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Technical Seminar.pptx

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology TECHNICAL SEMINAR by R.VAISHNAVI(19911A04A7)
  3. TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED • Introduction • FPGA Architecture • Why FPGA? • Applications • Challenges faced in space • Space applications TECHNICAL SEMINAR 1
  4. FPGAs-Basic Introduction • FPGA stands for Field-Programmable Gate Array • It is a one type of semiconductor logic chip which can be programmed to become almost any kind of system or digital circuit, similar to PLDs. • FPGA architecture is generally specified using a language, i.e., HDL (Hardware Description language) • They contain programmable logic blocks and interconnection circuits • It can be programmed to the required functionality after manufacturing. • Field Programmable Gate Arrays are classified into three types based on applications such as Low-end FPGAs, Mid-range FPGAs and high-end FPGAs. TECHNICAL SEMINAR 2
  5. FPGA ARCHITECTURE • The general FPGA architecture consists of three types of modules. They are I/O blocks or Pads, Switch Matrix/ Interconnection Wires and Configurable logic blocks (CLB). • CLB (Configurable Logic Block) includes digital logic, inputs, outputs. It implements the user logic. • Interconnects provide direction between the logic blocks to implement the user logic. • Depending on the logic, switch matrix provides switching between interconnects. • I/O Pads used for the outside world to communicate with different applications. TECHNICAL SEMINAR 3
  6. CLB • An individual CLB is made up of several logic blocks. • A lookup table (LUT) is a characteristic feature of an FPGA. • An LUT stores a predefined list of logic outputs for any combination of inputs. • LUTs with four to six input bits are widely used TECHNICAL SEMINAR 4
  7. Why FPGA ?? • FPGA , as the name says are field programmable .Compared to ASICs which are specifically designed to perform a standard operation by default. • Newer FPGAs typically has millions of gates present , which makes data processing and data compressing faster. TECHNICAL SEMINAR 5
  8. APPLICATIONS OF FPGA We can find them in numerous industries or applications such as the following • Aerospace,OuterSpace, and defense • Audio,Automotive and Broadcast • Security Applications,Wired and Wireless Communications • Instruments of Science,Industrial and Medical TECHNICAL SEMINAR 6
  9. FPGA IN SPACE APPLICATIONS • "Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices have been used in space for more than a decade with a mixed level of success. • Space environment is different from terrestrial system as radiation is more. • This radiation causes ionization failure in semiconductors. • This kind of hardware faults cannot be debugged and repaired easily. • The use of run-time reconfiguration in space will allow to modify onboard hardware by faulty/outdated designs at different stages of a machine • Some example applications are rectification of design faults,improvement of processing algorithms. TECHNICAL SEMINAR 7
  10. Challenges Faced 1.Total Ionizing Dose Effect • Neutrons,Protons,Alpha particles,heavy ions,and high-energy gamma rays that transfer enough energy to the silicon to displace atoms in the lattice all cause lattice defects • Charged particles and gamma rays create ionization which can alter device parameters • These changes are called Total ionizing dose effects. • These can be termed as permanent radiation damage to silicon devices. TECHNICAL SEMINAR 8
  11. 2.SINGLE EVENT EFFECTS • Any effect induced by a single event on electronic circuit,whether transient or damaging is referred to as single event effect (SEE) • This is caused due to cosmic rays and high energy protons. • The Sees are recoverable effects TECHNICAL SEMINAR 9
  12. COPING WITH THESE CHALLENGES There have been two basic options for FPGAs in space applications: • SRAM-type FPGAs: high- density,reprogrammable,conventional,repurposed and heavily modified for space use • Antifuse FPGAs:lower-density,non-volatile,one-time- programmable,designed specifically for space applications TECHNICAL SEMINAR 10
  13. USE OF FPGA IN SPACE • FPGAs can be reconfigured with a different design.It is an integrated circuit which can be “field” programmed to work as per the intended design. • It means it can work as a microprocessor,or as an encryption unit, or even all these three at once. • They are used in image and signal processing.FPGA are programmed with custom implementations of an algorithm. • This flexibility and speed has made FPGAs attractive for many space programs . TECHNICAL SEMINAR 11
  14. Different Models of Space FPGAs • XILINX Xilinx virtex-5QV Space-Grade FPGA • SRAM Based-RTG4FPGAs,RT ProASIC3FPGAs • Antifuse Based-RT Pro ASIC3 FPGAs,RTSX-SU FPGAs TECHNICAL SEMINAR 12