and calm down. This A relaxation response includes decreased heart and breathing rate and a sense of well being. Teens that develop a relaxation response and other stress management skills feel less helpless and have more choices when responding to stress. Some stressful situations can be extreme and may require special attention and care. Posttraumatic stress disorder is a very strong stress reaction that can develop in people who have lived through an extremely traumatic event, such as a serious car accident, a natural disaster like an earthquake, or an assault like rape. Some people have anxiety problems that can cause them to overreact to stress, making even small difficulties seem like crises. If a person frequently feels tense, upset, worried, or stressed, it may be a sign of anxiety. 47
  48. 48. Anxiety problems usually need attention, and many people turn to professional counselors for help in overcoming them. Everyone experiences stress a little differently. Some people become angry and act out their stress or take it out on others. Some people internalize it and develop eating disorders or substance abuse problems. And some people who have a chronic illness may find that the symptoms of their illness flare up under an overload of stress. 48
  49. 49. 4.2 RESULT OF TEENAGERS UNDER STRESS When you're under stress, you may start feeling overwhelmed: you have too much to do in too little time; you can't possibly do everything you feel you must do. You may feel angry, unfairly judged, and impatient with yourself and others. You may feel you don't have enough time to have fun or to be with the people you most enjoy. You may cry and get upset about small things. You may worry about everything. There are a number of different results from stress. These results include stomach aches and diarrhea, for example, before exams or a much anticipated date or other major event. Although some teens may not be affected a great deal by stress, other teens have chronic problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or colitis, or diarrhea and constipation may alternate. Some of these problems can be avoided.  Some symptoms of stress include: increased heart rate rapid breathing stammering headaches; stomach aches; chest pains diarrhea sweating sleeplessness alcohol and drug addiction Tune out in class rather than pay attention; Cut short class preparation time; Settling for lower grades; Lose control over emotions; 49
  50. 50. Breaking rules; Truancy; Behavioral problems – cutting class; Difficulty getting out of bed; Give up on seeking solutions for problems and Withdrawal from social participation. Less energy and fatigue; Difficulty sleeping; infections, migraines, back pain, flaring up of skin problems etc; Racing heart/high blood pressure; Feeling overwhelmed; Mood swings; Increased negative mood and rebellion; Difficulty concentrating; Unwanted or racing thoughts; Increased intake of comfort foods; and Increased use of over the counter medications and prescription pain pills. Stress symptoms are not to be feared, but they do signal that you are not managing your life effectively. They indicate that changes need to be made sooner or later, or more nervous consequences may follow. 50
  51. 51.  Major impacts of stress on teenagers: Use of Drugs and Alcohol Teens often engage in risky behaviors because the decision-making part of the brain, the pre-frontal cortex, does not completely develop until the mid-20s, according to SAMA. By the time teens reach the 12th grade, about 71 percent have tried alcohol and 48 percent have tried some form of illegal drug, according to the Colorado State University extension program. Experimenting is risky, however, and can lead to substance abuse. Peer pressure can influence alcohol and drug use, but the university reports teens usually use drugs and alcohol to improve mood, receive social rewards, reduce negative feelings or avoid social rejection. Slow Brain Development SAMA notes that psychoactive substances such as drugs and alcohol prevent normal brain development and can actually damage the brain because they alter the function of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers in the brain. The developing neural connections in the brain are fragile, and when chemicals alter the neurotransmitters, the connections can become damaged. Psychoactive substances also alter perception as well. Problems from Substance Abuse Substance abuse can interfere with a teen‘s life in many ways. When teens use psychoactive substances, they may have problems in school, develop mental health problems or aggravate physical health problems. Teens who already have mental health problems may get worse if they use alcohol or drugs. Peer relationships also suffer when teens abuse drugs or alcohol, and the risk of a motor vehicle accident from driving while impaired increases. Substance abuse increases stress in the family, and if a teen becomes addicted, she may face life-long consequences. 51
  52. 52. Physical Effects Although all illicit drugs and alcohol affect the brain, many have other physical effects. Alcohol causes liver damage, reduces sensitivity to pain and lowers resistance to disease. Cocaine can impair vision and cause extreme anxiety and restlessness, nausea, seizures and deterioration of tissue inside the nose. Amphetamines can cause a loss of appetite, increased heart rate and blood pressure and sleeplessness. Methamphetamine destroys tissues throughout the body because it damages blood vessels, according to the Public Broadcasting System‘s Frontline website. In addition, methamphetamine severely damages teeth, leading to broken, stained and rotten teeth, a condition called ―meth mouth.‖ 52
  53. 53. 4.3 STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR TEENAGERS The teen years are some of the most stressful. However, with a little insight and some careful management there is no reason why stress should escalate and become debilitating. These tips may be useful for parents, caregivers, teachers, friends, relatives and of course, teens. Know the Enemy: Stress is the feeling that you can't properly cope with a task, event or situation. It's the sense of being overwhelmed. This is frequently accompanied by a fear of what may happen as a result of not being able to cope. Stress is demanding both physically and emotionally. So, getting to know the enemy is about identifying the things that make you stressed so that you can learn to adapt your responses to them and, if necessary, seek help from others. Fatigue: The teen years are frequently accompanied by the desire for sleep. Many teens have cat-naps at the drop of a hat. This is quite normal and is part of the developmental process that teens go through. It is important not to confuse this with fatigue. Fatigue is the sense of being tired all the time and it is accompanied by a discouraging mood and negative emotions. This is a sign of stress and relates back to tip 1, ‗know your enemy.' Body Language: When someone is under stress the body is constantly communicating the fact. It doesn't mean we hear or see the signs. It's true that we have learned to mask the outward signs of stress, but masking stress does not mean it doesn't exist. Masking is itself a fairly demanding task. Our body communicates in many different ways. Our blood pressure goes up, we may get stomach upsets and a variety of other symptoms .. Irritability, anger, fidgeting, difficulty sleeping, pen chewing, lip biting, hair pulling, nail chewing - the list goes on. So, if someone alerts you to any of these, or you see them in yourself, it's time to take stock. 53
  54. 54. Diet: A well rounded diet isn't just about doing what people think is good for you. Well, in fact it is, but that's because a diet of processed foods and sweet drinks has a profound effect on mood. Fruit, fiber and avoidance of junk foods will quite simply make you feel better. Sleep: Not much guidance required here you may be thinking. And you may be correct. However the pattern of sleep with many teens is really disrupted andcan have a powerful and negative effect on mood. Sleep is restorative but it needs to be regular and not alcohol fueled. Self regulation: My final tip is about finding your limits and staying within them. If you experience stress it means something is out of kilter and whatever that is has stepped outside your comfort zone. We can learn to cope with stress as we get older and your limits can adjust accordingly. Take the example of an over-ambitious teen. They may set goals they are able to achieve, but at a cost. The cost may simply be set against some other activity or it may be chipping away at their wellbeing. Kids often do things to please others rather than themselves, so it can be important for parents not to set the bar too high and to encourage a rounded life. To feel a little stretched is good but to be stretched to breaking point is good for nothing. Looking after you: Be kind to yourself. Give yourself "me time" in which you can choose what you want to do: Rest; do nothing; try a relaxation technique, massage or yoga; have a long hot bath; spend time with friends; treat yourself to something special. Taking proper breaks and eating well do help to combat stress. 54
  55. 55. Confronting the problem: Try to stand back and look at the problem carefully. Break it down into manageable parts. Talk it through with someone else, brainstorm solutions, or get help if you need it. Try to manage your time effectively and learn to say "NO". Avoidance won't make the problem go away and can often make it worse. Leaving everything to the last minute is a major source of stress for students. Think about why you are finding it hard to get started: uncertainty about how to do the assignment, fear of being judged or failing? Starting a piece of work effectively reduces stress levels as it frees your mind, putting the thoughts of failure back into perspective. If you've had a row or a misunderstanding with someone, it rarely helps to avoid the issue. Talking it through with the other person or with someone outside the situation, often helps you express your feelings, regain a sense of proportion, and identify a way of resolving the differences. Find some distractions: Sport and physical activity helps you to relax physically and also releases endorphins in the body which produce a real feeling of wellbeing. Walk, cycle, swim, and join a gym or a sports team. Joining a club or society, maintaining an existing hobby or learning something new, talking to other people can all help you to take a mental and physical break. Express yourself: Talk about it, write about it, shout or moan about it: expressing your feelings can help to relieve stress. Acknowledging a problem to you and to others can be the first step in dealing with it. Sometimes having a good cry or bashing a pillow can release emotional pressure and calm your feelings of anxiety. 55
  56. 56. Tackling Anxiety: Anxiety is a normal response to danger or stress: it prepares us for coping with stress. Anxiety is only a problem when it is out of proportion to a situation or goes on for too long. Then our thoughts may become muddled and we may experience physical symptoms such as rapid breathing, racing heart, sweaty palms, and tense muscles. Anxiety can lead to panic attacks. Learn how to breathe efficiently and practice it in order to prevent over breathing (too much oxygen in the blood). This causes a series of unpleasant physical symptoms i.e. tingling hands and face, muscle cramps and tremors, dizziness, breathing difficulties and feelings of fatigue. These sensations can be controlled by breathing slowly and smoothly through the nose, filling the lungs completely. Breathing Exercise: Place one hand on your chest and one on your stomach. As you breathe in through your nose allow your stomach to swell. This means that you are using the diaphragm to breathe in and allowing air right down into your lungs. Try to keep the movement in your upper chest to a minimum and keep the movement gentle. Slowly and evenly breathe out through your nose. Repeat and get a rhythm going. You are aiming to take 8-12 breaths a minute: breathing in and breathing out again counts as one breath. Practice until it becomes a habit and switch to regular breathing when you next become anxious. Learn how to really relax and develop a skill which will enable you to reduce unnecessary physical tension whenever you need to. Information sheets and relaxation tapes are available from the Medical Centre. Learn how to combat worrying thoughts because worrying thoughts keep the anxiety going then the symptoms of anxiety maintains the worrying thoughts. 56
  57. 57. Control panic attacks: If you experience a panic attack, it is important to remind yourself that none of these feelings can harm you - you are not going to have a heart attack, faint, or be sick. Although you may feel very strange, no-one else is likely to notice anything wrong. Try to deepen your breathing and relax. Distract yourself by thinking about something else or focusing on an item in the room. Block any panicky or worrying thoughts. As you manage the panic in this way, your brain and body begins to recognize that there is no real danger, the supply of adrenaline to the blood is cut off, and the symptoms will subside. Follow the breathing exercises above to help you manage your panic attack. 57
  58. 58. 4.4 WHY STRESS TESTING FOR TEENAGERS? Since young people don't yet have the obligations and duties of adulthood, we can too easily assume they have no legitimate reason to feel stressed. We can miss the fact that young people, even though they don't have such burdens, may be stressed for reasons of their own (reasons we adults may think trivial or not even be aware of).Many of us (well, my vintage!), grew up in simpler times when stress was less an issue for the young. Indeed, the term stress had not come into usage as we know it today. We used to, and sometimes still do, think of youth in terms such as carefree, untroubled and lighthearted. Yet we overlook an important fact. ―Adults, along with their greater responsibilities, have the advantage of greater coping resources butthe young are still finding their way themselves-Proving themselves and society‖. Events that might cause no concern at all to an adult who's been through similar experiences and 'knows the ropes,' can actually be quite stressful, and understandably so, to a younger person meeting a novel situation for perhaps the first time. There can be terror in the untried. Fear of what some seldom encountered or not previously experienced situation really means. There is fear of your own adequacy in confronting it, and fear of what others, including peers, will think if you perform poorly or inappropriately. Potential for disgrace and derision lurk behind each new turn. 58
  59. 59. Youth is not always easy. Carefree can be a mask. Seas may be surging beneath the surface. You walk many streets to become street-wise. You make many mistakes before you get the hang. But when do you become 'grown-up?'At what age does it become appropriate to use the adult stress test? When does inexperience give way to maturity? When does youth morph into adult in terms of your ability to cope with stress. “Young people can find the world a bewildering place‖ It's not just change in their environment they are required to adapt to. There is swift and often unsettling change taking place within them. They are in a continual state of development as they pass through two great life transitions, moving first from childhood to puberty and youth, then from youth to adulthood. These are the years of feeling shy and awkward, clumsy and easily embarrassed. You think everyone is staring at you and all you want to do is hide. Or you crave attention and recognition and struggle to assert yourself, mortified when no one takes any notice of you or both. Youth is a yo-yo. Not just that sideways too. All over the place. This growth toward maturity is unique for each individual, and is influenced by gender, genetics and general life circumstance. There isn't, and can't be, a universal standard age at which a child becomes a non-adult, or a non-adult becomes an adult. You must make a judgment based on each individual case, as to which stress test to use. You know, in my opinion that won't be difficult. If you're reasonably familiar with each tool, and with the young person concerned, the answer will simply 'leap out' at you. 59
  60. 60. In essence, the difference between the two levels of stress test is simply in the relevance of the listed life events to the young person concerned. In fact, he or she will probably have no difficulty choosing between the lists. Don‘t get hung up on this, it won't be an issue. The selected list, chosen mindfully, will do just fine. 60
  61. 61. 4.5 FAMOUS STRESS TESTING METHOD FOR TEENAGERS The stress test for teenagers is used, scored and interpreted in exactly the same way as adults. You just check through a list of 39 life-changing events, and indicate any that you have experienced once or more during the last twelve months. Each event has a weighting expressed as a value in life change units. Stress is cumulative. To estimate your total stress load, your total score is calculated automatically by adding together the life change units for each of your events. It‘s that simple, and will only take you a few minutes to do. This stress test is created by Dr. George S. Everly, Jr. of the University of Maryland, which tells how well you are coping with the stress in your life. You begin with a score of zero and simply add or subtract the number of points indicated if the statement is true for you. 1. Add 10 points if you feel you have a supportive family around you 2. Add 10 points if you actively pursue a hobby 3. Add 10 points if you belong to some social or activity group that meets at least once a month. 4. Add 15 points if you are within 15 pounds of your ideal weight 5. Add 15 points if you practice some form of deep relaxation exercises, include meditation, imagery and yoga. 6. Add 15 points for each time you exercise 30 minutes or longer during the course of an average week 7. Add 5 points for each nutritionally balanced and wholesome meal you eat during the course of an average week. 8. Add 5 points if you do something that you really enjoy and is just for you during an average week. 9. Add 10 points if you have some place in your home that you can go in order to relax and / or be by yourself 61
  62. 62. 10. Add 10 points if you practice time-management techniques in your daily life 11. Subtract 5 points for each evening course during the course of an average week that you take any form of medication or chemical substance to help you sleep 12. Subtract 10 points for each day during the week that you consume any form of medication or chemical substance to reduce your anxiety or just calm you down 13. Subtract 5 points for each evening during the course of an average week that you bring work home. SCORING: If you scored above 80 points, you should be able to handle stress in an effective and healthy manner. If you still feel some stress, you may be setting your goals too high. A score in the 60 - 75 range is adequate to handle most sources of common stress. However, you may encounter difficulty in a particularly stressful situation. A score below 60 is not sufficient to handle any but the most trivial sources of stress. You should consider changing some things in your life or seeking help from a professional. Dr. George S. Everly, Jr. of the University of Maryland 62
  64. 64. I personally conducted a research where I asked some questions relating to their life and stress. In this survey I got to know what stresses the students the most and why suffer from stress, how they deal with stress and concluded a general point of view of teenagers towards stress. 64
  65. 65. 1. Words like tension, anxiety, burden, pressure, hormonal changes, expectations and unhappiness defines stress according to you? Options No. of responses Percentage Yes 97 97 No 0 0 Maybe 3 3 Total 100 100 YES NO MAYBE Well 97% of teenagers thinks that words like TENSION, ANXIETY, BURDEN, PRESSURE, HORMONAL CHANGES, EXPECTATIONS and UNHAPPINESS defines stress for them. This surely interprets that most of all teens, know the word stress and they are well aware about its concept. Whereas 3% of teens are not really sure about the definition of stress but they know some tits and bits about it. 65
  66. 66. 2. As a teenager do you think your teenage life is stressed? Options No. of responses Percentage Yes 99 99 No 0 0 Maybe 1 1 Total 100 100 H YES NO MAYBE As expected, 99% of teenagers suffer stress in their teenage life. But frankly expecting a number as 99 out of 100 was a real shock to know that almost all the teenagers suffer some or the other stress in their life. That‘s a thing to be concerned of. There were just 1% of teenagers who are not sure whether or not they suffer from Stress. Maybe because they are not clear with the concept of what is stress or some other reason. The sadder part is that there is no teenager who does not know about stress plus there is none of them not suffering from it. 66
  67. 67. 3. As a teenager what stresses you and your life the most? (Please number the following from 1-6 as per your choice where 1 is highest Stress in the given space next to the option) Options No. of responses Percentage Academic Pressure 27 27 Peer pressure 14 14 Parents pressure 12 12 Financial pressure 23 23 Love Relationship 10 10 Future plans pressure 14 14 Total 100 100 Academic Pressure Peer Pressure Parents Pressure Financial Pressure Love relationships Future Plan Pressure U Teenagers say that Academic Stress is the Stress which stresses those most, as 27% of them feel academic stress which gives this reason of stress the highest rate. Then comes Financial Pressure with 23% which stresses the teenage life according to Teenagers. Next is Peer Pressure and Future plan Pressure with 14% each. Peer Pressure means Pressure from friends/Peers which a teenage life is highly influenced and stressed too. Also deciding and making Future Plans pressurizes the teens. 12% of teenagers say that Parents expectations and pressure stresses them too as they have to fulfill these expectations to avoid parental and societal disappointment. Lastly 10% of teenage faces stress from their love relationships. 67
  68. 68. 4. Does your stress influence your health? How? Options No. of responses Percentage Yes, I have started eating more/less 17 17 Yes, I suffer from weakness and dizziness 20 20 Yes, I often get headaches and cramps 8 8 Yes, I am losing lot of hair 25 25 Yes, I sleep in excess/do not get sleep 25 25 No, stress doesn‘t affect my health 15 15 Total 100 100 Yes, I have started eating more/less Yes, I suffer from weakness and dizziness Yes, I often get headaches and cramps Yes, I am losing lot of hair Yes, I sleep in excess/do not get sleep No, stress doesn’t affect my health Maximum teenagers say that they experience hairfall when they are in stress and even their sleep is disturbed. They either sleep a lot or do not sleep at all. Rating these options with 25% each teenagers simply want to state that stress affect their hair growth and sleep a lot. 20% teenager suffers weakness and dizziness in their body when under stress.17% of teens say that their diet changes during stress, either they start eating access or less. This is unhealthy too because excess eating causes fatigue, laziness etc whereas less eating lowers immune and lack of strength in the body.15% of teenagers say that stress doesn‘t affect their health physically. They do suffer from any health issues when under stress. 68
  69. 69. 4. What do you feel at that particular time when you are stressed? Options No. of responses Percentage Scared and feel like crying 25 25 Restless and nervous 25 25 Locking yourself in a room and shout 20 20 Feel like ending your life/hurt yourself 10 10 Smoke or drink 20 20 Total 100 100 Scared and feel like crying Restless and nervous Locking yourself in a room and shout Feel like ending your life/hurt yourself Smoke or drink 25% of teenagers feel restless and nervous when under stress. Other 25% teenagers also feel scared and feel like crying. Rating these two options with the highest percentage teenagers tells us that they feel nervous and scared during stress. 20% of teenagers feel like locking themselves in the room and shout whereas other 20% feel like practicing their bad habits like smoking and drinking which is a matter of concern. Rests 10% feel like ending their lives or hurting themselves when under stress. This is a matter of concern as this is how stress leads to suicide. 69
  70. 70. 5. Do you think stress is important? Options No. of responses Percentage Yes 45 45 No 35 35 Maybe/Sometimes 10 10 Not at all 10 10 Total 100 100 Yes No Maybe/Sometimes Not at all d Well, 45% of teenagers think that stress is important whereas 35% says it‘s not important whereas 10% of teenagers think that stress is important sometimes to boost our performance if taken positively but rest 10% don‘t feel the importance of stress at all. 70
  71. 71. 6. What do you do to get rid of stress? Options No. of responses Percentage Spending quality time with friends /family / 45 45 loved ones. Spending quality time alone 15 15 Practicing your hobby. 25 25 Going for a outing or trip 10 10 Yoga and Meditation/Exercise 5 5 Total 100 100 Spending quality time with friends/family/loved ones Spending quality time alone Practicing your hobby. Going for a outing or trip Yoga and Meditation/Exercise Mostly all the teenagers like to spend time with their family/friends/loved ones when they are under stress as 45% stated so. Making this option as a highest rated option as their stress buster, teenager simply say that spending time with people they like is the best way to get rid of stress. 25% of teenagers like to practice their hobby when they are stressed like reading, dancing, painting etc. to get rid of it. Then 15% of teenagers like to spend time alone and 10% try to take a break and go for an outing and only 5% of them exercise or perform yoga. 71
  72. 72. 7. Do you think stress management is important? Options No. of responses Percentage Yes, because it helps to cope up from stress 65 65 No, because teenage is a stress bearing age 18 18 anyway Maybe at times 17 17 Total 100 100 Yes, because it helps to cope up from stress No, because teenage is a stress bearing age anyway Maybe at times 65% of teenagers favor stress management that is maximum teenage crowd think that stress management is important as it helps to cope up from stress whereas 18% of teenage crowd thinks that the duration of teenage is born to suffer stress so absence or presence of stress management does not matter and lastly 17% of teenagers think that stress is important sometimes but not always. 72
  73. 73. 5.1 CONCLUSION From my above research I am clearly able to conclude that maximum teenagers suffer from stress and this proves my all hypothesis except one. In fact more surprising was that almost 99% of teenagers know about the concept of Stress. They even claim that they are a victim of stress. These teenagers age from 14 years to 19 years and thus it is more astonishing to know that a 14 year old child knows about stress and even claim to be a victim of it. Major stresses suffered by teenagers today are Academic stress and financial stress. Being weak financially stresses the teens as their studies and co-curriculum cost a lot nowadays which they cannot afford. On the other hand if teens who can afford education suffer from academic stress because of frequently changing syllabus, pattern and education system. Rests of the reasons for stress are general with all the teens. Maximum teenagers feel scared and low on health and confidence whenever they are stressed. They say that health wise they start losing hair, gain/lose weight, suffer from Insomnia (lack of sleep) or sleep in excess during stress. Many said that they feel dizzy and lack of strength and stamina in their body. This clearly shows that stress attacks teenagers physically and mentally too bad. To avoid health issues among teens stress management is needed. Well many teenagers are smart enough to tackle stress in their own way. As I got the review out of my research I concluded that teens under stress like to spend time with their pets, family, friends or loved ones mostly. If not that they like practicing their hobbies. Moreover many like spending quality time by themselves. 73
  74. 74. Today‘s teenagers think that stress management is important. Well I was proud enough to know they think stress is important too as it can motivate them to work harder and quicker if can be handled well. Here one of my hypothesis saying―If ask teenagers they would never want stress‖ proves wrong because teenagers take stress as a motivators if handled well. All in all the conclusion comes out that without any second thought stress management is important today as each and every teenage is falling into the trap of stress in some or the other way. 74
  75. 75. 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS After studying the whole scenario I can clearly say that stress and teenagers absolutely co-relates with each other. However if there is stress then there has to be stress management too. Meanwhile I would also like to give some of my recommendations for stress management among teenagers. According to me these are the following suggestions: 1. Changes in Indian education system: Indian education system should be changed as it will help the teenagers to study well without any burden. Changes like: Instead of keeping two main terminal exams, schools should have four unit tests in an academic year, where each unit covering limited chapters for syllabus. This will not stress or burden the students. The idea of filling supplements in the exams should be removed out of a student‘s mind as this becomes the main reason of mugging up the portion for them. Demerit here is that teens do not try to understand the concept but just learn the bookish lines in their respective textbooks. Introduction of co-curricular activities in the school and college timetables. For schools activities like indoor and outdoor games, drama, dance, art, music (singing and playing instruments), and so on should be included. For colleges activities like games, gymkhana, events, inter-college activities, festivals and so on should be included. 75
  76. 76. 2. Introduction of Vedic education for teenagers: Vedic education simply means making teenagers aware about the stress management in traditional way. Yoga, meditation, listening and learning lessons from our 2 great Indian epics—RAMAYAN and MAHABHARAT are some of the ways to find out answers to stress. 3. Educating the teenagers about Sex education: Stress in teenagers is often because of their hormonal changes. This stress and irritation increases when teenagers do not have any idea about what is happening and why it is happening. These natural changes occurring in teens both boys and girls should be made understand their human body changes in school itself when they are early teenagers (13 -16 years). Moreover they should be told to respect each other‘s mental and physical body changes too. This will help them to cope up at least the common reason of stress among all the teenagers that is the Hormonal changes and make them comfortable with opposite sex. 4. Counseling to Teenagers as well as Parents: Quarrels and arguments with parents because of communication and generation gap stress the teenage group of the society. This is a common story in every house with teenagers. Teenagers want their parents to understand them and vice versa. To avoid such environment counseling should be given to parents and teenagers in schools and colleges or otherwise be if a parent and a teen of the same house consult a common counselor they can enjoy stress free environment. A parent taking suggestions from a counselor exhilarates the children to do the same. 76
  77. 77. CHAPTER 6 APPENDIX (Questionnaire) 77
  78. 78. A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT AMONG TEENAGERS  INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Fill in the asked detail about you correctly. 2. Please read the questions carefully and answer them sincerely. 3. Please darken the bullets of your selected answer.  NAME:______________________________________  AGE:_______________________  GENDER:___________________ 1. Words like tension, anxiety, burden, pressure, hormonal changes, expectations and unhappiness defines stress according to you? o Yes o No o Maybe 2. As a teenager do you think your teenage life is stressed? o Yes o No o Maybe 3. As a teenager what stresses you and your life the most? (Please number the following from 1-6 as per your choice where 1 is highest Stress in the given space next to the option) Academic Pressure-________ Peer pressure-____________ Parents pressure-__________ Financial pressure-__________ Love Relationship-__________ Future plans pressure-________ 4. Does your stress influence your health? How? 78
  79. 79. o Yes, I have started eating more/less o Yes, I suffer from weakness and dizziness o Yes, I often get headaches and cramps o Yes, I am losing lot of hair o Yes, , I sleep in excess/do not get sleep o No, stress doesn‘t affect my health 5. What do you feel at that particular time when you are stressed? o Scared and feel like crying o Restless and nervous o Locking yourself in a room and shout o Feel like ending your life/hurt yourself o Smoke or drink 6. Do you think stress is important? o Yes o No o Maybe/Sometimes o Not at all 7. What do you do to get rid of stress? o Spending quality time with friends/family/loved ones. o Spending quality time alone o Practicing your hobby o Going for a outing or trip o Yoga and Meditation/Exercise 8. Do you think stress management is important? o Yes, because it helps to cope up from stress o No, because teenage is a stress bearing age anyway. o Maybe at times THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR YOUR VALUABLE TIME… HAVE A GOOD DAY….. 79
  80. 80. BIBLIOGRAPHY 80
  81. 81.  REFERENCE TEXT BOOKS:  New Horizons in Social Science Research, Subhash B. Raje, Excel India Publishers, Page no. 220.  Stress Management, Dr. Tej Mani Singh, Essential Books, Page no.48 and Pg no.26.  Stress Management ( A handbook of Knowledge Improvement), DR. R.G. Parmar, Dr. Vibha K Vyas, Dr. Jignesh H. Tapariya, Paradise Publishers, Pg no.7, 246 and 296.  INTERNET LINKS:       essWithHealthyHabits/What-Is-Stress-Management_UCM_321076_Article.jsp  81