Profiling For Accessibility Presentation

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  • User profile information can be used for accessibility purposes but in many instances context or preference may be equally important. For example a car driver needing access to Web or PDA information may be in a similar position to a blind user in that neither can handle primarily visual material but could probably usefully access audible descriptions or instructions
  • Profiling For Accessibility Presentation

    1. 1. Profiling for Accessibility Elaine Pearson & Voula Gkatzidou [email_address] [email_address]
    2. 2. Profiling for accessibility <ul><li>Diversity of learner needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative access systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content to be presented in different modalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profiling for accessibility is a complex issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners with special needs require personalised access to e-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning resources accessible to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All learners, despite their individual needs and preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meeting the diverse needs of learners requires a different approach to ‘universal’ accessibility. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Metadata is data which describes data, or information about information. </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata describe the nature and content of web and e-learning resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata provide invisible descriptive information about resources, and can therefore be used to catalogue, describe, search for and locate resources. </li></ul>The role of metadata for profiling(1)
    4. 4. <ul><li>Provides information on the accessibility features of a particular resource, such as audio content, subtitles, text transcripts, audio descriptions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>IMS AccessForAll Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility for Learner Information Package (AccLIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the content needs and preferences of a user. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables the description of user preferences in terms of visual, auditory and tactile components. </li></ul></ul></ul>The role of metadata for profiling(2)
    5. 5. IMS AccLIP <ul><li>Describes the user in terms of accessibility needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML-based syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decribes how information should be presented to user) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defines how a user prefers to control the device) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>describes which enhanced, alternative or or equivalent contents are required by the learner) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. PAL (1)
    7. 7. PAL (2)
    8. 8. Example profiles (Persona A) <ul><li>George has low vision and has laptop for his course, which is fully equipped with a screen reader (Jaws) & a Braille embosser with refreshable Braille display, a combination of assistive technologies that enable him to interact with the programs he uses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He needs alternatives to visual content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for screenreader when at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for Braille when on campus </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Example profiles (Persona A) in AccLIP <ul><li>In George’s home profile he expresses the preference for screenreader use instead of Braille. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, the screen reader (specified to be Jaws) would be required to read any links it encounters, with a speech rate of 180 words per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>< accessForAll xmlns:xsi =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance &quot; xmlns:xsd =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< context identifier =&quot; Peter/Home &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< display > </li></ul><ul><li>< screenReader > </li></ul><ul><li>< screenReaderGeneric > </li></ul><ul><li>  < application name =&quot; Jaws &quot;> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< /application > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  < link usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; speakLink &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < speechRate usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 180 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < pitch usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 0.5 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < volume usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 1 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  </ screenReaderGeneric > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ screenReader > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ display > </li></ul><ul><li>< content > </li></ul><ul><li>< alternativesToVisual > </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< audioDescription usage =&quot; preferred &quot; type =&quot; expanded &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; /> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  < altTextLang usage =&quot; preferred &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < longDescriptionLang usage =&quot; preferred &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  </ alternativesToVisual > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ content > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ context > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ accessForAll > </li></ul>
    10. 10. Example profiles (Persona A) in AccLIP <ul><li>In George’s ‘classroom’ profile PAL expresses his preference for Braille by using the <braille> element and turning off the screen reader’s volume by using the preferences under the <screenReader> element. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, he requires uncontracted Braille (Grade 1), where each cell has 8 dots, and his display has 80 cells in a row. </li></ul><ul><li>< accessForAll xmlns:xsi =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance &quot; xmlns:xsd =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< context identifier =&quot; Peter/Classroom &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< display > </li></ul><ul><li>< screenReader > </li></ul><ul><li>< screenReaderGeneric > </li></ul><ul><li>  < usage =&quot; notUse &quot; value =&quot; 0 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  </ screenReaderGeneric > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ screenReader > </li></ul><ul><li>< braille > </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< brailleGeneric > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  < grade usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 1 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < numDots usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 8 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < numCells usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 80 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markHighlight usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markBold usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markUnderline usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markItalic usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markStrikeout usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < markColor usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; false &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < dotPressure usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 0.5 &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  < statusCell usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; off &quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li>  </ brailleGeneric > </li></ul><ul><li>  </ braille > </li></ul><ul><li></ display > </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </ accessForAll > </li></ul>
    11. 11. Profiling Devices <ul><li>Device capabilities and preferences for profiling devices need to be known </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow client devices to inform servers of their capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDF (Resource Description Framework) based profiles, recommended by the W3C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite Capabilities/Preference Profile (CC/PP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Agent Profile (UAProf) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Explore methods to provide a more detailed learner profile in PAL and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Device capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Learning Styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Cognitive Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Previous knowledge/background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrate PAL within a learning environment </li></ul>Challenges
    13. 13. <ul><li>PAL tool: http:// arc.tees.ac.uk /pal </li></ul><ul><li>IMS AccLIP: http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/acclipv1p0/imsacclip_infov1p0.html </li></ul><ul><li>Web-4-All Tool: http://web4all.atrc.utoronto.ca/html/english/w4a_home_e.html </li></ul><ul><li>CC/PP Profile: http://www.w3.org/Mobile/CCPP/ </li></ul><ul><li>UaProf Profile: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/tech/affiliates/wap/wap-248-uaprof-20011020-a.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Gkatzidou, S. & Pearson, E. (2009). A Transformation, Augmentation, Substitution Service (TASS) to Meet the Needs and Preferences of the Individual Learner . Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT). Riga, Latvia. </li></ul><ul><li>Salomoni, P., Mirri, S., Ferretti, S. & Rocetti, M. (2007). Profiling Learners with Special Needs for Custom e-Learning Experiences, a Closed Case? Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A). Banff, Canada. </li></ul>Resources

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