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Psychology and testing

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Доклад Olivier Denoo на конференции SQA Days-20. 24-26 ноября 2016. Минск
www.sqadays.com

Published in: Education
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Psychology and testing

  1. 1. 1© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Me, myself and I… I’m 20!
  2. 2. 2© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Psychology & Testing Test Bla bla bla et bla bla tester bla bla bla test bla….. Mmh mmh
  3. 3. 3© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 I AM NOT A THERAPIST ...BUT I’M WORKING ON IT Nobody’s perfect! I suffer from anosognosia: I’m testing things without noticing it
  4. 4. 4© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Changes Resistance Manipulations
  5. 5. 5© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 BIG C° - 12 MONKEYS Conflict is a pure by-product of Evolution: Don’t we say « united like the fingers of the hand »…although we have opposable thumbs?
  6. 6. 6© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015
  7. 7. 7© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015
  8. 8. 8© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015
  9. 9. 9© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 New = Change • Usage, Habits = changing is difficult • Conservative spirit variations secrets / confidences / seduction – Inheritance / legacy – Block any new initiative by adopting a very conformist behavior – « initiation » by the elders (managers are rotating frequently, they seek for support > dependency) – Closed game / isolation – Rejecting any non-conforming or undesired situation
  10. 10. 10© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 So, you want to introduce structured testing… First steps Pressure to change Clear and shared vision Capacity to change •Internal •External •Top-mgt. •Project Mgt •Structure •Systems (IT) •Systems (common values) •Style •Skills •Staff •Strategy* •Pilots *Source: T. Peters & R. Waterman
  11. 11. 11© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 • Better a known adversity than an unknown risk – Ex1: Useless audits • Functional automation @ « the King of Sports » • We keep up with IE6 whatever happens – EX2: • portal for multiple Insurance companies – all changes are systematically refused >> resistance is lead by a Sr who is also a union representative person within the C°
  12. 12. 12© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 How do we get off the runaway train? • Educate, be honest, communicate what you know and what you don’t know • More control • Less change or less impact • Same weapons (seduction, initiation) – Motivators (goals, objectives) – Facilitators (who?) – Starters (How?)
  13. 13. 13© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 IMAGE LANGUAGE & PERCEPTION You got the « look »
  14. 14. 14© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 • Listen to the signals, understand what you’re supposed to be. Let’s meet the CEO – EX: So you want an expert…an expert you’ll get • Not communicating is communicating • You have the testers you deserve – If you pay with peanuts, don’t be surprised if you only attract monkeys Be what you’re expected to be
  15. 15. 15© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Palo Alto Institute - word salad (M. Erickson) • My name is George Javajerkbin tcpip kc o dnsserveurout geekgifpng pluginjpeg (Paul Watzlawicz – the language of change – exp. Erickson)
  16. 16. 16© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Word salad exposed…
  17. 17. 17© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Do you speak Tester? test coverage Test depth Cost, resources Time WHAT? HOW?WHEN? WHO? The Project seen from a tester’s perspective
  18. 18. 18© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 What is your definition of…? • Test Level? • Test types? • Test techniques? • Ebony & Ivory? • Nb Test cases? • Nb Test data sets? • What else? (quiet George!) TEST DEPTH
  19. 19. 19© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 How about the others, what is their language??? Functionality Code quality Benefits, market Value added risks Costs Management, CEO Development Time Time Costs, resources Common values Time , Money
  20. 20. 20© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 So, do they really understand us when we talk about…?
  21. 21. 21© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Let’s put this in context EX: When facing a limited time / budget Don’t say: - we’ll only test for a week Rather say: - we’ll make sure essential tests will fit within a week
  22. 22. 23© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 COST • A simple question (yeah right!) – What is the ROI of testing? • A simple answer to a simple question – What’s the cost of a defect?
  23. 23. 24© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Cost of a Defect • Financial impact? – Airline companies, NASA • Damaging the image, lost of trust/confidence – Dropped purchases, substitution • Who? How long? What is their cost? – Analysis, fixing, re-test, deploy – Complexity of measuring – The 50,000 $ invoice (1$ LOC change 49999$ to know where to look at)
  24. 24. 25© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Soapy words (slipping on the dock of the bay) • How to enter a conflict at all time - guaranteed – « Never » – « Always » – « Again » • « It’s [always] like this with…» • « You [never] do… » • « Who [again] ... ?»
  25. 25. 28© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 LET’S PLAY THEN! So you want to change?
  26. 26. 29© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Autopsy of a (psychological) game (E Berne – S Karpman – transactional analysis) MODUS OPERANDI • Player A throws the ball* • The balls hits player B’s weak point • Player B sends an automatic response • Roles are assigned • Some booby-trapped transactions (hidden goals) are exchanged between players • One of the player scores and provoques a role change • The other player(s) feel(s) confused and ashamed • Negative feelings and procrastination are distributed to all players as a reward ESCAPE ROUTES • Ignore / elicit / defuse (humor) • Ignore / shield / acknowledge • Prepare alternative answers • Refuse to take the role • Rephrase / question / get the hidden goals exposed • TOO LATE to exit, still time to debrief or analyze *Can be verbal (« you looked more brilliant last time ») or non-verbal (sighing, whispering, pulling a face with no explanation…)
  27. 27. 30© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 You can’t make an omelette… • It’s all predictable (I knew it, It was for sure) • Games are counterproductive and end-up badly • Games are repetitive, systematic • Public may have a capital role • Games are often inconscous and have hidden or non percieved goals. (attract attention, feel reassured, avoid responsibilities)
  28. 28. 31© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Karpman’s drama triangle PERSECUTOR RESCUER VICTIM
  29. 29. 32© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Major characteristics – Rigid, superior – Critical, oppressive – It’s all your fault – Manipulative, blackmailing – « you should… », « it would get better if… » – Starter – Rescues spontaneously, no direct demand or sollicitation – Feels guilty if he doesn’t go to the rescue / self-esteem (white knight) – Keeps the victim dependent (permission to fail) – « let me help you… » – Enabler – Oppressed, helpless, victimized, not responsible, powerless, ashamed – Indirect complaints and demands – Poor self-image, focuses on the negative aspects, unable to act or make decisions – « he makes my life a Hell… », « poor me… », « it only happens to me… » – Starter
  30. 30. 33© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Secondary benefits and motivations – Avoid their own problems and responsibilities (it’s your fault) – Response to a forme deceptive environment – Feels empowered, all almighty – Avoid their own problems and responsibilities (it’s not their fault) – Effort to attract attention – Feels fine and increased self-esteem (do the good) or self-control / balance – Maintains dependency (if not > persecutor) – Avoid their own problems and responsibilities (it’s not my fault) – Encountered real pain and sad situations – Comfort zone (assisted) If you cannot act upon it or change it = it is NOT YOUR FAULT!!!
  31. 31. 34© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Drama: • Roles are complementary (co-dependancy) – No victim no persecutor! – Avoid to consider a broader dysfunction or harm – We all have a favorite role to play • Players can change roles from time to time:
  32. 32. 35© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Some examples of role-changes – EX1: 3 behaviors on the same projects • Testers feel like second-class citizens = victims • Testers « covering » les developers = saviors • Testers accusing developers = persecutors – EX2: the fate of unemployment • poor unemployed people fired by persecuting management • Unemployment office trying to help them find a new job • Unemployment office persecuting them by asking evidences and threatening them of suspending their allocation • Unemployment office feeling bad because there’s no job available or they don’t get enough resources to do thier job properly • …/…
  33. 33. 36© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Saturday Night Fever • Friday’s bug – Technicians • victims • saviors (non recognized > victims) – Management • saviors • persecutors • victims (budgets – operational management) • Manage crisis or manage BY crisis?
  34. 34. 38© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 How do you get off the runaway train? • Know that you’re playing = you’re not naïve anymore • Change of perspective (from state to action) – « I am a victim » = TO BE – « I have a problem » = TO HAVE • Refuse to play, refuse to take the expected part – No players, no game • Think, take time and let silence do the trick – Don’t rush – Filter, not everything is for granted – Ask yourself / others questions «why am I told this? » , « what am I going to do with it? » – Make the game harder • Reformulating / ask for more information – Gain time – Make the game harder, less attractive !
  35. 35. 40© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Yes, but…learned sabotage • The movie (with G. Jugnot)
  36. 36. 41© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015
  37. 37. 42© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 It’s not my fault… (audit) CONTEXT = audit feedback • MGR: our quality problem comes from the users • TC: can’t you talk to them so as to get a grip on what they really want? • MGR: BUT we do that already • TC: so, all you have to do is to document it on your side and it’s done! • MGR: YES BUT this is their job, not mine • MOI: of course, BUT you are suffering from that, so how about dealing with take your problem • MGR: YES BUT we have more and more demands and less and less budget, so it is not possible… • …/…
  38. 38. 43© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 • How would you solve this? • How did I do that? – I stopped playing immediately when I realized – I took some risk and ask her « what would you suggest then? » – 3 possibilities • Exit (anyway, whatever) • Come back to the situation where I’m in charge • She takes over (with my own ideas) not to loose her face (what she did)
  39. 39. 44© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Manage the delivery • His boss asks him to get the delivery on time – Yes, but I’m already overloaded with… – Why don’t you ask X to help you? – Yes, but you know X, he always wants a payback… – Ask your team to come earlier then – Yes, but you know the union will not appreciate overhours… – And what if I speak to the union? – Yes, but my budgets will blow out then… – …/…
  40. 40. 45© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 How do you get off the runaway train? • Identify • Understand • Act • Change context and bounce back • Don’t play with their rules (or at all)
  41. 41. 46© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 « Gotcha »… • Start = So you said that your Robot was able to capture the Outlook bar, right? – Weak point = we’re discussing technique and value my recommendation – Answer = yes, of course, the tool is able to do this in principle … (suspicion, distance) • Dramatic turn of events – So why can’t it see our modified component in detail? (single object & coordinates) ALLUSION: I invested time and money in this « crap tool »… • Confusion – I’m not developing the tool (not MY tool) and I don’t know anythng about the toolbar either • Dammages – He thinks I’m incompetent vs. he thinks I bugged hime = in front of my whole team (in fact the toolbar is NOT a real Outlook bar – the REAL one is plainly recognized) (some may play the victim so as to better criticize later on)
  42. 42. 47© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 • How would you solve this? • How did I do that? – I played exactly the same « gotcha » game in front of his own team: • Didn’t you tell me that you used an Outlook bar? • Well…erh…yes, a slightly modified one, indeed • Of course! Than how can you explain that the REAL Oultook bar is fully captured by MY tool, as it shows here? (showing the results) • Well…actually we bought the component from a Russian C° on the web…but it is exactly the same look and feel… • Right! But not the same code obviously. Now let’s sit down together and see how we can solve the issue…
  43. 43. 48© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 YES, WE ARE HIGHLY SUBJECT TO MANIPULATION Tricks, bad faith, mentalism…
  44. 44. 49© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Bertram Forer • You have a great need for other people to like and admire you. • You have a tendency to be critical of yourself. • You have a great deal of unused capacity which you have not turned to your advantage. • While you have some personality weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them. • Your sexual adjustment has presented problems for you. • Disciplined and self-controlled outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside. • At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. • You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations. • You pride yourself as an independent thinker and do not accept others’ statements without satisfactory proof. • You have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. • At times you are extroverted, affable, sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, reserved. • Some of your aspirations tend to be pretty unrealistic. • Security is one of your major goals in life. Forer BR (1949). The fallacy of personal validation: A classroom demonstration of gullibility Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 44, 118-123. Average scoring 4,2 / 5
  45. 45. 50© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 What is essential to a tester? • What do you think? • Resistance to stress • Communication • Resilience • Attention to details How good do you think you are?
  46. 46. 51© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015
  47. 47. 52© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Let’s manipulate - procurement • The technique of the funnel (sales) – Do you rather look for a profile type like X or Y? – In the X type of profiles, we have P* or M* (who has more experience, but who is a bit more expensive) – M* and P* are both mobile and available right now. They both know your business / technology. – Of course, J* is fine too…would you like to decide now or do you wish to think a bit more about it and select one of those 2? – Excellent, you made the right choice. You’ll be happy with it.
  48. 48. 53© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 …and back • Reversed funnel (procurement) – EX1: Do me your best price, and we sign right now if I get 20% off – EX2: Press exclusivity – you deliver good contents, the journalist just integrates it with a limited visibility…and no counterpart! – EX3: Partner: your best price is not enough! Competition is presenting a « big hitter »… but don’t worry I know the customer well
  49. 49. 54© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Double bind (Bateson - Watzlawick) • Of stepmothers and ties • Be spontaneous / it is forbidden to forbid / be great my little one – EX1: You decide / It’s your choice / It’s your call – EX2: Business refusing to work with IT What to do when the solution obviously involves both of them? – EX3: Get overall acceptance for the audit within the TST dept. and show the lacks in DEV and PRD • Court = tie parties together when the choice is not obvious
  50. 50. 55© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 How do you get off the runaway train? • Find the return on investment (what’s in it for me?) • Understand and decrypt (you cannot play anymore if you know it) • Share (involve/comit) – together – Mobilize and define common goals • Confront (adult to adult) – What do you mean exactly? – Where is the problem? • Defuse with humor or playing the fool (why don’t you go and play elsewhere?) • Remove ambiguities • Do not play the part you’re expected to play – I’m not your victim – Help me – Mind you!
  51. 51. 56© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 LET’S MANIPULATE
  52. 52. 57© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 It’s nobody’s fault • Stop the thieve – The « watch dog » behavior changes drastically if it has been asked first (20% vs. 95%) – Ex: the TM goes on holidays, reporting stops, test environment doesn’t get maintained etc. etc. • Commitment is key
  53. 53. 58© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 • (PSY) Conditioning (<> flattering or seduce) – She looks at a XVth century virgin • « You seem to be so sentive to the human pain » • …so she will be enclined to donate to charity – EX: It’s only business • I see you’re serious about the quality of your product… • So, a small extra sacrifice (invest) will not make much of a difference • ATTN: do the right conditioning or prepare to fail! Manipulations & C° (Joule - Beauvois)
  54. 54. 59© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Abstruse trap • When you have a good story… – Is it a good story after all? – Wasted money • Wrong purchase of a trip on the same WE 1000 € vs. 500€ (more fun) – no refund – 54% choose the first option though!!! – Outsourced billing system is going nuts • Integrator has no influence on the core billing (slow, unstable) • The choice has been made but changing is still possible • They keep on with specific development and try to find workarounds (like asynchronous automation) • They will even export stupidity in the whole Group.
  55. 55. 60© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 The foot in the door • An expected behevior is « prepared » by a harmless and apparently costless action, It is then activated by an implicit or explicit demand – (You, the Office expert) can you remind me how to do a conditional sum in Excel? (conditionning) • The expected behavior is more « expensive » and would probably not be obtained spontaneously – Can you get me all critical defects in billing module since version 2,3 sorted by date with the corresponding developer who fixed them (demand) • The result is much better when they had the choice / when the freely chose to do it (« you are free to… » / « your choice» = 4X higher) Thare are limits and expiry time (1 week to 10 days in general) – Ex: The increased efficiency after « team events » (Usually not lasting over 10 days)
  56. 56. 61© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Slam the door in their face • A strong and obviously unacceptable demand…meant to be refused!!! – Can you replay all tests related to application X on version 3.1.5? (it will take me the whole day and more – let’s try to escape this) • …followed by a weaker demand (as unacceptable at first however) meant to be accepted (as if the fact that they refused the first was forcing them to accept the latter) – …yes, I understand, I would have done the same. But if I just got an idea of what it does on module Z, that would really save my life, (OK, it’s only a couple of hours and I already said no – you can’t say no to everything after all!) • The higher the perceived contrast the better (shirt 140€ vs 65€ - the Souk of Cairo) • Direct contact and the small time between demands help a lot (much more than for the foot in the door) • Reciprocity (give and take / split the compromise / return the favor)
  57. 57. 62© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 You’ve got the touch, you’ve got the look • In many cases, touching the one you’re asking a favor to favors contact and good will (pat on the back, touching arms…) – EX: from 63% (questioned) vs 93% (questioned and touched) give the money left in a phone booth • Looking straight in the eyes (but not too intensively neither too long)
  58. 58. 63© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 The foot…in the mouth • « How are you doing? » facilitates contacts for a great deal. It also helps in getting a yes, evn if everyone seems not to care. • The mood or the answer do not matter – Most mails or sales meetings start with this…and it is not purely social
  59. 59. 64© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 So, it is not that terrible after all… • Annonce the drama or let them think the catastrophe is coming then ask them (for a lesser impact…however) – Sales Techniques or effects of surprise based upon doom-mongering (the more they think they avoid the worst, the better) – EX1: Some companies who do not use our services had their website hacked recently and their commercial and employee data exposed publicly… – EX2: This morning, the first test results tended to show a project shift of about 3 month. After a more detailed analysis, it turned out that we could reduce it to a month and a half. (Phew! That was close!)
  60. 60. 65© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 CONCLUSIONS Les hommes passent leur vie à la recherche d'eux même. On n'arrive jamais à une conclusion définitive en ce domaine. Men spend their life seeking themselves. One never comes to a final conclusion in this matter. Rosa Candida (2010) Audur Ava Olafsdottir
  61. 61. 66© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Conclusions • Introducing structured or professional software testing is a (major) CHANGE • Change is usually facing RESISTANCE that can be organized (consciously or not) in the form of GAMES (destructive) • We can COUNTERACT but also USE GAMES and techniques to POSITIVELY MANIPULATE our environment and organize the desired CHANGE
  62. 62. 67© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Some useful references • Petit traité de manipulation à l'usage des honnêtes gens (Joule – Beauvois) • The games we play – (Berne) • How To Break Free of the Drama Triangle and Victim Consciousness (Weinhold) • Jeux de manipulation (Cardon) • La double contrainte - mémoire - (Courtois) • The monkey thoery (Stephenson) • Field theory and DFT (Lewin) • The language of change (Watzlawick) • Oui, mais / yes, but…
  63. 63. 68© Olivier Denoo – Psychologie du Test – ps_testware 2015 Thank You - It’s question time Now or never…

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