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Survey of future 3D design tech in fashion & clothing industry

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Summary of the survey results

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Survey of future 3D design tech in fashion & clothing industry

  1. 1. VTT 2018 1 Survey of Future 3D Design Tech in Fashion & Clothing Industry Summary of the survey results
  2. 2. 2VTT 2018 • The 3D design technology in fashion and clothing industry survey was planned, formed and organized as part of the DICI project in collaboration between VTT Technical Research of Finland and NOMO Technologies Ltd (NOMO 3D). • A primary goal of the questionnaire was to collect data from professionals in clothing and textile industry in order to study utilization and needs related to 3D design technologies. • Technology companies can utilize the results when planning 3D design technology initiatives for fashion and clothing industry. • An online questionnaire was open one month (from May 31st to June 30th 2018) and 67 professionals from the apparel sector responded to the questionnaire. • The questionnaire consisted of three main themes: • Background information • Utilization of digital solutions • Digital tools and future of clothing and textile industry • This document presents the summary of survey results. Background
  3. 3. 3VTT 2018 What does your company do? 28,4 % 19,4 % 11,9 % 0,0 % 11,9 % 28,4 % 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Clothing manufacturer Fashion brand (that outsources the production) Bespoke service firm Retailer (that also provides tailor services) Freelancer (clothing designer for example) Other, please specify: N=67 Other options include e.g.: • Clothing buyer • Education • Alteration and repair services • Fashion design in a game industry (19/67) (13/67) (8/67) (0/67) (8/67) (19/67)
  4. 4. 4VTT 2018 What size is your company? 52,2 % 19,4 % 9,0 % 19,4 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Micro size (from 1 to 9 employee) Small size (from 10 to 49 employee) Medium size (from 50 to 249 employee) Large size (more than 249 employee) N=67 (35/67) (13/67) (6/67) (13/67) Three most represented professions by respondents: • Fashion designer (34.3 %) • Pattern maker (26.9 %) • Garment technologist (23.9 %)
  5. 5. 5VTT 2018 If you work with measurements, do you work with… Multiple choice question (113 selections in total) 46,3 % 53,7 % 56,7 % 11,9 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Actual body measurements Standard size chart (for example ISO, Passeli, ...) Company-owned size chart Other, please specify: N=67 (31/67) (36/67) (38/67) (8/67)
  6. 6. 6VTT 2018 How often is your size chart updated? 15,8 % 31,6 % 13,2 % 7,9 % 13,2 % 18,4 % 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Annually Every 3-5 years Less frequently than every five years Not updated at all I don't know Other, please specify: N=38 Criteria: "Company-owned size chart selected" in earlier question (N=38) (6/38) (12/38) (5/38) (3/38) (5/38) (7/38)
  7. 7. 7VTT 2018 Do you use different sizing for different collections or brands or target groups? Criteria: "Company-owned size chart" or "Standard size chart" selected in the earlier question (Number of those respondents is 53; 14 respondents (~20,9%) did not use those charts at all). 67,9 % 32,1 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Yes No N=53 (36/53) (17/53)
  8. 8. • The following factors were especially highlighted in terms of sizing related differentiation. 1. Business and marketing related factors: • Market area • Brands • Fashion trends • Garment types 2. Human related factors: • Gender • Age • Body types/shapes 8VTT 2018 How different sizing differ from each other? Criteria: Response in a previous question "Yes" question (N=36). “The trendier collection has more length, and hips and waist narrower than the in the corresponding collection for older ladies. The size of the table comes from the collection's brand.” “[Different sizing] for Europe, China and India customers.” “The ranges are different for different target groups.“
  9. 9. 9VTT 2018 In order to create a good size chart for collection and garment, what information would be important? Criteria: "Company-owned size chart" or "Standard size chart" selected in the earlier question (Number of those respondents is 53; 14 respondents (~20,9%) did not use those charts at all. • The following factors were especially highlighted in terms of important information for creating a good size chart. • Body measurements • Body type/shape • Properties of a garment material • Knowledge about the target group • Body composition; muscular body vs. non-muscular body with more adipose tissue • Naturally a needed amount of measurements varies highly between different garment types, e.g. coat vs. t-shirt.
  10. 10. 10VTT 2018 Which of the following ways of taking body measurements have you experienced in a work context? Multiple choice question (89 selections in total) 95,5 % 17,9 % 11,9 % 6,0 % 1,5 % 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Traditional tape measure 3D body scanner Scanning applications that integrated in your mobile phone I don't take body measurements Other, please specify: N=67 (64/67) (12/67) (8/67) (4/67) (1/67)
  11. 11. 11VTT 2018 What is the average time in minutes to manually take body measurements for the following garments? Criteria: "Traditional tape measure" selected in the earlier question (N=64) 10,0 7,8 9,5 9,3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Jacket Trousers Dress Shirt Minutes Total avg. time (min) Garment Total avg. time (min) I don't know N Jacket 10,0 25 39 Trousers 7,8 23 41 Dress 9,5 26 38 Shirt 9,3 26 38
  12. 12. 12VTT 2018 How many body measurements are needed for the following garments? Criteria: "Traditional tape measure" selected in the earlier question (N=64) Garment Avg. body measurement times I don't know N Jacket 11,6 16 48 Trousers 7,1 16 48 Dress 10,8 19 45 Shirt 9,8 18 46 11,6 7,1 10,8 9,8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Jacket Trousers Dress Shirt Measurementtimes Avg. body measurement times
  13. 13. 13VTT 2018 What are the most difficult body parts to measure correctly? Choose all options that are applicable. Other option include e.g.: • Width of a back • Height of a waist measured from a shoulder, when a big sized person Multiple choice question (90 selections in total)Criteria: "Traditional tape measure" selected in the earlier question (N=64) 31,3 % 14,1 % 7,8 % 18,8 % 32,8 % 6,3 % 3,1 % 20,3 % 6,3 % 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% N=64 (20/64) (9/64) (5/64) (12/64) (21/64) (4/64) (2/64) (13/64) (4/64)
  14. 14. 14VTT 2018 What can be done to minimize unnecessary alteration for a ready-made garment? • The following factors were highlighted in order to minimize unnecessary alteration. • Good base work (preparation) • More body measurements / minimizing errors • Good patterns • Meticulousness in a work • Good communication and instructions (e.g. between design and pattern making) “Measures taken more carefully.” “Understanding customer preferences.” “Good spec sheets/ explanations for factory, reference images for fit and styling details, detailed drawings.” “Good communication between the designer and the planner.”
  15. 15. 15VTT 2018 What is the acceptable tolerance (measurement accuracy) of body measurements, in your opinion? Which of the following options indicate tolerance for measurement of 1,000 mm? 0,0 % 22,4 % 35,8 % 17,9 % 16,4 % 7,5 % 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% +0.0 mm +2.0 mm +5.0 mm +10.00 mm I don't know Other, please specify: N=67 Other, please specify: • Depends on a product/model/material (0/67) (15/67) (24/67) (12/67) (11/67) (5/67)
  16. 16. 16VTT 2018 Which of the following systems have you used in the process of producing garments? 80,6 % 46,3 % 20,9 % 11,9 % 9,0 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Traditional/manual pattern making/garment designing (with papers and pens/pencils) 2D system for pattern making/garment designing 3D system for pattern making/garment designing I don't use above systems in my work. Other, please specify: N=67 Multiple choice question (113 selections in total) (54/67) (31/67) (14/67) (8/67) (6/67)
  17. 17. 17VTT 2018 What are benefits and challenges of traditional systems? Criteria: "Traditional systems" selected in the earlier question (N=54) • The following factors were highlighted as benefits and challenges regarding traditional systems: • Benefits: • Supports creativity • Trustful • Low cost • Ease to use, fast (individual perspective) • Challenges: • Error sensitivity • Time-consuming (process perspective) • Storing/archiving patterns “Fastness, best way to make quick sketches and sketch notes.” “Familiar experience, but good 3D perception skills are needed…slow” “You can physically see the pattern, put it on the stand. It's more convenient for beginners.” “Benefits - it is well known, with old traditions, feels more trustful. Challenges - human factor mistakes, time consuming.” “The challenges of digitization afterwards.” “Touch and creative feeling. It arises by using a pen and paper in a hand. It can be different from the screen, in my opinion.” ” In any case, files must be on a computer to be used in a production.” ”When the computer is not a continuous tool, it is faster to work with pen and paper.” “Challenges are interpretation of sketches, as designers often like to make them look life-like, however for a pattern cutting they are better really flat, no wrinkles and folds etc.”
  18. 18. 18VTT 2018 What are benefits and challenges of 2D systems? Criteria: "2D systems" selected in the earlier question (N=31). • The following factors were highlighted as benefits and challenges regarding 2D systems: • Benefits: • Ease of use (e.g. grading) • Speed • Capacity for modifications • Challenges: • Requires training and/or good perceptive skills in 3D • Human body and garments are 3-dimensional → 2-dimensional layout gives a limited presentation “Work gets easier / faster. you can see the results of the job faster” "Fast and efficient, replicable.“ ”Fast, exact information remains, adaptation of a pattern.” “Speed, easy to repair and experiment with different options, when having good manual skills.” “Shape is difficult for untrained eye to see” “…fluent interpretation requires long experience or a special perception skills in 3D.” "People are three-dimensional, live and mobile, numbers and front-back do not tell everything."
  19. 19. 19VTT 2018 What are benefits and challenges of 3D systems? Criteria: “3D systems" selected in the earlier question (N=14). • The following factors were highlighted as benefits and challenges regarding 3D systems: • Benefits: • 3-dimensional representation of a final outcome • Speed • Eases prototyping • Challenges: • Requires training • 3D fitting issues ”Editing of 3D fit model is difficult and model’s position can go wrong giving a wrong image about a fit.” ”Taking measures with scanners save time and it is always possible to go back and check the customer’s avatar. Scanners enable taking measurements that are impossible to take manually.” ”Fast iterations are definitely the plus.” ” Easy to understand the final look of a garment.” “As a challenge, garment simulation and testing of functionality over a digital character“ ”A new software must be learn, it gets old and there is a need for updates.”
  20. 20. 20VTT 2018 How do you fit garment samples in a production process? Multiple choice question (94 selections in total) Criteria: "3D systems, 2D systems, traditional systems or Other" selected in the earlier question (N=62) 96,8 % 48,4 % 6,5 % 0,0 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% On actual human body On tailor’s dummy 3D body model Other, please specify: N=62(60/62) (30/62) (4/62) (0/62)
  21. 21. 21VTT 2018 If you were provided with 3D body models of your customer or fit model, would this information be useful for your job? 61,2 % 6,0 % 32,8 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Yes No I don't know N=67 (41/67) (4/67) (22/67)
  22. 22. 22VTT 2018 If you were provided with body measurements from your customer's or fit model’s 3D model, would these digital measurements be useful in your job? 62,7 % 7,5 % 29,9 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Yes No I don't know N=67 (42/67) (5/67) (20/67)
  23. 23. 23VTT 2018 If you were provided with precise measurements of certain body surface area, which you can’t measure or it is time consuming to measure in traditional way, for example, bust/chest volume or measurements of the buttock shape (especially on curvy or muscular body), would this information be useful for your job? 59,7 % 10,4 % 29,9 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Yes No I don't know N=67 (40/67) (7/67) (20/67)
  24. 24. 24VTT 2018 Where would you use 3D body models? Criteria: "Yes" selected in the previous question (N=41) The fitting and grading were especially highlighted when utilizing 3D body models. Where would you use digital measurements? Criteria: "Yes" selected in the previous question (N=42) Comparing/checking measures were especially highlighted when utilizing digital measurements. Where would you use precise measurements of a certain body surface area? Better garment fit and detail placement (e.g. position of a pocket) were especially highlighted when utilizing precise measurements of a certain body surface area. Criteria: "Yes" selected in the previous question (N=40)
  25. 25. 25VTT 2018 Which of the following software tools have you used in a garments production process? Multiple choice question (125 selections in total) 67,2 % 10,4 % 4,5 % 3,0 % 20,9 % 16,4 % 28,4 % 3,0 % 14,9 % 17,9 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR CLO 3D & MARVELOUS DESIGNER V-STITCHER LOTTA GRAFIS® CAD SOFTWARE VERSION 12 GERBER LECTRA OPTITEX I have not used any programs Other, please specify: N=67 (45/67) (7/67) (3/67) (2/67) (14/67) (11/67) (19/67) (2/67) (10/67) (12/67)
  26. 26. 26VTT 2018 Where do you use above systems in garment production process? 61,4 % 47,4 % 15,8 % 26,3 % 52,6 % 8,8 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Sketch/Design Patterns Garment fittings Lay plans Production instruction Other, please specify: N=57 Criteria: Some of the available program options selected in the earlier question (N=57) (35/57) (27/57) (9/57) (15/57) (30/57) (5/57) Multiple choice question (121 selections in total)
  27. 27. 27VTT 2018 86,6 % 3,0 % 10,4 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Yes No I don't know N=67 Would you be interested in to design clothes in the future by using 3D software tools, which enable designing clothes directly into the 3D scanned body model? (58/67) (2/67) (7/67)
  28. 28. 28VTT 2018  Over half of survey respondents represented micro-size companies.  A minority of professionals have used 3D body scanners (17.9 %) or mobile scanning applications (11.9 %) in their work.  Most professionals saw 3D body models (61.2 %), digital body measurements (62.7 %) and precise measurements of a certain body surface area (59.7 %) as useful for their work. Only a small minority of respondents did not see them useful and less than one third of respondents were not able to say whether they would be useful or not for their work.  Measurement and sizing related requirements (e.g. accuracy) vary based on human and business related factors.  Requirements for updating size charts varies clearly based on the targets of use.  About one fifth (20.9 %) of professionals have used 3D systems for pattern making or garment designing.  Professionals commonly used software tools in a garment production process. Most commonly used tools were used for making sketch/design, patterns and production instruction.  A clear minority of professionals (6.5 %) have fit garment samples on a 3D model in a garment production process.  A large majority of professionals (86.6%) were interested in to use 3D SW tools, which would enable designing clothes directly into the 3D scanned body model. Only 3 % of respondents were not interested in to use these tools in the future.  The most highlighted potential future benefits of emerging 3D technologies were more effective processes (incl. a reduced need for a traditional sample making) and the ability to provide more personalized products with a better fit for customers. Brief summary
  29. 29. 29VTT 2018  There is a clear interest to utilize 3D based solutions in the future by apparel industry professionals. However, a further development is still needed in many areas; e.g. improving ease of use of applications. That requires a close collaboration between domain and technology experts.  Many apparel companies in Finland are micro-size companies or SMEs, which does not have a financial opportunities to invest expensive and large 3D systems. Thus, there is a need for diverse 3D solutions by different types of companies.  Emerging digital solutions regarding 3D body models and human body measurements are seen as useful by professionals and these solutions can support their work in many ways in the future.  Emerging Industry 4.0 trend presents new models of operation to the whole industry (see e.g. Bellemare, 2018) and at the same time requires new digital competences from professionals (Wang & Ha-Brookshire, 2018).  New technologies (e.g. 3D technologies) will change traditional roles of designers, makers and users, and enable new business models (Sun & Zhao, 2018) e.g. through the apparel customization and collaborative design (Wang et al., 2018).  Advancements in 3D modeling and digital costume design in a game industry provides opportunities also for the apparel industry (Makryniotis, 2018). Future insights References: Bellemare, J. (2018). Fashion Apparel Industry 4.0 and Smart Mass Customization Approach for Clothing Product Design. In Customization 4.0 (pp. 619-633). Springer, Cham. Makryniotis, T. (2018). Fashion and Costume Design in Electronic Entertainment—Bridging the Gap between Character and Fashion Design. Fashion Practice, 10(1), 99-118. Sun, L., & Zhao, L. (2018). Technology disruptions: exploring the changing roles of designers, makers, and users in the fashion industry. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 1-13. Wang, B., & Ha-Brookshire, J. E. (2018). Exploration of Digital Competency Requirements within the Fashion Supply Chain with an Anticipation of Industry 4.0. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 1-10. Wang, L., Shen, B., & Liu, X. (2017). The Value of Design Collaboration in the Fashion Business: A Literature Review. The Design Journal, 20(6), 795-820.
  30. 30. VTT 2018 30 For more information please contact Satu-Marja Mäkelä Senior Scientist, Project Manager VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Email: satu-marja.makela@vtt.fi Additional information

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