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Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
Michael Corey, Ntirety, Inc
Jeff Szastak, VMware
VAPP4724
#VAPP4724
Jeff Szastak
Jeff Szastak
MSIA, CISSP, VCP, MCSE, etc.
Staff Systems Engineer – Enterprise Healthcare
VMware, Inc.
Microso...
Michael J Corey, Founder & CEO
Oracle Press Books Include:
Oracle 11g A Beginner’s Guide
Oracle 10g A Beginner’s Guide
Ora...
Michael Webster
Shameless Plug
<Your Name Here>
DataTone – The New World Order
Why Customers Are Virtualizing
Databases (Business Critical
Applications)
VMware
Concise Set
Very
Efficient
Drivers
Focused
Driver Set
Well
Vetted O/S
Hardware Resource
O/S
Du Jour
Many
Drivers
Ma...
Why Your Company Cares: Virtualization is Strategic
1:1 relationship between applications and hardware
Relevant cost metri...
Memory Hot Add / CPU Hot Plug
Reduction in CPU Utilization
Increased processing rate
Adding Memory
Oracle – Hot Plug vCPU
Oracle - Hot Add Memory
Oracle database memory parameters are defined at
instance startup. You will have to restart the da...
1St Time Goal of Consistency Standardization
Can Be Achieved
“Any Resource, Any Server, At Any Time” in the (Pool)
The 10
...
Trigger Points When to Virtualize
Architecting for Performance:
The Right Hypervisor
New Features in 5.5
 62 TB VMDK files
 Support for Reliable Memory
 Hot pluggable SSD PCIe devices
 Windows Failover C...
Is your database to “Big” to Virtualize?
Very Large ERP System
• 75+ application tiers – VMware/RHEL
• 8 TB database; 8.8 billion rows of data
• 52 million transac...
Performance Test Environment (topology)
VMware vSphere 5.1
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6.3
Oracle 11gR2 (11.2.0.3) Sin...
Workload Characteristics
• OLTP type of workload with a read write ratio of 2:1
• Oracle Database size of 600GB
• workload...
Performance Results
• Virtualization has ~5% overhead as
compared to native
• The database tps on a virtual
machine is 5% ...
Performance Results (contd)
• For both virtual and native, by
moving from 2P (12 cores) to 4P (24
cores)
- The database tp...
Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
Lessons Learned Tier-1
VIP: What Works in Tier-2 (non-production),
will not always work with Tier-1 (production)”
Doing It Right 1st Time: Very Conservative
Designed to Insure You Avoid Common Traps &
Pitfalls Associated with Production...
Starting Out Right
Doing It Right: Read Best Practices Guides
Read The Documentation
From All Your Vendors……
VMware, Microsoft, Storage
Vendo...
Professional Association of SQL Server
http://virtualization.sqlpass.org/
“Take Advantage of All resources Available to Yo...
IOUG Cloud Computing SIG - Oracle
Meetup Groups – MYSQL
http://longwhiteclouds.com/
Most Up To Date Information
Installation
• Planyour SQL Server installation
SLAs, RPOs, RTOs
Baseline current workload, at least 1 business cycle
B...
Planning a High Availability Strategy
 Requirements
• Recovery Time Objective (RTO)
• What does 99.99% availability reall...
Baseline, Baseline, Baseline
Warning, Warning Warning : If Your
physical environment does not
perform well…….
Why will mak...
What to Baseline – IT Food Groups
Existing Physical Database Infrastructure
Existing/Proposed vSphere Infrastructure
Net...
When You Base Line a database
 Make Sure The Sample Interval Is frequent
CPU, Memory, Disk (15 Seconds or less)
 SQL Se...
Oracle 12c Cloud Control/DB Express
The Default thresholds for alerting in Cloud Control
12c good starting point
Migrations - The Bigger Picture
Database As A Service – Road Map
Multiple Tier Approach
• Different levels for different DB placement
• Basic and Premium...
Understand Workload Resource
Requirements
Basic performance characteristics (CPU, memory, IO, Network)
• Daily average res...
vSphere Environment
SQL Server Baseline
These are suggested values - work with
your DBAs to determine their KPIs
SQL Server Perfmon Counters
These are suggested values - work with your DBAs to determine their KPIs
SQL Profiler Counters
These are suggested values - work
with your DBAs to determine their
KPIs
Migration – Baseline: Physical (disk) Pre
LogicalDiskAvg Disk sec/Read read latency
LogicalDiskAvg Disk sec/Write write la...
Migration – Baseline: Virtual (disk) Post
 Export output Excel, and
graphed using a variety of
tools, such as Jonathan
Ke...
Determine IOPS & Throughput
ORION (Part of 11.2 now)
sudo -u root ./orion_linux_x86-64 -run advanced -testname traxpoc -nu...
Oracle Calibrate I/O Tip
Don’t keep it a Secret
• DBA’s – tell vSphere, Storage, and Network Admins your
needs
– Storage: (IOPS / throughput)
– CPU...
Before You Install A Database
• Do basic throughput testing of the IO subsystem
prior to deploying a Database
• Tools you ...
Should You PV (Via Converter)
Production Environment’s Build “New” From
Scratch – GI/GO
SQL Server - Unattended Installation Options
VMware vCAC + App Director
Command Line
• http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/l...
ORACLE- Unattended Installation Options
You At the VMworld
Party While your
Database is
Provisioned
VMware vCAC + App Dire...
Phone-A-Friend
VMware has stated that it will take the ______support call if
a customer calls ______ Support and ______ Su...
Use SQL Server/Oracle recommended
installation guidelines for respective
operating system – same as
physical !
Physical Wo...
If your OS and database don’t know they
are virtualized do you need to tell them?
Did You Hear That?
Architecting For Performance:
Design
OLTP
 Large amount of small queries
 Sustained CPU utilization during working hours
 Sensitive to peak contentions (slo...
OLTP vs. Batch Workloads
 What this says:
• Average 15% Utilization
• Moderate sustained activity
(around 28% during work...
OLTP vs. Batch Workloads
 What This Means
• Better Server Utilization
• Improved Consolidation Ratios
• Less Equipment To...
“Many Tier-2 were built for
capacity not performance”
Separate development, test from
production environments into different
host clusters in the beginning !
Where?/What Year Was The
First Documented Use Of The
Word “Nerd” ?
The Year Was 1950
More VMs vs. More DB Instances
More VMs
• Better resource isolation
• Better security, patch
management
• Better Performan...
General Rule of Thumbs
• Resource utilization is the basics, but not all
• Consider business, security, management, and ot...
Architecting For Performance:
Storage
Storage
• The fundamental relationship between
consumption and supply has not
changed
• Spindle count and RAID
configurati...
More I/O In Flight to the Array
Use VMFS vs. RDM
• VMFS Advantages
– Negligible performance cost and
superior functionality
– Ability to take full advanta...
Thin Provisioning Perf / Block Zeroing
MBs I/O Throughput
 USE use Thick Eager Zerod Disk for
best performance
 Maximum ...
Database Thick Provision Eager Zeroed Options
Inflation
Storage vMotion
Windows
vmkfstools
- VMware KB 1011170
- vmkfstool...
Optimizations – SQL Server: Disk
 Disk
• Instant file initialization – add SQL
Server service account to
PERFORM VOLUME M...
SQL Server: System Databases
Tempdb
• Depending on workload, consider creating multiple tempdb files
• Microsoft recommend...
Storage Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) adapters
PVSCSI adapters are high-performance storage
adapters that can result in greate...
PVSCSI adapters are best suited for
environments, especially SAN
environments, where hardware or
applications drive a very...
Always Check Storage Vendors
Best Practices
“>80% of the issues
in a virtualized
Environment have
to do with Storage
misco...
Storage – Putting It All Together
• Work with storage engineer, deliver realistic requirements
early in the cycle
• Size f...
Storage – Putting It All Together
•Understand the path to the drives, i.e. throughput, multi-
pathing
•Use eagerzeroedthic...
The Bottom Line
“>80% of performance
problems with
virtualization occur at
the storage layer”
Now that you know, don’t
let...
Architecting For Performance:
Processor
vCPU’s – Hyper-Threading
hyper-threading processor to appear as two
"logical" processors to the host operating system
vCPU’s
• With Databases Avoid Over Commitment of
Processor Resources till have “actionable”
performance data you can scale...
Hardware Generation Matters
• Use the latest processors
• Support for Hardware
Assisted Virtualization
• H/W assist for CP...
Processor – Putting It All Together
• Leverage hardware-assisted virtualization (enabled by default)
• Consider avg. and p...
Architecting For Performance:
Memory
Optimizations SQL Server: Memory
Memory – Max / Min
 Min is set to 0
• only change when the OS is
requesting memory for o...
MAX SQL MEM Example
Example: 32 Gig RAM Dedicated to Environment
 Set MAX SQL MEM =28G
 (2 Gig O/S + 2 For the Physical...
Running Multiple Instances on Same VM
Two options, and do nothing is not one of them
Option 1: Use max server memory
• Cre...
SQL Server: Memory
Lock Pages in Memory
• This may keep SQL more responsive when paging occurs
• SQL Server Lock Pages in ...
SQL Server: Memory
Lock Pages in Memory
 This keeps SQL more responsive when paging occurs
 SQL Server Lock Pages in Mem...
Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA)
• NUMA, avoiding the performance hit when several processors
attempt to address the same ...
Simple Example
• 4 Core System Representing
4 NUMA Nodes
• 128Gig RAM
• Each NUMA Node = 32 Gig Ram
Non-Uniform Memory Acc...
Memory ALLOCATED TO VM
Is Determined by….
• DRS Shares/Limits**
• Total Memory of the Host
• Reservations
• Memory Load of...
Swapping Occurs in Two Places
• Guest VM Swapping
• ESXi Host Swapping
Swapping can slow
down I/O performance
of disks for...
Ballooning, Memory Compression, Swapping
Slow You Down
Stating the Obvious
Is Google You Best Friend….
“There is the Google DBA,
The GUI DBA ,
or the DBA that does all the
work” Charles Kim
Don’t Shut Off Memory Ballooning
Ballooning
is You First
Line of
Defense
How Many VMs can I Put on Host?
As many whose active memory will fit in
physical RAM, while leaving some room for
memory ...
Total Memory Demand
Active memory (%ACTV) of VM’s +
Memory Overhead – Page sharing of
VM’s (DE-Duping)
DE-Duping = Transpa...
Transparent Page Sharing more
effective The more similar the
VM’s are
“Put Like Operating
Systems On Same
Physical Host”
TPS – When It Kicks In
• Very Very very
Low Overhead
• Only Kicks in
When
Absolutely
Needed !
• This is incorrect guidance floating around the Internet – Here’s why:
Reference: www.vmware.com/files/pdf/mem_mgmt_perf_...
Disable Unecessry Foreground
Background Processes Within Guest O/S
• Example Windows
– Alerter, automatic updates, clip bo...
Memory Reservations
• The VM is only allowed to
power on if the CPU and
memory reservation is
available (strict admission)...
Reservations Rock !
• Set the appropriate reservations to
guarantee physical memory for the VM.
• In many cases, the confi...
Oracle Approximate Memory Architecture
Set the memory reservation to SGA size plus OS.
(Reservation & configured memory mi...
Reservations and vswp
Setting a reservation creates a 0.00 K
Large/Huge Pages
“Large/Huge PAGES Do Not Normally SWAP”
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021095
In the cases where host memory is...
Oracle – Hugepages
/etc/security/limits.conf to set soft and hard limits.
oracle soft nofile 131072
oracle hard nofile 131...
 Use large pages in the guest (start SQL Server w/ Trace flag –T834)
SQL Server In-Guest Memory Best Practices
Memory – Putting It ALL Together
• Do not overcommit memory for production, mission
critical SQL Server VMs
• Set provisio...
Architecting For Performance:
Network
Jumbo Frames
• Jumbo frames are
Ethernet Frames Ethernet
with more than 1500
bytes of payload.
Conventionally, jumbo
frame...
Jumbo Frames
The original 1500-byte
payload size for
Ethernet frames was
used because of the
high error rates and
low spee...
Data Movers, Pick One
Jumbo Frames
“Most Problems have to do with a problem in the Shared Disk Storage System”
“Jumbo Frames Good
For The Shared...
Enable Jumbo Frames
Check to seeWill Suceed
ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac01a-priv
ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac01b-priv
ping -...
SQL Server: Network
Network
 Default packet size is 4,096
• If jumbo frames are available
for the entire stack, set packe...
Jumbo Frames
“Cost of Reducing To 1500
Bytes Then Back Again is
Very Expensive”
Splitting Is Bad
Network – Putting All Together
• Separate SQL workloads with chatty network traffic (Microsoft
Always On – Are you there) ...
AlwaysOn Availability Group Cluster Settings
Depending on YOUR network, tuning may be
necessary – work with Network Team ...
WSFC – Cluster Validation Wizard
125
Use this to validate support for your configuration
• Required by Microsoft Support ...
SQL Server Best Practice Analyzer
126
 Use SQL Server Best Practice Anaylzer to check local or remote
systems
• If runnin...
Thank You
Michael Corey
Michael.corey@ntirety.com
Blog: http://michaelcorey.ntirety.com
http://www.dbtablog.com/
@Michael_...
THANK YOU
Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
Michael Corey, Ntirety, Inc
Jeff Szastak, VMware
VAPP4724
#VAPP4724
Because Your Awesome
Appendix
“More Information You Can Use”
132
Block Alignment
 Configure storage presented to ESX Hosts via vCenter to ensure
VMFS block alignment
 Even though Wi...
File Block Alignment 10-40% Perf Hit
When Not Aligned Additional I/O occurs
(1 I/O now equals 2+)
File Block Alignment
• When Aligned 1 I/O equals 1 I/O, One Time
Setup Cost!
VMDK’s Created In vCenter 5
Are Aligned with a one MB offset
.
This is consistent with NTFS File System
(Windows 7 and Win...
Useful Links
Deployment Guides, Best Practices, Whitepapers
for SQL, Oracle, Exchange, SAP
vmware.com/go/bca
VMware Blog
b...
Useful Links
137 Confidential
VMware Technical Resource Center – Performance
• www.vmware.com/technical-resources/performa...
Useful Links
138 Confidential
Hardware and Software Requirements for Installing SQL 2012
• http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us...
Useful Links
139 Confidential
Availability Modes (AlwaysOn Availability Groups)
• http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/...
• Simulate SQL Server disk I/O patterns using a generic tool, such as
IOMeter;
• Test to make sure requirements (throughpu...
• Cisco UCS B440
• Intel Nehalem EX processor
• CPU – 128 Cores
• CPU utilization 10%
• OS – Red Hat Linux / vSphere
• Sto...
11i Performance Statistics
“Right Sized – Everything Got Better”
11i Perf Improvements - Online
CXP transaction times
(sec)
50%-90% reduction in times for online
transactions (i.e. 2-10 t...
Replay duration will be about 4 times faster
11i Perf improvements - Batch
Sales job timings (sec) CS job timings (sec)
85...
Microsoft Support
Microsoft ensures same technical
support on ESX Servers as physical
servers
Microsoft Premier Support ...
NUMA
• SQL Server is NUMA aware
– MSDN - How SQL Handles NUMA
• vSphere 4.1 added Wide NUMA
• vSphere 4.1 CPU Scheduler
NUMA
• vSphere 5 added vNUMA
– Enabled on VMs with greater than 8 vCPUs
• To manually modify (.vmx file)
– numa.vcpu.maxPe...
Exceeding Host Memory can lead to ballooning,
Memory Compression or Swapping
Swapping can slow
down I/O performance
of dis...
Check Memory Utilization
Start esxtop
Press M to display memory counters
Check Memory Utilization
Start esxtop
Press M to display memory counters
Esxtop and It’s Counters
http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-9279
Esxtop and It’s Counters
80% Problems Caused With Configuration of Disk Subsystem
Large/Huge Pages
RockDo Not Get Benefit of TPS
(Transparent Page Sharing)
SQL Server AlwaysOn – Client Connectivity
• SQL Server instance network
name
• Virtual Network Name bound to
an availabili...
Now Let’s Apply that to SQL 2012
Should you Lock Pages in Memory on a AlwaysOn Secondary
Node?
Should I set a vSphere me...
VMworld 2013: Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
VMworld 2013: Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
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VMworld 2013: Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right

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VMworld 2013

Michael Corey, Ntirety, Inc
Jeff Szastak, VMware

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VMworld 2013: Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right

  1. 1. Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right Michael Corey, Ntirety, Inc Jeff Szastak, VMware VAPP4724 #VAPP4724
  2. 2. Jeff Szastak Jeff Szastak MSIA, CISSP, VCP, MCSE, etc. Staff Systems Engineer – Enterprise Healthcare VMware, Inc. Microsoft Exchange & SQL virtualization BC/DR SME @szastak Blog contributor: blogs.vmware.com/apps www.virtualinsanity.com
  3. 3. Michael J Corey, Founder & CEO Oracle Press Books Include: Oracle 11g A Beginner’s Guide Oracle 10g A Beginner’s Guide Oracle 9i - A Beginner's Guide Oracle8i - Data Warehousing Oracle8i - A Beginner's Guide Oracle8 - Data Warehousing Oracle8 – Tuning Oracle8 - A Beginner's Guide Oracle - Data Warehousing Oracle - A Beginner's Guide Tuning Oracle- 81-3; 1994) Key Past/Current Affiliations: Past President of the IOUG Founding Board IOUG Virtualization SIG Past Member IOUG Board of Directors Past Director of Education IOUG Founder Professional Association of SQL Server Talkin’Cloud Top 200 Channel Partner Experts Cloud Past Member Microsoft Data Warehouse Council Past Member Oracle Educational Advisory Council Past Director of Conferences IOUG Alive Executive Board Massachusetts Robert H. Goddard Council on Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics Started Working with Oracle Version 3.0 Beta Tested Oracle 5,6,6.2,7,8.X,9.X.…. Presented on Technology & Business Topics from Brazil to Australia Worked with Oracle on UNIX, Linux, Windows, MVS,VM, VMS,..
  4. 4. Michael Webster Shameless Plug <Your Name Here>
  5. 5. DataTone – The New World Order
  6. 6. Why Customers Are Virtualizing Databases (Business Critical Applications)
  7. 7. VMware Concise Set Very Efficient Drivers Focused Driver Set Well Vetted O/S Hardware Resource O/S Du Jour Many Drivers Many Versions New Driver’s Can Cause Issues
  8. 8. Why Your Company Cares: Virtualization is Strategic 1:1 relationship between applications and hardware Relevant cost metric = cost per server • 8% - 12% Utilization is typical Many:1 relationship between applications and hardware Relevant cost metric = cost per application • 60 - 80% Utilization: is typical • 60% reduction in CapEx • 30% reduction in OpEx • 80% reduction in Energy Physical World 1 :1 Virtual World Many :1 The New Norm “Can You Say Right-Sizing”
  9. 9. Memory Hot Add / CPU Hot Plug Reduction in CPU Utilization Increased processing rate Adding Memory
  10. 10. Oracle – Hot Plug vCPU
  11. 11. Oracle - Hot Add Memory Oracle database memory parameters are defined at instance startup. You will have to restart the database to take advantage of added memory. Unless you have set SGA_MAX_SIZE To big Typically… SGA_TARGET_SIZE = (+-) SGA_MAX_SIZE or could be wasting memory http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/sol utions/oracle/Oracle_Databases_VM ware_Workload_Characterization_St udy.pdf
  12. 12. 1St Time Goal of Consistency Standardization Can Be Achieved “Any Resource, Any Server, At Any Time” in the (Pool) The 10 Millionth Model T was produced on June 4, 1927
  13. 13. Trigger Points When to Virtualize
  14. 14. Architecting for Performance: The Right Hypervisor
  15. 15. New Features in 5.5  62 TB VMDK files  Support for Reliable Memory  Hot pluggable SSD PCIe devices  Windows Failover Clustering (MSCS) • Support for Windows 2012 Clustering • Round Robin path policy for shared storage • iSCSI protocol for shared storage (5 Node) • FCoE protocol for shared storage (5 Node) • vSphere App HA Policies  VMFS Heap Improvements  vSphere Flash Read Cache  vSAN for Test / Dev VMware.com  What’s New in vSphere 5.5
  16. 16. Is your database to “Big” to Virtualize?
  17. 17. Very Large ERP System • 75+ application tiers – VMware/RHEL • 8 TB database; 8.8 billion rows of data • 52 million transactions per day • 79K IOPS • 40K blocks per second interconnect traffic • 40,000+ named users • 4,000+ peak concurrent users Source EMC “Yes This is Virtualized”
  18. 18. Performance Test Environment (topology) VMware vSphere 5.1 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6.3 Oracle 11gR2 (11.2.0.3) Single Instance and RAC 3PAR StoreServ 10400 192 x 15K RPM Fibre Channel Disks 32 x 150K RPM Solid State Disk (SSD) ProLiant DL580 G7 (client) Intel® Xeon® CPU X7560 @ 2.26 GHz (8 cores) 128GB memory ProLiant BL660c Gen8 - 4 sockets / 24 cores (database server) Intel® Xeon® CPU E5-4610 @ 2.40 GHz (6 cores) 64GB memory HP Virtual Connect FlexFabric 10Gb/24-Port Module “Recent “HP” Performance Study – Choose Your Vendor DU-JOUR
  19. 19. Workload Characteristics • OLTP type of workload with a read write ratio of 2:1 • Oracle Database size of 600GB • workload is an implementation of an online store • The driver program simulates users logging in, browsing for products by title, or category, adding selected products to their shopping cart, and then purchasing those products
  20. 20. Performance Results • Virtualization has ~5% overhead as compared to native • The database tps on a virtual machine is 5% less than that on the physical machine. • 2P represents 12 cores and 4P represents 24 cores • For 100 users the delta is ~6% and that increases up to ~10% for 1700 users. • When the system gets busier, native starts to have a slightly larger advantage over virtualization.
  21. 21. Performance Results (contd) • For both virtual and native, by moving from 2P (12 cores) to 4P (24 cores) - The database tps increases by 40% to 50% - The CPU utilization drops from 80% to 60% • For RAC , by moving from 2P (12 cores) to 4P (24 cores) - The database tps increases by 40% to 60% - The CPU utilization drops from 75% to 60% “Who Architects a Database With Less than 5% Overhead - One Busy Day Your Done”
  22. 22. Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right
  23. 23. Lessons Learned Tier-1 VIP: What Works in Tier-2 (non-production), will not always work with Tier-1 (production)”
  24. 24. Doing It Right 1st Time: Very Conservative Designed to Insure You Avoid Common Traps & Pitfalls Associated with Production Databases being Virtualized
  25. 25. Starting Out Right
  26. 26. Doing It Right: Read Best Practices Guides Read The Documentation From All Your Vendors…… VMware, Microsoft, Storage Vendor, Network Vendor…. Appendix of this deck
  27. 27. Professional Association of SQL Server http://virtualization.sqlpass.org/ “Take Advantage of All resources Available to You”
  28. 28. IOUG Cloud Computing SIG - Oracle
  29. 29. Meetup Groups – MYSQL
  30. 30. http://longwhiteclouds.com/
  31. 31. Most Up To Date Information
  32. 32. Installation • Planyour SQL Server installation SLAs, RPOs, RTOs Baseline current workload, at least 1 business cycle Baseline existing (workload) vSphere implementation Estimated growth rates I/O requirements (I/O per sec, throughput, latency) Storage (Disk type/speed, RAID, flash cache solution, etc) Software versions (vSphere, Windows, SQL) Product Keys Licensing (may determine architecture) Workload type (OLTP, Batch, Warehouse) Accounts needed for installation / service accounts High Availability strategy Backup & Recovery strategy “If you aim at nothing, you will hit it every time” – Zig Ziglar
  33. 33. Planning a High Availability Strategy  Requirements • Recovery Time Objective (RTO) • What does 99.99% availability really mean? • Recovery Point Objective (RPO) • Zero data lost? • HA vs. DR requirements  Evaluating a technology • What’s the cost for implementing the technology? • What’s the complexity of implementing, and managing the technology? • What’s the downtime potential? • What’s the data loss exposure? Availability % Downtime / Year Downtime / Month * Downtime / week "Two Nines" - 99% 3.65 Days 7.2 Hours 1.69 Hours "Three Nines" - 99.9% 8.76 Hours 43.2 Minutes 10.1 Minutes "Four Nines" - 99.99% 52.56 Minutes 4.32 Minutes 1.01 Minutes "Five Nines" - 99.999% 5.26 Minutes 25.9 Seconds 6.06 Seconds * Using a 30 day month
  34. 34. Baseline, Baseline, Baseline Warning, Warning Warning : If Your physical environment does not perform well……. Why will making it Virtual make it perform better? IF so how? • New Hardware, Faster CPU, Faster Drives
  35. 35. What to Baseline – IT Food Groups Existing Physical Database Infrastructure Existing/Proposed vSphere Infrastructure NetworkMemory Disk CPU
  36. 36. When You Base Line a database  Make Sure The Sample Interval Is frequent CPU, Memory, Disk (15 Seconds or less)  SQL Server TSQL (1 Minute) “A Lot can happen in a short amount of time”
  37. 37. Oracle 12c Cloud Control/DB Express The Default thresholds for alerting in Cloud Control 12c good starting point
  38. 38. Migrations - The Bigger Picture
  39. 39. Database As A Service – Road Map Multiple Tier Approach • Different levels for different DB placement • Basic and Premium • Basic = Low utilization, test / dev DBs • Premium = Moderate to High utilization, production, high visibility • Different underlying hardware • Different SLAs, RTO, RPOs and HA between tiers Center of Excellence • Assist with migrations, net new DBs and Capacity Management • Communication, no “throwing it over the wall” • VMware, SAN, Network, DB teams to discuss DB migrations • Optional Teams: Security, Procurement
  40. 40. Understand Workload Resource Requirements Basic performance characteristics (CPU, memory, IO, Network) • Daily average resource usage • Daily peak resource usage • Daily peak hours • Month-end, quarter-end, year-end peaks Monitoring Tools • Windows Perfmon • Processor(*)  %Processor Time • Process(sqlservr)  %Processor Time • SQLServer:Memory Manager  Total Server Memory (KB) • PhysicalDisk(*)  Disk Reads/Sec, Disk Writes/Sec • PhysicalDisk(*)  Disk Reads Bytes/Sec, Disk Write Bytes/Sec • Network Interface(*)  Bytes Received/Sec, Bytes Sent/Sec
  41. 41. vSphere Environment
  42. 42. SQL Server Baseline These are suggested values - work with your DBAs to determine their KPIs
  43. 43. SQL Server Perfmon Counters These are suggested values - work with your DBAs to determine their KPIs
  44. 44. SQL Profiler Counters These are suggested values - work with your DBAs to determine their KPIs
  45. 45. Migration – Baseline: Physical (disk) Pre LogicalDiskAvg Disk sec/Read read latency LogicalDiskAvg Disk sec/Write write latency LogicalDiskDisk Read Bytes /sec Read throughput LogicalDiskDisk Write Bytes /sec Write throughput LogicalDiskDisk Reads/sec Read IOPS LogicalDiskDisk Writes/sec Write IOPS LogicalDiskDisk Transfers/sec Combined IOPS
  46. 46. Migration – Baseline: Virtual (disk) Post  Export output Excel, and graphed using a variety of tools, such as Jonathan Kehayias’ Powershell script.  Compare the results against the required IOPS as measured in the pre- deployment assessment.
  47. 47. Determine IOPS & Throughput ORION (Part of 11.2 now) sudo -u root ./orion_linux_x86-64 -run advanced -testname traxpoc -num_disks 20 -cache_size 8000 -duration 240 -matrix basic SLOB (Silly Little Oracle Benchmark) Calibrate I/O – Native to Oracle starting in 11.1 SQL> declare 2 l_latency integer; 3 l_iops integer; 4 l_mbps integer; 5 begin 6 dbms_resource_manager.calibrate_io 7 (5,10,l_iops,l_mbps,l_latency); 8 dbms_output.put_line ('max_iops = '||l_iops); 9 dbms_output.put_line (’latency = '||l_latency); 10 dbms_output.put_line ('max_mbps = '||l_mbps); 11 end; 12 / max_iops = 5348 latency = 10 max_mbps = 641 Other Free Tools: • Swingbench • TPC Benchmark • Custom scripts How do you know for sure? Oracle’s - $$$: Database Replay
  48. 48. Oracle Calibrate I/O Tip
  49. 49. Don’t keep it a Secret • DBA’s – tell vSphere, Storage, and Network Admins your needs – Storage: (IOPS / throughput) – CPU: (MHz) – Memory: (Total GB) – Network: Bandwidth – Features (i.e.: Windows clustering) – Anticipated Growth Rates – Anticipated Activity – Other “They Flunked Mind Reading”
  50. 50. Before You Install A Database • Do basic throughput testing of the IO subsystem prior to deploying a Database • Tools you can use – SQLIO/IOMETER – Slob….. “Check It Before You Wreck it” -- Jeff Szastak
  51. 51. Should You PV (Via Converter) Production Environment’s Build “New” From Scratch – GI/GO
  52. 52. SQL Server - Unattended Installation Options VMware vCAC + App Director Command Line • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms144259 Configuration File • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd239405 Sysprep • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee210664 • FYI – Available as of SQL Server 2008 R2
  53. 53. ORACLE- Unattended Installation Options You At the VMworld Party While your Database is Provisioned VMware vCAC + App Director DBCA Silent Install http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/install.112/e24321/app_nonint.htm#CIHHFDGG RAC Silent Install http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/install.112/e24660/cripts.htm#RILIN1119
  54. 54. Phone-A-Friend VMware has stated that it will take the ______support call if a customer calls ______ Support and ______ Support is being difficult because the customer is running on VMware. • Hint……. “TSANET.ORG--- Hardware or Software”
  55. 55. Use SQL Server/Oracle recommended installation guidelines for respective operating system – same as physical ! Physical World 1 :1 Virtual World Many :1 Same As Physical
  56. 56. If your OS and database don’t know they are virtualized do you need to tell them? Did You Hear That?
  57. 57. Architecting For Performance: Design
  58. 58. OLTP  Large amount of small queries  Sustained CPU utilization during working hours  Sensitive to peak contentions (slow downs affects SLA)  Generally Write intensive  May generate many chatty network round trips  Typically runs during off-peak hours, low CPU utilization during the normal working hours  Can withstand peak contention, but sustain activity is key Batch / ETL Database Workloads Types DSS  Small amount of large queries  CPU, memory, disk IO intensive  Peaks during month end, quarter end, year end  Can benefit from inter-query parallelism with large number of threads
  59. 59. OLTP vs. Batch Workloads  What this says: • Average 15% Utilization • Moderate sustained activity (around 28% during working hours 8am-6pm) • Minimum activities during non working hours • Peak utilization of 58%  What this says: • Average 15% Utilization • Very quiet during the working day (less than 8% utilization) • Heavy activity during 1am-4am, with avg. 73%, and peak 95% Batch Workload (avg. 15%) OLTP Workload (avg. 15%)
  60. 60. OLTP vs. Batch Workloads  What This Means • Better Server Utilization • Improved Consolidation Ratios • Less Equipment To Patch, Service, Etc • Saves Money/Less Licensing OLTP/Batch Combined Workload
  61. 61. “Many Tier-2 were built for capacity not performance”
  62. 62. Separate development, test from production environments into different host clusters in the beginning !
  63. 63. Where?/What Year Was The First Documented Use Of The Word “Nerd” ?
  64. 64. The Year Was 1950
  65. 65. More VMs vs. More DB Instances More VMs • Better resource isolation • Better security, patch management • Better Performance • Less Risk Fewer VMs (More instances) • Less expensive in some licensing models • No OS isolation (configuration, security, fault) • No resource isolation • Less Segmentation (HIPPA, PCI,…..) Note: Both Work, Both Valid Strategies
  66. 66. General Rule of Thumbs • Resource utilization is the basics, but not all • Consider business, security, management, and other requirements • Consider workload characteristics • OLTP workloads can be stacked up to a sustained utilization level • OLTP workloads that are high usage during day time, and batch workloads that run during off-peak hours mixed well together • Batch/ETL workloads with different peak periods share well together • Consider operational history, e.g. month end, quarter end • Additional VMs may be added to handle peak period during month end, quarter end, and year end if scale out is a possibility • CPU, memory hot-add may be used to handle the peak workload • Reduce VM density, or add more hosts to the cluster
  67. 67. Architecting For Performance: Storage
  68. 68. Storage • The fundamental relationship between consumption and supply has not changed • Spindle count and RAID configuration still rules • host demand is an aggregate of VMs • Factors that affect storage performance • storage protocols • storage configuration • VMFS configuration (Separate LUN’s, All on one LUN, Does it even matter?) VMFS
  69. 69. More I/O In Flight to the Array
  70. 70. Use VMFS vs. RDM • VMFS Advantages – Negligible performance cost and superior functionality – Ability to take full advantage of future functionality enhancements (Future Awesomeness) • Align VMFS on 64K boundaries – Automatic with vCenter – www.vmware.com/pdf/esx3_partitio n_align.pdf • With vSphere 4.1 – Use VAAI (Storage API)* • With vSphere 5.x – Use VASA (Storage API)* 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4K IO 16K IO 64K IO VMFS RDM (virtual) RDM (physical)IOPS VMFS Scalability * Work With Storage Vendor For Details
  71. 71. Thin Provisioning Perf / Block Zeroing MBs I/O Throughput  USE use Thick Eager Zerod Disk for best performance  Maximum Performance happens eventually, but when using lazy zeroing, zeroing needs to occur before you can get maximum performance  At minimum Databases, LOGS, TEMPDB  Check with Storage Vendor to see how they handle Thin Provisioning. Your Mileage may vary http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsp_4_thinprov_perf.pdf
  72. 72. Database Thick Provision Eager Zeroed Options Inflation Storage vMotion Windows vmkfstools - VMware KB 1011170 - vmkfstools –D “My VM.vmdk - Eager or zeroedthick - vmkfstools –k “My VM.vmdk - converts to eager Zeroed
  73. 73. Optimizations – SQL Server: Disk  Disk • Instant file initialization – add SQL Server service account to PERFORM VOLUME MAINTAINCE TASK under User Rights Assignment in Local Policies of Server’s settings. • By default, every time the database file needs to grow, OS will zero fill this file & block writes until complete • Adding requires a restart of the SQL Service, • removal requires a reboot http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms175935(v=SQL.105).aspx
  74. 74. SQL Server: System Databases Tempdb • Depending on workload, consider creating multiple tempdb files • Microsoft recommends 1 datafile per CPU • Isolate tempdb from database and logs, and consider dedicated vSCSI adapter • Verify via testing http://technet.microsoft.com/library/Cc966534 Oracle - No Datafile to CPU relationship
  75. 75. Storage Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) adapters PVSCSI adapters are high-performance storage adapters that can result in greater throughput and lower CPU utilization. • Up to 30% CPU Savings • Up to 12% I/O Improvement Paravirtual Adapter Knows Its Virtual * Very Important to Use Most Current Version
  76. 76. PVSCSI adapters are best suited for environments, especially SAN environments, where hardware or applications drive a very high amount of I/O throughput. PVSCSI adapters are not suited for DAS (Direct Attached Storage) environments. Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) Storage Adapters
  77. 77. Always Check Storage Vendors Best Practices “>80% of the issues in a virtualized Environment have to do with Storage misconfigurations”
  78. 78. Storage – Putting It All Together • Work with storage engineer, deliver realistic requirements early in the cycle • Size for performance, not capacity • Large number of small drives, not small number of large drives • More / faster spindles are better for performance • Understand the I/O requirements of different workloads • Transactional data vs. log vs. backup • OLTP vs. DSS “Golden Rule: Capacity Versus Performance”
  79. 79. Storage – Putting It All Together •Understand the path to the drives, i.e. throughput, multi- pathing •Use eagerzeroedthick disk provisioning to avoid lazy zeroing • Place swap file on separate dedicated drive on SAN, mitigate the impact of swapping with EFD (for high performance workload) • Can potentially slow down vMotions • Follow SQL Server storage best practices http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc966534.aspx Work with your SAN Vendor as well, they have Best Practices for running these workloads on your array
  80. 80. The Bottom Line “>80% of performance problems with virtualization occur at the storage layer” Now that you know, don’t let it happen to YOU
  81. 81. Architecting For Performance: Processor
  82. 82. vCPU’s – Hyper-Threading hyper-threading processor to appear as two "logical" processors to the host operating system
  83. 83. vCPU’s • With Databases Avoid Over Commitment of Processor Resources till have “actionable” performance data you can scale (vCOPs) • 1-1 Ratio Physical Cores to vCPU’s • Out of the gate ! Hyper-Threaded CPU != Full vCPU
  84. 84. Hardware Generation Matters • Use the latest processors • Support for Hardware Assisted Virtualization • H/W assist for CPU : AMD-V on AMD or VT-x on Intel • H/W assist for MMU • NPT* on AMD or EPT on Intel : NPT used in our tests • Enabled at BIOs level • Enable NUMA support • Understand VMM (Virtual Machine Manager) Benefits of hardware assistance for CPU and Memory Virtualization http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/ perf_vsphere_sql_scalability.pdf Point – Use Latest Greatest Hardware ! ! !
  85. 85. Processor – Putting It All Together • Leverage hardware-assisted virtualization (enabled by default) • Consider avg. and peak utilization • Be aware of hyper-threading, a hyper-thread does not provide the full power of a physical core • Consider future growth of the system, sufficient head room should be reserved • In high performance environment, consider adding additional hosts when avg. host CPU utilization exceeds 65% • Consider increasing CPU resource if guest VM CPU utilization is above 65% in average • Ensure Power Saving Features are “OFF” • Use vCOPs for consumption & capaticity
  86. 86. Architecting For Performance: Memory
  87. 87. Optimizations SQL Server: Memory Memory – Max / Min  Min is set to 0 • only change when the OS is requesting memory for other apps  Max, is 2 TB by default • Should not equal or exceed total VM RAM, may lead to OS starvation • Do not set to 0, may prevent SQL from starting • If using “Hot Add” remember to modify this setting SSQL Max Memory = VMMem – ThreadStack – OS Mem – VM Overhead • ThreadStack = NumOfSQLThreads(ThreadStackSize) • ThreadStackSize = 1 MB on x86 | 2 MB on x64 http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms178067.aspx
  88. 88. MAX SQL MEM Example Example: 32 Gig RAM Dedicated to Environment  Set MAX SQL MEM =28G  (2 Gig O/S + 2 For the Physical) Ntirety Rule 2 Gig + Additional 1 Gig per 16 Gig Physical Memory
  89. 89. Running Multiple Instances on Same VM Two options, and do nothing is not one of them Option 1: Use max server memory • Create max setting for each instance • Give each instance memory proportional to expected workload / db size • Do not exceed total RAM allocated to VM Option 2: Use min server memory • Create min settings for each instance • Give each instance memory proportional to expected workload / db size • The sum should be 1-2 GB less than RAM allocated to VM  Settings can be modified without having to restart the instances Pro Con Max server memory When a new process or instance starts, memory is available immediately to fulfill the request If instances are not running, the running instances cannot access the available RAM Min server memory Running instances can leverage memory previously used by instances that are no longer running When a new process or instance starts, running instances need to release memory
  90. 90. SQL Server: Memory Lock Pages in Memory • This may keep SQL more responsive when paging occurs • SQL Server Lock Pages in Memory is ON is 32/64 bit Standard Edition and higher if the account with rights to run sqlservr.exe has “Locked pages in Memory” rights http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/ms178067.aspx
  91. 91. SQL Server: Memory Lock Pages in Memory  This keeps SQL more responsive when paging occurs  SQL Server Lock Pages in Memory is ON in >= 32/64 bit Standard Edition  Account needs “Locked pages in Memory” rights • Give it the RIGHTS http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms178067.aspx
  92. 92. Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) • NUMA, avoiding the performance hit when several processors attempt to address the same memory by providing separate memory for each NUMA Node. • Speeds up Processing • NUMA Nodes Specific to Each Processor Model
  93. 93. Simple Example • 4 Core System Representing 4 NUMA Nodes • 128Gig RAM • Each NUMA Node = 32 Gig Ram Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) “For Optimal Performance: VM’s Should Not Span Multiple NUMA Nodes. Each VM < 32GB” Don’t Know NUMA Node Size – Ask Server Vendor
  94. 94. Memory ALLOCATED TO VM Is Determined by…. • DRS Shares/Limits** • Total Memory of the Host • Reservations • Memory Load of the host ** Avoid Shares Limits Unless You Really Understand how they work
  95. 95. Swapping Occurs in Two Places • Guest VM Swapping • ESXi Host Swapping Swapping can slow down I/O performance of disks for other VM’s
  96. 96. Ballooning, Memory Compression, Swapping Slow You Down Stating the Obvious
  97. 97. Is Google You Best Friend…. “There is the Google DBA, The GUI DBA , or the DBA that does all the work” Charles Kim
  98. 98. Don’t Shut Off Memory Ballooning Ballooning is You First Line of Defense
  99. 99. How Many VMs can I Put on Host? As many whose active memory will fit in physical RAM, while leaving some room for memory spikes.
  100. 100. Total Memory Demand Active memory (%ACTV) of VM’s + Memory Overhead – Page sharing of VM’s (DE-Duping) DE-Duping = Transparent Page Sharing
  101. 101. Transparent Page Sharing more effective The more similar the VM’s are “Put Like Operating Systems On Same Physical Host”
  102. 102. TPS – When It Kicks In • Very Very very Low Overhead • Only Kicks in When Absolutely Needed !
  103. 103. • This is incorrect guidance floating around the Internet – Here’s why: Reference: www.vmware.com/files/pdf/mem_mgmt_perf_vsphere5.pdf Myth: Disable Memory TPS Special Thanks: Michael Webster(VCDX4/5) , vExpert
  104. 104. Disable Unecessry Foreground Background Processes Within Guest O/S • Example Windows – Alerter, automatic updates, clip book, error reporting – Help & Support, indexing, messenger, netmeeting, – Remote desktop • Once established (Clone for reuse by VMware) Keep VM Footprint as small as Possible
  105. 105. Memory Reservations • The VM is only allowed to power on if the CPU and memory reservation is available (strict admission) • The amount of memory can be guaranteed even under heavy loads. • SET CPU/Not Guaranteed
  106. 106. Reservations Rock ! • Set the appropriate reservations to guarantee physical memory for the VM. • In many cases, the configured size and reservation size could be the same
  107. 107. Oracle Approximate Memory Architecture Set the memory reservation to SGA size plus OS. (Reservation & configured memory might be the same.) Client sessions and context SGA (DB buffer cache, and others) Operating System VMConfiguredMemory Instance (PMON, SMON, DBWR, LGWR, CKPT, others)
  108. 108. Reservations and vswp Setting a reservation creates a 0.00 K
  109. 109. Large/Huge Pages “Large/Huge PAGES Do Not Normally SWAP” http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021095 In the cases where host memory is overcommitted, ESX may have to swap out pages. Since ESX will not swap out large pages, during host swapping, a large page will be broken into small pages. ESX tries to share those small pages using the pre-generated hashes before they are swapped out. The motivation of doing this is that the overhead of breaking a shared page is much smaller than the overhead of swapping in a page if the page is accessed again in the future.
  110. 110. Oracle – Hugepages /etc/security/limits.conf to set soft and hard limits. oracle soft nofile 131072 oracle hard nofile 131072 oracle soft nproc 131072 oracle hard nproc 131072 oracle soft core unlimited oracle hard core unlimited # -- The following entries need to adjusted with HugePages settings # oracle soft memlock 50000000 # oracle hard memlock 50000000 “HUGE PAGES Do Not Normally SWAP”
  111. 111.  Use large pages in the guest (start SQL Server w/ Trace flag –T834) SQL Server In-Guest Memory Best Practices
  112. 112. Memory – Putting It ALL Together • Do not overcommit memory for production, mission critical SQL Server VMs • Set provision memory = reservation = SQL Server max server memory + OS memory + virtualization overhead • Set provision memory = reservation = Oracle SGA + OS memory + virtualization overhead • To avoid swapping, memory limit should never be set below the provisioned size. Setting memory limit is not recommended in general • To avoid NUMA remote memory access, size VM memory equal to or less than the memory per NUMA node if possible
  113. 113. Architecting For Performance: Network
  114. 114. Jumbo Frames • Jumbo frames are Ethernet Frames Ethernet with more than 1500 bytes of payload. Conventionally, jumbo frames can carry up to 9000 bytes of payload
  115. 115. Jumbo Frames The original 1500-byte payload size for Ethernet frames was used because of the high error rates and low speed of communications. “Why The Picture Of A Typewriter Here?”
  116. 116. Data Movers, Pick One
  117. 117. Jumbo Frames “Most Problems have to do with a problem in the Shared Disk Storage System” “Jumbo Frames Good For The Shared Disk Storage System” “A Happy Shared Disk Storage System Means Happy Virtualized Environment”
  118. 118. Enable Jumbo Frames Check to seeWill Suceed ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac01a-priv ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac01b-priv ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac02a-priv ping -M do -s 8972 -c 2 rac02b-priv PING rac01a (10.17.33.31) 8972(9000) bytes of data. 8980 bytes from rac01a-priv (10.17.33.31): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.017 ms 8980 bytes from rac01a-priv (10.17.33.31): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.018 ms Will Fail ping -M do -s 8973 -c 2 rac01a-priv ping -M do -s 8973 -c 2 rac01b-priv ping -M do -s 8973 -c 2 rac02a-priv ping -M do -s 8973 -c 2 rac02b-priv Make sure: switch support is enabled 9000 Bytes - 20 Bytes IP Header - 8 Bytes of ICMP Header “8192/64 = 128”
  119. 119. SQL Server: Network Network  Default packet size is 4,096 • If jumbo frames are available for the entire stack, set packet size to 8,192  Maximize Data Throughput for Network Applications • Limit file system cache by OS • NIC > File & Printer Sharing Microsoft Networks • Use Minimize Memory or Balance http://blogs.msdn.com/b/johnhicks/archive/2008/03/03/sql-server-checklist.aspx
  120. 120. Jumbo Frames “Cost of Reducing To 1500 Bytes Then Back Again is Very Expensive” Splitting Is Bad
  121. 121. Network – Putting All Together • Separate SQL workloads with chatty network traffic (Microsoft Always On – Are you there) from the one with chunky access into different physical NIC • Separate traffic for vMotion, service console, and SQL Server at physical NIC level • Have minimum 4 NICs per host to ensure performance and redundancy of network (Virtualized Environment = Network Heavy) • vSphere 5.0 Introduced ability to use more than 1 NIC for vMotion. (More vMoitions going at one time. Added specifically for memory intensive applications, ie: Databases) • Use VMXNET3 (VMware driver – reduces physical CPU utilization)
  122. 122. AlwaysOn Availability Group Cluster Settings Depending on YOUR network, tuning may be necessary – work with Network Team and Microsoft to determine appropriate settings Cluster Heartbeat Parameters Default Value CrossSubnetDelay 1000 ms CrossSubnetThreshold 5hb SameSubnetDelay 1000 ms SameSubnetThreshold 5 hb View: cluster /cluster:<clustername> /prop Modify: cluster /cluster:clustername> /prop <prop_name> = <value>
  123. 123. WSFC – Cluster Validation Wizard 125 Use this to validate support for your configuration • Required by Microsoft Support for condition of support for YOUR configuration Run this before installing AAG(AlwayOn Availabilty Group), and every time you make changes • Save resulting html reports for reference If running non-symmetrical storage, possible hotfixes required • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/ff878487(SQL.110).aspx#SystemReqsForAOAG
  124. 124. SQL Server Best Practice Analyzer 126  Use SQL Server Best Practice Anaylzer to check local or remote systems • If running against remote system, issue Enable-PSRemoting –f via PowerShell on the target system • In the wizard, don’t click “connect to remote computer on Home page • On Enter Parameters link, enter SQL Server under Alternate_Server_to_Scan • Select options • Scan
  125. 125. Thank You Michael Corey Michael.corey@ntirety.com Blog: http://michaelcorey.ntirety.com http://www.dbtablog.com/ @Michael_Corey Jeff Szastak @Szastak
  126. 126. THANK YOU
  127. 127. Virtualizing Databases: Doing IT Right Michael Corey, Ntirety, Inc Jeff Szastak, VMware VAPP4724 #VAPP4724
  128. 128. Because Your Awesome Appendix “More Information You Can Use”
  129. 129. 132 Block Alignment  Configure storage presented to ESX Hosts via vCenter to ensure VMFS block alignment  Even though Windows is supposed to automatically align as of Windows 2008, even Microsoft recommends double checking • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd758814.aspx • “Whatever the operating system, confirm that new partitions are properly aligned.”
  130. 130. File Block Alignment 10-40% Perf Hit When Not Aligned Additional I/O occurs (1 I/O now equals 2+)
  131. 131. File Block Alignment • When Aligned 1 I/O equals 1 I/O, One Time Setup Cost!
  132. 132. VMDK’s Created In vCenter 5 Are Aligned with a one MB offset . This is consistent with NTFS File System (Windows 7 and Windows 2008) and EXT3 Redhat 6. * *vCenter 4 Aligns with 64K which maps to Redhat 5, Windows 2003 and Below vCenter aligns with O/S
  133. 133. Useful Links Deployment Guides, Best Practices, Whitepapers for SQL, Oracle, Exchange, SAP vmware.com/go/bca VMware Blog blogs.vmware.com/apps What’s New in Performance in vSphere 5.0 vmware.com/resources/techresources/10195 Achieving 1 Million I/O vSphere 5.0 vmware.com/files/pdf/1M-iops-perf-vsphere5.pdf **Take Advantage of All resources Available to You
  134. 134. Useful Links 137 Confidential VMware Technical Resource Center – Performance • www.vmware.com/technical-resources/performance/index.html SQL Server on vSphere High Availability Guide (technical) • www.vmware.com/files/pdf/solutions/SQL_Server_Availability_Guide_FINAL.p df
  135. 135. Useful Links 138 Confidential Hardware and Software Requirements for Installing SQL 2012 • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143506(SQL.110).aspx Windows 2008 Clustering Whitepaper • http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/failover-clustering- main.aspx Microsoft Support Policy for Windows Server 2008/R2 Failover Clusters • http://support.microsoft.com/kb/943984 Validating Hardware for a Failover Cluster • http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732035(WS.10).aspx Prerquisists for AlwaysOn AAG • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/ff878487(SQL.110).aspx#SystemReqsForAOAG
  136. 136. Useful Links 139 Confidential Availability Modes (AlwaysOn Availability Groups) • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff877931(SQL.110).aspx Failover & Failover Modes (AlwaysOn Availability Groups) • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh213151.aspx Configuring Quorum in a Failover Cluster • http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc770620(WS.10).aspx Configure Cluster Quorum NodeWeight • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh270281(SQL.110).aspx Where Should AlwaysOn Backups Occur • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh213244(v=SQL.110).aspx
  137. 137. • Simulate SQL Server disk I/O patterns using a generic tool, such as IOMeter; • Test to make sure requirements (throughput / latency) have been met Example SQL IO patterns to tests: Subsystem Verification R/W% Type Block Threads / Queue Simulates 80/20 Random 8K # cores / Files Typical OLTP data files 0/100 Sequential 60K 1 / 32 Transaction Log 100/0 Sequential 512K 1 / 16 Table Scans 0/100 Sequential 256K 1 / 16 Bulk load 100/0 Random 32K # cores / 1 SSAS Workload 100/0 Sequential 1MB 1 / 32 Backup 0/100 Random 64K-256K # cores / Files Checkpoints
  138. 138. • Cisco UCS B440 • Intel Nehalem EX processor • CPU – 128 Cores • CPU utilization 10% • OS – Red Hat Linux / vSphere • Storage – Symmetrix VMAX • Sun Fire E25K • UltraSPARC IV processor • CPU – 224 Cores • CPU utilization 80% • OS – Solaris 10 • Storage – Symmetrix DMX-3 Sun Fire Server Unified Computing System Re-platform “Right Sizing Their Environment – No More Big Boxes” https://wikis.oracle.com/display/SystemsComm/Sun+Server+X2-8 https://wikis.oracle.com/display/SystemsComm/Sun+Server+X2-4
  139. 139. 11i Performance Statistics “Right Sized – Everything Got Better”
  140. 140. 11i Perf Improvements - Online CXP transaction times (sec) 50%-90% reduction in times for online transactions (i.e. 2-10 times faster) DXP transaction times (sec) “All Transaction Types Got Better”
  141. 141. Replay duration will be about 4 times faster 11i Perf improvements - Batch Sales job timings (sec) CS job timings (sec) 85% - 95% reduction in transaction times for the above jobs (i.e. up to 20 times faster) ACT stats • Total ACT transactions : 392,806 • Used to require 1 hour of replay for every 3 hours of downtime • Now requires 1 hour of replay for every 12 hours of downtime Reduces Future 11i maintenance windows by 20% Source EMC “With Virtualization Maintenance Windows Get Better
  142. 142. Microsoft Support Microsoft ensures same technical support on ESX Servers as physical servers Microsoft Premier Support provides more support options SQL Server 2005, 2008, SQL 2012 are all supported SVVP SVVP Application Wizard Verify Application Support http://www.windowsservercatalog.com/svvp.aspx
  143. 143. NUMA • SQL Server is NUMA aware – MSDN - How SQL Handles NUMA • vSphere 4.1 added Wide NUMA • vSphere 4.1 CPU Scheduler
  144. 144. NUMA • vSphere 5 added vNUMA – Enabled on VMs with greater than 8 vCPUs • To manually modify (.vmx file) – numa.vcpu.maxPerVirtualNode = X » Where X is the number of vCPUs per vNUMA node – Is affected by Socket / Core configuration • Page 132: vSphere 5.1 Resource Management Guide – Physical hardware to have matching NUMA architectures in vSphere Cluster • vNUMA set upon VM boot, changed only when vCPU count changes – vNUMA disabled when Hot Add Enabled – vNUMA best practices: vSphere 5 Best Practices
  145. 145. Exceeding Host Memory can lead to ballooning, Memory Compression or Swapping Swapping can slow down I/O performance of disks for other VM’s
  146. 146. Check Memory Utilization Start esxtop Press M to display memory counters
  147. 147. Check Memory Utilization Start esxtop Press M to display memory counters
  148. 148. Esxtop and It’s Counters http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-9279
  149. 149. Esxtop and It’s Counters 80% Problems Caused With Configuration of Disk Subsystem
  150. 150. Large/Huge Pages RockDo Not Get Benefit of TPS (Transparent Page Sharing)
  151. 151. SQL Server AlwaysOn – Client Connectivity • SQL Server instance network name • Virtual Network Name bound to an availability group listener • VNN abstracts WSFC cluster and AAG topology, redirecting connections to appropriate SQL Server instance and database replica
  152. 152. Now Let’s Apply that to SQL 2012 Should you Lock Pages in Memory on a AlwaysOn Secondary Node? Should I set a vSphere memory reservation on a failover node?

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