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Non-Cognitive Predictors of Student Success:
A Predictive Validity Comparison Between Domestic and International Students
RESULTS
Thermal and bioprocessing treatments selectively
alter the flavour and texture properties of climate-
smart gluten free crops. This insight allows for
tailored processes for different end products.
BACKGROUND
Wheat-based bakery products have become popular among
the population of Sub-Saharan Africa. At the moment 60% of
wheat is imported. Locally grown climate-smart crops, such
as sorghum, cassava, and cowpea are possible alternatives
to wheat. The same crops could be used for European
markets as these are gluten free flours. However, certain
sensory properties like the bitter flavour and poor texture,
need to be improved before more widespread use. The
study and modification of these crops for bakery products
has been the focus of the LEAP-AGRI funded “Nutrifoods”
project.
GOALS AND HYPOTHESES
With sorghum the main goal was to improve the techno-
functional properties by (bio)processing and without causing
off-flavours. With cowpea the target was to decrease the
beany flavour and also improve techno-functionality.
METHODS
Sorghum and cowpea samples were either treated with
enzymes, lactic acid bacteria fermentation, steaming,
roasting or extrusion. For sensory evaluation, the treated
flours were mixed 1:1 with cassava and water and baked
into flatbreads. The sensory space of the samples was
overviewed using Projective Mapping with a trained sensory
panel (n = 11 and 12, 50% females, 24-44 years). The
sensory data was analyzed using Multiple Factor Analysis
with the Factominer library in RStudio.
PRESENTER:
Heikki Aisala
Flavour modification
of gluten-free African
crops for bakery
products via
bioprocessing
and thermo-mechanical
treatments
DISCUSSION
Overall, the fermentation and extrusion trials
produced the most unique samples.
Steaming and roasting reduced the beany
flavour of cowpea samples. Enzymes added
malty and roasted flavours but resulted in
thinner breads. Fermentation mainly added
sourdough rye bread flavour and made
lighter and chewier samples. Extrusion
minimally affected the flavor, but resulted in
a softer, more elastic texture. Thus, different
processes should be used for different
applications.
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTAL
Corolase: serine protease, AB Enzymes; Viscozyme:
carbohydrase, Novozymes; Alcalase: alkaline
protease, Novozymes. Enzyme treatment for 4 h at
55 °C. Roasting: 110/130/150 °C for 30 minutes.
Steam treatment: 100 °C for 30 minutes, followed with
drying at 70 °C for 30 min. Fermentation: Pediococcus
pentosaceus VTT E-153483 Lactobacillus plantarum
VTT E-981034, 24 h, 30 °C.
Flatbreads: batter consisted of flour mixture and water
with 0.25% NaCl in a 2:1 ratio. Baking was performed
in a preheated oiled muffin pan. 7.5 ml of batter was
added to each well and baked at 220 °C for 6 minutes.
AUTHORS
Aisala, H. 1, Nikinmaa, M. 1, Bozzhigitova,
D. 1, Dankwa, R. 2, de Kock, H. L. 2 Rosa-
Sibakov, N. 1, Nordlund, E.1
1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
2 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
This project received
funding from the European
Union Horizon 2020
research and innovation
programme under grant
agreement 727715.
Alcalase + NaOH
Control
Corolase
Extruded 130 °C
Extruded 90 °C
Fermented
Fermented + enzymes
NaOH control
Viscozyme Viscozyme
(replicate)
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0
Dim 1 (38%)
Dim2(22%)
Sorghum flavour
Control
Corolase
Extruded 130 °C
Fermented
Fermented
+ enzymes
Roasted 110 °C
Roasted 110 °C
(replicate)
Roasted 130 °C
Roasted 150 °C
Steamed
Viscozyme
-2
0
2
4
6
-5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5
Dim 1 (34%)
Dim2(19%)
Cowpea flavour
Alcalase + NaOH
Control
Corolase
Extruded 130 °C
Extruded 90 °C
Fermented
Fermented +
enzymes
NaOH
control
Viscozyme
Viscozyme #2
-5.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4
Dim 1 (48%)
Dim2(17%)
Sorghum appearance and texture
Control
Corolase
Extruded 130 C
Fermented
Fermented
+ enzymes
Roasted 110 °C
Roasted 110 °C
(replicate)
Roasted 130 °C
Roasted 150 °C
Steamed
Viscozyme
-4
-2
0
2
4
-5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0
Dim 1 (45%)
Dim2(15%)
Cowpea appearance and texture
Sorghum seeds and flour Sorghum flatbreads Cowpea flatbreads Cowpeas and flour

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VTT's Heikki Aisala: Flavour modification of gluten-free African crops

  • 1. Non-Cognitive Predictors of Student Success: A Predictive Validity Comparison Between Domestic and International Students RESULTS Thermal and bioprocessing treatments selectively alter the flavour and texture properties of climate- smart gluten free crops. This insight allows for tailored processes for different end products. BACKGROUND Wheat-based bakery products have become popular among the population of Sub-Saharan Africa. At the moment 60% of wheat is imported. Locally grown climate-smart crops, such as sorghum, cassava, and cowpea are possible alternatives to wheat. The same crops could be used for European markets as these are gluten free flours. However, certain sensory properties like the bitter flavour and poor texture, need to be improved before more widespread use. The study and modification of these crops for bakery products has been the focus of the LEAP-AGRI funded “Nutrifoods” project. GOALS AND HYPOTHESES With sorghum the main goal was to improve the techno- functional properties by (bio)processing and without causing off-flavours. With cowpea the target was to decrease the beany flavour and also improve techno-functionality. METHODS Sorghum and cowpea samples were either treated with enzymes, lactic acid bacteria fermentation, steaming, roasting or extrusion. For sensory evaluation, the treated flours were mixed 1:1 with cassava and water and baked into flatbreads. The sensory space of the samples was overviewed using Projective Mapping with a trained sensory panel (n = 11 and 12, 50% females, 24-44 years). The sensory data was analyzed using Multiple Factor Analysis with the Factominer library in RStudio. PRESENTER: Heikki Aisala Flavour modification of gluten-free African crops for bakery products via bioprocessing and thermo-mechanical treatments DISCUSSION Overall, the fermentation and extrusion trials produced the most unique samples. Steaming and roasting reduced the beany flavour of cowpea samples. Enzymes added malty and roasted flavours but resulted in thinner breads. Fermentation mainly added sourdough rye bread flavour and made lighter and chewier samples. Extrusion minimally affected the flavor, but resulted in a softer, more elastic texture. Thus, different processes should be used for different applications. ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTAL Corolase: serine protease, AB Enzymes; Viscozyme: carbohydrase, Novozymes; Alcalase: alkaline protease, Novozymes. Enzyme treatment for 4 h at 55 °C. Roasting: 110/130/150 °C for 30 minutes. Steam treatment: 100 °C for 30 minutes, followed with drying at 70 °C for 30 min. Fermentation: Pediococcus pentosaceus VTT E-153483 Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-981034, 24 h, 30 °C. Flatbreads: batter consisted of flour mixture and water with 0.25% NaCl in a 2:1 ratio. Baking was performed in a preheated oiled muffin pan. 7.5 ml of batter was added to each well and baked at 220 °C for 6 minutes. AUTHORS Aisala, H. 1, Nikinmaa, M. 1, Bozzhigitova, D. 1, Dankwa, R. 2, de Kock, H. L. 2 Rosa- Sibakov, N. 1, Nordlund, E.1 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 2 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa This project received funding from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 727715. Alcalase + NaOH Control Corolase Extruded 130 °C Extruded 90 °C Fermented Fermented + enzymes NaOH control Viscozyme Viscozyme (replicate) -2.5 0.0 2.5 -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 Dim 1 (38%) Dim2(22%) Sorghum flavour Control Corolase Extruded 130 °C Fermented Fermented + enzymes Roasted 110 °C Roasted 110 °C (replicate) Roasted 130 °C Roasted 150 °C Steamed Viscozyme -2 0 2 4 6 -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 Dim 1 (34%) Dim2(19%) Cowpea flavour Alcalase + NaOH Control Corolase Extruded 130 °C Extruded 90 °C Fermented Fermented + enzymes NaOH control Viscozyme Viscozyme #2 -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Dim 1 (48%) Dim2(17%) Sorghum appearance and texture Control Corolase Extruded 130 C Fermented Fermented + enzymes Roasted 110 °C Roasted 110 °C (replicate) Roasted 130 °C Roasted 150 °C Steamed Viscozyme -4 -2 0 2 4 -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 Dim 1 (45%) Dim2(15%) Cowpea appearance and texture Sorghum seeds and flour Sorghum flatbreads Cowpea flatbreads Cowpeas and flour