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Vi binh jaydeep_team_ele-791 control of distributed generation - team project

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Vi binh jaydeep_team_ele-791 control of distributed generation - team project

  1. 1. Single Phase to Ground Fault Current in Three Phase Inverter with Balanced and Unbalanced Load Presented By Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe & Vi Binh Quang Le ELE-791 Control of Distributed Generation Syracuse University April 19, 2017
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Technical Background of Inverters Inverters Applications Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverters Inverter for Current Ground Fault Simulation and Results Conclusions and Future Research References Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 24/19/2017
  3. 3. Introduction Inverter is an electronic device, which converts direct current (DC) input to alternating current (AC) output and also known as DC-AC converter. Due to the problem of dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels, a demand of a development of renewable energy (clean power) is significant. Thus, inverters are used as interface between power generators (wind, solar, hydro, etc.) and the distribution grid to maintain the stability, reliability, controllability, and efficiency of the grid. [1] Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 34/19/2017
  4. 4. Technical Background of Inverter Inverter technology was initially found by Toshiba Corporation in 1980s, and the technology is still applied widely in industries, especially to the renewable energy filed. Basic structure of inverter device consists of multiple transistors as displayed in the figure on the side. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 44/19/2017
  5. 5. Technical Background of Inverter (Cont.) Single Phase Inverter : this inverter circuit consists of two transistors Q1 and Q2 and two diodes connected as on the diagram. Q1 and Q2 are in turn on and off to generate a voltage Vo = Vs/2 cross the load. This is also known as Half Bridge Inverter. [2] Application: H-bridge inverter is used to convert 12 Vdc into a 120 Vac square wave using a transformer with a 10:1 turns ratio [7] Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 54/19/2017
  6. 6. Technical Background of Inverter (Cont.) Three phase inverter: it is used for energy processing of PV and wind power. A three-phase inverter has three legs, one for each phase. Each inverter leg operates as a single- phase inverter. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 64/19/2017
  7. 7. Inverter Applications Solar power Fuel cell (FC) plants Wind turbines and microturbines Power-hydro Variable-frequencies drives Uninterruptible power supplies Electronic ballasts and induction heater Storage devices as local energy sources Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 74/19/2017
  8. 8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverters in Solar Energy String Inverters Advantages  Lower cost  Easier to install and maintain Disadvantages  Problem if one panel fail, the entire string fail  Difficult to fix  Occupy more space Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 84/19/2017
  9. 9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverters in Solar Energy (Cont.) Micro Inverter Advantages  All panels are independent, failure of one panel will not impact other  Easy to fix and maintain  Occupy less space Disadvantages  High cost  Difficult to install and maintain Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 94/19/2017
  10. 10. Inverters for Ground Fault Current in Microgrid What is the inverters for ground fault current in microgrid?  Ground fault current in microgrid is technically abnormal current. This could be one or all the currents in the single or three phase of the inverter in the distributed grid (also known as a short circuit).  In order to protect the components devices in the grid systems, inverters are required to limit their fault current capability. This is accomplished through reduction in the internal voltage during faults. [6] Possibility methods of controlling the ground fault current  Fault behavior of an inverter is determined by its control, which in turn is based on the inverter topology (three phase three wire, three phase four wire, single phase) and topology of the network to which the inverter is connected as balanced or unbalanced load). Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 104/19/2017
  11. 11. Inverters for Ground Fault Current in Microgrid (Cont.) Techniques used to control in single phase and three phase inverters can be broadly divided into the following three categories [6]: • Control in synchronously rotating dq0 reference frame • Control in stationary frame • Control in natural reference frame Control in rotating reference frame is the most popular approach where measured output voltages and currents are transformed into their equivalent by rotating frame dq0 of reference [6]  In this presentation, observing the effects on the inverter output current due to a single phase to ground fault with balanced and unbalanced loads will be analyzed Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 114/19/2017
  12. 12. Inverters for Ground Fault Current in Microgrid (Cont.) A single phase ground to fault in the three phase inverter with balanced load • In this stage, the inverter is implement with parameters described in the gain.m file (which was attached to the research report) A single phase ground to fault in the three phase inverter with unbalanced load. In this case, the parameters used in the simulation have been chosen as follows: • Current limit is set to 110% of the inverter peak current limit • Three unbalanced loads: o Phase A : 50 kVA o Phase B : 20 kVA o Phase C : 5 kVA Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 124/19/2017
  13. 13. Simulations & Results Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 134/19/2017
  14. 14. Our results have 3 partsPart 1 We observe the effects of a single phase fault in phase A (short circuited to ground) for two cases – with balanced load and with unbalanced load. Here we set inverter current limit to be constant at 300%, and Rsc (short-circuit resistance) to be constant at 1%. Part 2 We change the inverter current limit to 110%, 300% and 562% and observe the effects of the single phase fault on the inverter current. We do this for balanced and unbalanced loads. We set Rsc to be constant at 1%. Part 3 We change the values of Rsc to 1%, 7.5% and 15% and observe its effects on the inverter currents and voltages. We do this for balanced load, and we set current limit to be constant at 300%. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 144/19/2017
  15. 15. Part 1(A) – Balanced load, Phase A fault Iinv: Phase A, B, C load = 80 KVA Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 154/19/2017
  16. 16. Vinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 164/19/2017
  17. 17. Iload: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 174/19/2017
  18. 18. Vload: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 184/19/2017
  19. 19. Part 1(B) – Unbalanced load, Phase A Fault Phase A load: 50 KVA, Phase B load = 20 KVA, Phase C load = 5 KVA Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 194/19/2017
  20. 20. Vinv Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 204/19/2017
  21. 21. Iload: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 214/19/2017
  22. 22. Vload: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 224/19/2017
  23. 23. Part 1 Conclusion The waveforms observed are as expected, and the main difference between Part 1(A) and Part 1(B) is the balanced and unbalanced loads. In both cases, when phase A is shorted with the ground: The I inv current for phases B and C increases and reaches the inverter current limit, but that for phase A remains the same. The V inv voltage for phase C decreases, but that for phases A and C remains almost the same. The I load for phase A increases, but that for phases B and C remains the same.  The V load voltage for phase A decreases significantly, but that for phases B and C increases slightly. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 234/19/2017
  24. 24. Part 2 – Changing Inverter Current Limits For I limit = 110% = 293.2722 A, Balanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 244/19/2017
  25. 25. I limit = 110% = 293.2722 A, Unbalanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 254/19/2017
  26. 26. I limit = 300% = 799.8334 A, Balanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 264/19/2017
  27. 27. I limit = 300% = 799.8334 A, Unbalanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 274/19/2017
  28. 28. I limit = 562% = 1500 A, Balanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 284/19/2017
  29. 29. I limit = 562% = 1500 A, Unbalanced load Iinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 294/19/2017
  30. 30. Part 2 Conclusion From Part 2, we observe that if phase A is shorted with the ground: The Iinv for phase A remains almost the same (except for the effect of harmonics), but the Iinv for phases B and C reach the inverter current limit. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 304/19/2017
  31. 31. Part 3 – Changing Rsc valuesRsc = 1% = 0.01 V inv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 314/19/2017
  32. 32. I load Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 324/19/2017
  33. 33. V load: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 334/19/2017
  34. 34. Rsc = 7.5% = 0.075 V inv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 344/19/2017
  35. 35. I load: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 354/19/2017
  36. 36. V load: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 364/19/2017
  37. 37. Rsc = 15% = 0.15 Vinv: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 374/19/2017
  38. 38. I load: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 384/19/2017
  39. 39. V load: Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 394/19/2017
  40. 40. Part 3 Conclusion From Part 3, we observe that when Rsc is increased: The V inv voltage for phase C increases, but that for phases A and C remains the same. The I load for phase A decreases, but that for phases B and C remains the same.  The V load voltage for phase A increases, but that for phases B and C remains the same. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 404/19/2017
  41. 41. Future Work  Based on the simulation results, appropriate fault models and protection systems for such microgrid will be developed and tested. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 414/19/2017
  42. 42. References [1] Ali Keyhani, Mohammad N. Marwali, Min Dai, “ Integration of Green and Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems,” 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pg 1-4 [2] Manoj Kumar Swami, “ Inverter,” www.slideshare.net [3] Eric Glover, Studen Member, IEEE, Chung-Ching Chang, Student Member, IEEE, Dimitry Gorinevsky*, Fellow, IEEE, and Sanjay Lall, Senior Member, IEEE, “Frequency Stability for Distribued Generation Connected through Grid-Tie Inverter,” IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), 2012 [4] P. Bhanu Teja, “Advancements in Inverter Technology,” National Institute of Technology Calicut, www.slideshare.net Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 424/19/2017
  43. 43. References (Cont.) [5] Dr. Tomislav Bujanovic, “ELE 791 Control of Distributed Generation,” Modeling of Power Converter, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Syracuse University [6] S.P. Plkharel, Satish Ranade, “Modeling and Simulation of Three Phase Inverter for Fault Study of Microgrids,” Conference Paper, September 2012 [7] Jim Dunlop Solar, “Inverter,” Definitions and Terminology∙Types and Applications ∙ Functions and Features ∙ Selection and Sizing ∙Monitoring and Communications, 2012 [8] “History of Inverter Technology,” Mitsubishi, Heavy Industries, LTD. Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 434/19/2017
  44. 44. 4/19/2017 Vi Binh Quang Le & Jaydeep Satyajit Sathe 44

Editor's Notes

  • Hello everyone!
    I’m Binh Le from Texas state.
    I was assigned with Jaydeep to do this project, the Single Phase to Ground Fault Current in Three Phases Inverter with Balanced and Unbalanced Load. So, what does Single phase to ground fault current mean? This means one of the three phase inverter has its current going wrong, abnormal. And what balanced and unbalanced load. Balance load means all the three have the same loads, and unbalanced load means the three loads of the inverter are not equal.
     
  • Ok, let’s start it. In this Outline, I will talk about the introduction, technical background of inverter, inveters applications, advantages and disadvantages, and inverter with current fault. And Jaydeep will take care of the rest.
  • Inverter is an electronic device that takes in dc and gives output as ac. Inverter is also known as dc-ac converter.
    Inverter is used as an interface between power generator and the distribution grid to keep the grid stable, reliable, controllable, and efficient.
  • About technical background of inverter, inverter technology was 1st come in 1981 by Toshiba corporation and this technology is still applied vastly in industries and especially in the renewable energy filed. My research has indicated that all inverters have been constructed by many transistors. This picture is one the ones.
  • Inverter can be divided into two groups: single inverter and three phase inverters. The Single-phase inverter is constructed like this. Here, Q1 and Q2 are alternatively turn on and off, not on or off at the same time. Depend on either Q1 on or Q2 on, the circuit will generate a voltage Vsource/2 of the C1 or C2 be generated. The inverter with this configuration is known as Half-bridge inteverter. Hafl-bridge inverter is applied to convert 12-volt dc into 120-volt ac by using a transformer with a 10:1 turn ratio.
     
  • The second popular type of inverter is called three phase inverters, and this has three legs, one leg for each phase. Each leg operates as a single-phase inverter. This three-phase inverter is used for solar energy and wind power.
  • Inverter applications. Here are some of the applications of the inverter
  • Inverter applications. Here are some of the applications of the inverter. The applications of the inverter have its advantages and disadvantages. Here, I just talk about the advance and disadvantage of the string inverter in PV energy.
  • Inverter applications. Here are some of the applications of the inverter. The applications of the inverter have its advantages and disadvantages. Here, I just talk about the advance and disadvantage of the Micro inverter in PV energy.
  • Inverters for ground fault current in microgrid. As I have mentioned on the first slide, ground fault current is abnormal current in the grid. It could damage the components in the grid if we don’t recognize it by observing the output signal. One of the benefits of knowing the abnormal current is that we can adjust the voltage of the inverter to prevent the component from the damage due to the short circuit. My research has shown that there are three ways to control the single phase and three phase in inverter:
    Control in synchronously rotating dq0 reference frame
    Control in stationary frame
    Control in natural reference frame
    In the three methods above, the 1st one is the most like it.
  • Inverters for ground fault current in microgrid. As I have mentioned on the first slide, ground fault current is abnormal current in the grid. It could damage the components in the grid if we don’t recognize it by observing the output signal. One of the benefits of knowing the abnormal current is that we can adjust the voltage of the inverter to prevent the component from the damage due to the short circuit. My research has shown that there are three ways to control the single phase and three phase in inverter:
    Control in synchronously rotating dq0 reference frame
    Control in stationary frame
    Control in natural reference frame
    In the three methods above, the 1st one is the most like it.
  • As I understand in this class, we use the dq0 reference frame technique to simulate the inverter. In our project, for the balanced load, we use the parameters given in the Gain.m file to run simulations and to observe the output of current inverter, voltage inverter, and voltage of the loads. And for the unbalanced load, we set the current limit to 110% instead of 300% given the Gain.m file. We also set the load unequally to the three phases: Phase A 50 kVA, Phase B 20 kVA, and phase C 5 kVA.
  • Now, it is the simulation and result. This is very interested part of our project and Jaydeep will talk with us about this one. Before Jaydeep starts, do you have questions for me?
    If not, I’m done. Thank you! Jaydeep, are you ready?

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