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Smarter together


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The proactive library - getting smarter together. By Mikkel Christoffersen, Copenhagen Main Library, during our field study trip to Denmark

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Smarter together

  1. 1. The Proactive Library - Getting smarter together Copenhagen, June 17, 2016 Mikkel Christoffersen // Senior adviser, Copenhagen Libraries
  2. 2. Mikkel Christoffersen • Senior adviser, City of Copenhagen and project manager of ”eReolen” (national ebook platform) • Works with digitisation, digital strategy, business and lending models for ebooks etc. • BA in Greek and English, MLIS • Former consultant to ”Danish Agency for Culture” – National representative; DG Connect MSEG on digital culture – European framework project manager – Nordic programme manager of Open Access R&D
  3. 3. More importantly • Father of Mathilde (5) and Josephine (12) • The secretary in Nyborg Karate Club • Avid CCG player • A horror and SF freak • Neophyte baseball fan
  4. 4. Background • Copenhagen needed a library strategy toward 2020 • We identified salient trends and megatrends • Conclusion: The library needs to change fundamentally • Because the world has changed fundamentally • Change brings threats and opportunities ”Opportunities are either seized or lost. They don’t pile up.” Hans Engell, former minister of justice
  5. 5. The strategy • Strategy work began September 2013 • Based on an analysis of our societal surroundings and megatrends
  6. 6. Changing framework conditions Gøre en større forskel for flere københavnere Resource strain Cut-backs New tasks Reach non-users New user needs Media literacy Reading skills Life-long learning Community Media development Internet-based media Social media Decline in loans of physical materials New opportunities Digitisation Digital service Self-service Citizen involvement Need for a new library mission
  7. 7. The media landscape - the seismic shift
  8. 8. The open internet Music Printed books TV Movies The library The user’s information environment in 2000 Radio News- papers and journals
  9. 9. The open internet Social media E- books Music Printed books TV Movies and tv-series The library The user’s information environment 2015 Radio News- papers and journals
  10. 10. The user’s information environment The user’s information environment The library collection The library collection has decreasing relevance Do you help the user by teaching her to navigate the green area?
  11. 11. Internet magazine Quartz: hbo-to-everything/#! Netflix is simply acknowledging that it doesn’t just compete with other TV networks… It also competes for attention with nearly any kind of leisure activity. If you’re in book publishing, say, the reality is that you don’t just have to think about the shift from paper to tablets. You also need to worry about whether people will use their tablets to read, or instead prefer to surf the web, watch movies, etc. Attention as the scarce resource The user’s attention and time as scarce resources
  12. 12. In short … • The quasi-monopoly of being the place where people could go for free and equal access is gone • Copenhagen Libraries’ motto used to be: ”Everything you can imagine” • Arguably; the internet does that better now • But is providing access and media to people a good place to be now anyway?
  13. 13. The bad place • Everyone standing between content creator and content consumer must prove value • Getting content from creators to consumers is a painful place with lots of huge players • But it’s also a tiny thing in the whole process! We don’t need to be the ones handing people the media to be valuable! What they do before and after is more important
  14. 14. Filter bubbles
  15. 15. We have ambitions! • … on behalf of our users • When every selfrespecting commercial service gives you something, the library should give you something completely new and unexpected you didn’t know you needed! • Read Vampire Diaries and Twilight and a commercial service will give you The Immortal Instruments. The library should give you James Joyce and Medieval French poetry!
  16. 16. Reading and learning - new user and societal needs
  17. 17. Children’s leisure reading, intl.
  18. 18. Children’s leisure reading, DK 3 hours daily media consumption Years
  19. 19. The importance of reading “The bottom line: Fewer students today are reading for pleasure, even though daily reading for pleasure is associated with better performance in school and with adult reading proficiency” PISA in Focus, OECD 2011
  20. 20. Reading is the fundamental skill • Reading underlies other skills like IT and math • It also underlies social skills • Don’t read well at 8? You never catch up! • Reading is your ticket to culture, social communities and learning • You learn to read and then your read to learn The early catastrophe: The 30million word gap
  21. 21. Globalisation and lifelong learning But as the world has gone flat, Gates said, and so many people can now plug and play from anywhere, natural talent has started to trump geography.”Now,” he said, ”I would rather be a genius born in China than an average guy born in Poughkeepsie.” Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat, p. 226
  22. 22. Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) • At least one in ten adults is proficient only at or below Level 1 in literacy or numeracy • In other words, significant numbers of adults do not possess the most basic information-processing skills considered necessary to succeed in today’s world
  23. 23. Literacy levels LEVEL 1 Read short texts, locate a single piece of information.  Complete simple forms, understand basic Vocabulary, determine the meaning of sentences, and read continuous texts with a degree of fluency. LEVEL 2  Integrate two or more pieces of information based on criteria  Compare and contrast or reason about information and make low-level inferences.  Navigate digital texts to access and identify information from various parts of a document LEVEL 3  Understand and respond appropriately to dense or lengthy texts.  Understand text structures and rhetorical devices.  Identify, interpret, or evaluate one or more pieces of information and make appropriate inferences.  Perform multi-step operations and select relevant data from competing information LEVEL 4/5  Perform multiple-step operations to integrate, interpret, or synthesise information from complex or lengthy texts that involve conditional and/or competing information.  Make complex inferences and appropriately apply background knowledge as well as interpret or evaluate subtle truth claims or arguments.
  24. 24. 0,7 0,8 17,7 0,8 0,5 0,0 1,8 4,2 1,5 1,4 0,3 0,4 1,2 0,6 0,9 5,2 0,3 0,0 0,4 2,2 1,9 0,0 2,3 0,0 1,2 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Italy Spain Cyprus¹ ² France Ireland Poland Austria United States Germany England/N. Ireland (UK) Korea Denmark Average Czech Republic Canada Flanders (Belgium) Slovak Republic Russian Federation³ Estonia Norway Australia Sweden Netherlands Finland Japan Percent Lvl DK Avg 1 3.81% 3.31% 2 11.89% 12.16% 3 33.97% 33.29% 4/5 10.01% 11.79% Who produces value in the globalised knowledge economy?
  25. 25. Reading makes you a better person! (if you read good things)
  26. 26. The crisis of the wellfare state and why it matters
  27. 27. content/uploads/2013/04/Rapport_Folkebibliotekernes_samfunds% C3%B8konomiske_v%C3%A6rdi_lang.pdf 2015 report: Public libraries contribute a net +€800 mn to the economy of Denmark annually due to their beneficial contributions to reading, education etc.
  28. 28. So when can we expect more money? • Based on two days reading the newspaper looking for sectors calling out for more funding: • The elderly, the school system, the mentally disabled, the physically handicapped, every ward in every hospital for rising medicine costs, refugee aid, the foreign service, the suicide hotline, the universities, the university colleges, nature preservation programs, the rest of the cultural sector, the police AND the F16s fighting ISIS
  29. 29. We are not eternal and no additional funding is coming  • Our short and sweet analysis; we are last in line for new funding • We will be missed but we are not irreplacable • We will lose the funding we do have, if we cannot explain what we do and for whom and why it matters greatly • Greatly!
  30. 30. Physical space
  31. 31. The future of the physical library? A new library space with more people and fewer bookcases?
  32. 32. Should we go all digital? Copenhagen Libraries We are just one app. Why should people choose us? Indeed; are we not all small apps in the great iPad of life?
  33. 33. Physical space • Loans are going down, attendance is going up William Mitchell quoted by Lorcan Dempsey in his blog reprinted in the book ”The Network Reshapes The Library.” • We need more space for activities arranged by ourselves, facilitated by ourselves or that we don’t know of • Longer opening hours, fewer shelves, more self-directed services, links between physical and digital library, online or screen or phone help, collections digitised
  34. 34. The conclusion
  35. 35. Disconnect between library ends and means The objective of the public libraries is to promote information, education and cultural activity ... … by making available books, periodicals, talking books and other suitable materials. x
  36. 36. Create knowledge share Workshops labs Learning and participation Courses, clubs and forums Inspiration, communities and experiences Events, presentation and interaction Easy access and flexible library facilities Digital library, extended opening hours and modern physical libraries Literature, music, movies and databases Efficient collection development and digitisation Digitisation Digital service Self service User involvement Volunteers Partnerships The value pyramid
  37. 37. Napkin logic
  38. 38. Napkin logic
  39. 39. The proactive library The Classical Library Media as scarce resourcesMedia as scarce resources Library collection central for citizenLibrary collection central for citizen The citizen comes to the library Recommendations from experts The collection as centre of attention Visits and loans as KPI Library system as key system The proactive library Abundance of media Attention as the scarce resource The library comes to the citizen Recommendation from peers The citizen as centre of attention Focus on effect and target groups Customer relations management system as key system Access and presentation Learning and user involvement
  40. 40. Getting smarter together! Homework cafés It-courses It-cafés Literature presentation at schools Author presentations Reading campaigns Guidance in high schools Individual guidance in the library Reading clubsEvents New concepts Digital library service Self-service Digitisation Citizen involvement Everything you can imagine
  41. 41. The digital library
  42. 42. The development of a digital library • A public digital library is not the library homepage • It can be defined as: – An organised collection of information resources and related services that is made available to the public on the internet • Notice that it also includes access to physical materials e.g. through an integrated library system
  43. 43. The need for a digital strategy • A digital library can be as traditional and irrelevant as a an outdated physical library • For instance by relying on a homepage • The digital library must support the overall library strategy • It-systems and development must support the purpose of the digital library • There is a need to prioritise and make choices • If there is no plan, it is guaranteed not to work
  44. 44. eReolen : a cornerstone Please see separate slideshow later 
  45. 45. The digital library requires new competencies • Access independent of time and space is the main advantage of a digital library and digital service • But access is not enough • The internet is not just a distribution platform – it is also an ongoing conversation • It requires new competencies, a new way of thinking and more resources • But it must be closely linked to the physical library
  46. 46. Social media – new expertise Time and attention are commodities. Most marketers treat social media as a distribution channel. They are missing the fact that social networks are the first platforms ever that are actually a two-way conversation. Now what makes you a good cocktail party guest? Is it talking about yourself for 95% of the time? In a connected world, you can’t just sell copies of files. You also have to sell context, community, convenience, and connectivity 1.pdf
  47. 47. Strategy overview
  48. 48. General action areas
  49. 49. External target groups Strategic focus Initiatives Effect Schools and youth education Critical information users and keen readers • The large assignments • Library introduction and social media norms • Homework help and support • Literature presentation and inspiration • Events for schools and youth education The best educated generation + = Active citizens All Copenhageners can contribute to the city’s development • Reading clubs • Digital Copenhagener • Community centres • Debate and open government • Read Danish Strong and diverse local communities+ = Children and culture Culturally quality-aware and inquisitive children Cultural foundation for the good children’s life+ = • The 2-year book • Parents and children • Children and art • The digital children’s library • Network for children’s culture
  50. 50. The citizen as the library’s most important asset • Citizens get smarter together (than they do individually) • The library has ambitions on behalf of the citizen – and it’s felt! • The library must serve all citizens; but not all are created equal • Loans are not the purpose of the library • Digital solutions and self-service are not sufficient to fulfil the purpose of the library • Learning and cultural activity is enhanced by activities with other citizens • The library purpose is fulfilled by deliberate planned activities • The library supports reading and digital competencies • The library is a space for conversations among citizens based on literature and other media • Volunteers are not used to replace library employees but to deliver a new and different offer
  51. 51. • A so-called package • Invest €5.6 over four years; then save 1/3 of that annually afterwards from year 4 • An implementation of the strategy • A godsend to our digital strategy • For some a herald of doom df#overlay-context=About
  52. 52. The elements of the plan Targeted library service Differentiated service and increased self- service User involvement and voluntary work Digital service Outreach initiatives Investments It-systems Service development Competence development Digitisation Digital library New library system for digital media New library system for printed materials More e-books Integrated citizen service Integration with libraries Citizen service at employment centres and social services Digital Copenhagener courses
  53. 53. The librarians
  54. 54. Collective pool of work hours in case of self-service 2.500 daily work hours(340 x 7,4) distributed to new services Thought experiment
  55. 55. Digital service – call center • Joint e-mail, phone, chat and interactive screen service • Open 8 am – 10 pm • Reduction of individual guidance in the physical library • Supports growing need for assistance with digital materials SCREEN TECHNOLOGY Face to face
  56. 56. JOINT TASKS & EXPERTISE NEW ROLES % ? % ? % ? % ? % ? % ?
  57. 57. 01-07-2016