Roelof Hol

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Sharing Archives: Nation State and National Identity in a Global World. The Mutual Cultural Heritage Program of the Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands
Roelof Hol

Archives without borders
August, 30th 2010
Peace Palace, The Hague

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  • Rusland en USA ontbreken: vermelden
  • Gezamenlijke projecten: Cursus Behoudmedewerker (ICN&NA) GCE-publicatie (ICN, NA&RcE) Actieve deelnemers: RcE, ICN, NA i.s.m. ambassades in de prioriteitslanden (loketfunctie) RCE & ICN: short time: merging EN heeft platformfunctie (facilitair, communicatie etc)
  • Multilaterale projecten: betreffen meer dan één land Behoefte hiervoor geuit tijdens Connecting Archives Conferentie De ‘Nederlandse’ archieven in de GCE-landen en –uiteraard- die van het Nationaal Archief zijn grotendeels in de Nederlandse taal en in een handschrift dat vaak moeilijk te lezen is. De vaardigheid om dit archiefmateriaal te kunnen lezen en begrijpen is onontbeerlijk bij het beheer en beschikbaar stellen ervan. Onderzocht moet worden in hoeverre deze faciliteiten al aanwezig zijn in de partnerlanden en hoe deze eventueel te creëren, in nauwe samenwerking met archiefinstellingen, bibliotheken en universiteiten.
  • Het Nationaal Archief heeft als één van haar doelen het vergroten van het publieksbereik van archiefmateriaal. Wat betreft het archiefmateriaal met betrekking tot het Gemeenschappelijke Verleden kan dit gerealiseerd worden door digitalisering van relevant archiefmateriaal en het aanbieden van transcribeer- en andere vertaalmogelijkheden.
  • Joint heritage: archives belongiong, given to the context of creation, to the heritage of 2 or more states and which cannot be physically dived without lozing their hstorical or administrative value (in kader tribunaalarchieven discussie) verschil memory en heritage! Code of ethics; art 2: archieven moeten bewaard blijven in hun archivistische, wettelijke, administratieve en historische context evt nog initiatief van Carbica 2004 Int archiefcongres Wenen: shared memory
  • Fr, Uk veel meer materiaal naar eigen land gesleept dan bv NL ttv koloniale periode: archieven veelal nog in de administratieve fase gezien, dus bewaren in overheidsgebouwen, weinig nationale (? want dat bestond nog niet!) archiefgebouwen Splitsing NL-Be: bij verdrag archiefstatus bepaald in 1839, natuurlijk wel nog problemen, maar veelal praktische oplossingen: bv alle finan stukken mbt uit MvF zo rond 1849 naar Be Elten en Tudderen terug naar Dtsl: bij verdrag bepaald of stukken naar Dtsl gingen of naar NL (ik dacht in Elten naar NL, Tudderen naar Dlts Trunk with documentes form Austro-Hungarian family Rakoczy: fled after WW 1,records kept by NA, agreement on returning document to free Hungary, after entering Hungary to EU documents returned to National Archives in Biad-pest Archiefruil NL-Be: 1953-1954 Repatriering NL-Dtsl: direct na WO 2, 1974-2004,Rusland-NL begin 21 ste eeuw Oostenrijk?? Of was dat onderdeel Duitse ruil uit 1926?
  • ladnsarchief 1872: protesten nadat dreigde dat archieven versleept zopuden worden naar NL, LA=voorloper ANRI fase 1; bv Djokjadocumenten (inbelsaggenomen tijdens politionele acties), archief Procureur-Generaal voor WO 2, docuemtnen over Soekarno fase 2; gemenschappelijke inventarissen NL en Indonesiedeel: accesability plus microfilms TANAP: Towards Age of New Archival partnership, vooral gericht op conservatiron and toegankelijkheid VOCmaterialen
  • Transfer; start in 1916, standpunt Ara toen al: ze moeten terug op moment dat goede bewaring gegarandeerd is Digitiozation: noemen dat in NL bijna net zoveel Surinamers wonen als in Suriname zelf
  • proces ‘oplossing ‘ Ned Antillen: BES-=gemeente, St. Maarten zelfst, Curacopa zelfstandig en Aruba was dat al, herporionering van huidige Centraal Archief in Willemstad, in zoverre dubbel want zowel intern binnen Antillen (Curcao met CA en de rest) als alle deelnemers richting NA NL Global/national identity/mutual-joint etc heritage wordt just heirtage, daarmee relatie naar global
  • picture Frans van Dijk/GCE
  • Roelof Hol

    1. 1. What is Mutual Cultural Heritage : framework regarding nation and national identity <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>“ MCH we define as remnants of a past that the Dutch shared with others: buildings, archives, schipwrecks, museum object and immaterial heritage This might be heritage in other countries dating from the time of VOC (Dutch eats indies company) and the WIC (West Indian Company or from our colonial past in Asia, Africa and South-America </li></ul><ul><li>International archival aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>*since 70ties reports by Unesco, ICA, CITRA on shared memory, joint heritage </li></ul><ul><li>*1995 ICA: View of the archival community settling disputed archival claims </li></ul>
    2. 2. Countries involved Mutual Cultural Heritage
    3. 3. <ul><li>Conservation & preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening & training local capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarging the awareness of mutual history </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarging the accesability MCH-archives </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating the research in MCH-archives </li></ul>Targets MCH-program Mutual Cultural Heritage
    4. 4. <ul><li>Financed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Each year: 2 M euro, 1 by the heritage institutions and 1 by the Dutch embassy in MCH-country </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant projectproposals by national or local institutions through embassies and heritage institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Heritageinstitutions: no direct money, expertise, manpower, training etc. </li></ul>Finances Mutual Cultural Heritage
    5. 5. MCH-Program: Dutch institutions involved Program NA Program ICN ProgramRcE
    6. 6. Multilateral Projects: example Paleografie <ul><li>Archival records written in Dutch from the 17th and 18th century: incomprehensible for local researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Inventorisation of problems and solutions on paleography and the Dutch language </li></ul><ul><li>Coöperation with archival and university institutions necessary </li></ul>Mutual Cultural Heritage
    7. 7. MCH-Program: future <ul><li>MCH-conference in November 2010: development international portal in cooperation with Dutch heritage Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting relationships between countries involved in the MCH-program but also broadenin g of the geographiccal scope </li></ul><ul><li>Main targets: lasting cooperation, durability preservation of archives and global accesability through digitzation </li></ul>Mutual Cultural Heritage
    8. 8. Sharing Archives: nation and national identity in a global world: principles <ul><li>Decolonisation: issues of transferring archives, returning archives </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative, historical, emotional reasons for debate </li></ul><ul><li>Report Unesco 1976: sharing memories, joint heritage, </li></ul><ul><li>ICA 1995; view of the archival community on settling disputed archival claims: </li></ul><ul><li>1. inalienability of archives </li></ul><ul><li>2. inalienability of provenance </li></ul><ul><li>3. the right of access </li></ul><ul><li>4. international coöperation </li></ul><ul><li>Code of ethics: art. 2 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sharing archives: nation and national identity in a global world: practical issues <ul><li>History: differences between colonial countries regarding keeping the colonial records: over ther or @ home </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation issues: tropical situation </li></ul><ul><li>Quality process of seperation </li></ul><ul><li>Practical considerations: some Dutch examples </li></ul><ul><li>1. Seperation Kingdom of Belgium and The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>2. Returning occupied German territories after WW II </li></ul><ul><li>3. Private archive of refugee from Austrian-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Seperate actions on exchanges of historical documents or repatriation after WW II </li></ul><ul><li>Line of treaties prevailed </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sharing archives: nation and national identity in a global world: case study Indonesia <ul><li>Historical background: Landsarchief around 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Historical background: independance 1945-1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Process of separation: difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Phase I: returning material </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II: preservation, microfilming, accessability </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia and Nationaal Archief: microfilming, training archivists </li></ul><ul><li>Historical material colonial period: about 10 km </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions: archivistic principles and innterests of researchers prevailed, continuous cooperation (TANAP, MCH) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sharing archives; nation and national identity in a global world: case study Suriname <ul><li>Historical background: no specific archival building in 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered archives: transfer of archives to the Netherlands in 1916 and later years </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement on returning the archives in 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: housing according to standard, trained staff </li></ul><ul><li>Program returning Archives: 3.8M Euros, 7 years, ca. 800 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1; conservation and preservation of damaged material </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2; Digitization of all the archives that are returned </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions: no principle issue on returning archives, prevailing interests of researchers as well as in Suriname as in The Netherlands </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sharing archives: nation and national identity in a global world: fuutre developments and possibilities <ul><li>Dutch Antilles: dissolution of the Dutch Antilles and archival issues </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Nationaal Archief: continuity existing plans </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions to possible issues: digitization </li></ul><ul><li>Sensible to emotional values relevant to national identity </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual heritage: just heritage? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. New Nationaal Archief Suriname

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