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20100415 herman ridderinkhof_zeeonderzoek_nioz


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20100415 herman ridderinkhof_zeeonderzoek_nioz

  1. 1. Sea research at NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) Herman Ridderinkhof
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Marine technology </li></ul><ul><li>3. Examples of sea research </li></ul>North Sea Wadden Sea Our Location
  3. 3. Our History in a Nutshell 1876 Zo o logical Station Main building harbour 1970-present Texel - NIOZ 1890-1970 Den Helder - Zoological Station/NIOZ
  4. 4. Why Sea Research ? <ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>71 % of our planet’s surface consists of Oceans and Seas </li></ul>Of great importance for: - Climate - Safety - Food supply - Transport/shipping - Energy supply: oil, gas, wind- en wave energy - Recreation <ul><li>60% of the world’s population lives and works in coastal areas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Our mission <ul><li>The mission of NIOZ is to gain and communicate scientific knowledge on seas and oceans for the understanding and sustainability of our planet. The institute also facilitates and supports marine research and education in the Netherlands and in Europe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organisation Mar. Chemistry and Geology Ships Marine Technology Board/ directors Marine Ecology Biological Oceanography Physical Oceanography Marine Biogeochemistry Science departments Nat. Foundation for Scientific Research 25 25 Universities, etc 200 National Marine Equipment Pool
  7. 7. The annual Budget (2009) <ul><li>Basic subsidy NWO (RES) 12.5 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>National Research Cruise Programme NWO (MRF) 1.0 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Income from externally funded research projects </li></ul><ul><li>(NWO-ALW, EU, NL-ministries, Internat.-industry): 8.5 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Other income: 1.0 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Total/year: 23 M€ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Our speciality: studies based on observations at sea <ul><li>Our fleet </li></ul>‘ Pelagia’ ‘ Navicula’ ‘ Stern’ (Tern) Flatboat ’t Horntje’
  9. 9. Marine equipment: combination of ‘off the shelf + specials (home built) fluoresence-turbidity salinity temperature Currents Living animals to test responses
  10. 10. Instruments for very specific purposes Mussel monitor
  11. 11. Home built for very specific purposes MOVE: Mobile Vehicle for seafloor observations High pressure sampler for sampling in the deep sea (under pressure)
  12. 12. NIOZ research activities in the oceans, some examples <ul><li>Functioning of marine ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water corals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate variability, present en past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present: role of the oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing by internal waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…… .. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. (Known) Global distribution of cold water corals <ul><li>Cold water (4° - 13°C) </li></ul><ul><li>Below light-zone (40 – 2000 m) </li></ul><ul><li>spreading: 71° N to 60°S </li></ul><ul><li>mainly along continental slopes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why studying cold water corals <ul><li>Hotspots of ocean biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Modern examples of mound building, potential oil and gas reservoirs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why studying cold water corals Threats: deep sea fisheries and climate change (acidification by uptake of CO2)
  16. 16. Global overturning circulation connects all oceans and is very important for climate
  17. 17. Scientific (and public) attention for ocean-climate interaction is high due to model (and Hollywood) scenarios suggesting that: A strong reduction or reversal of the deep ocean circulation might have dramatic consequences for the climate on the northern hemisphere, especially in western Europe.
  18. 18. 1999 2001 2002 2000 Sea surface temperature and altimetry from satellites show year to year variability Transport around Africa important component of global system
  19. 19. 1999 2001 2002 2000 Different Dutch studies in 2000-2001 in region around South Africa
  20. 20. Pilot observations (en route) in 2000-2001
  21. 21. Observed currents at narrowest section: dominated by eddy
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Drifter trajectories confirm eddies + interaction with Agulhas current
  24. 24. Results from pilot study <ul><li>No continuous boundary current (current- and navigational atlases are wrong) </li></ul><ul><li>Eddies dominate </li></ul><ul><li>(strong northward undercurrent) </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on Agulhas (and thereby on Atlantic MOC) </li></ul><ul><li>(problems with moorings due to unexpected strong currents) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Since 2003: funding via LOCO (Long-term Ocean Climate Observations) Long term (2003-2010) current meter moorings in the Mozambique Channel; servicing every 1.5-2 years via OFEG shiptime
  26. 26. Instrumentation used in in-situ research in the global oceans
  27. 27. Observed currents at top moorings Estimated volume transport during one year Role of the oceans in climate variability: variability in ocean currents
  28. 28. Results from the LOCO period (since November 2003): volume transport
  29. 29. Typical picture of current intensities in the deep sea nearby the continental slope; spatial distribution caused by internal waves Mixing in the deep ocean by internal waves
  30. 30. Vertical stratification in density support: internal gravity waves 100 m Warm, fresh Cold, salty Internal waves in the deep ocean: what? and why are they important 3-D: ‘ beam’ generation above sloping bottoms pycnocline beamangle ~N, freq. f < freq. < N
  31. 31. <ul><li>affects sediment transport and biology </li></ul><ul><li>strongly affects the large-scale meridional overturning circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Many aspects (observing + understanding) still unknown: </li></ul><ul><li>Required (budgets) diapycnal diffusivity, K ρ ,= 10 -4 m 2 s -1 </li></ul><ul><li>mixing induced half by wind; half by tides? </li></ul><ul><li>mixing induced by breaking internal waves? </li></ul><ul><li>Observed open ocean values K ρ = 10 -5 m 2 s -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Large values possibly achieved by a small number of highly variable (spatial and temporal) concentrated sources </li></ul><ul><li>Internal waves may drive mean flows </li></ul>Vertical mixing is caused by (breaking) internal waves; essential for deep sea functioning
  32. 32. model ADCP transect observations Present opportunities for high-frequency observations with enough spatial resolution ( e..g ADCP’s) make observational research on internal waves possible Internal wave studies in Bay of Biscay: observations and modelling