Clinical pharmacy services

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QUALITY ASSURANCE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY SERVICES,Clinical pharmacy services

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Clinical pharmacy services

  1. 1. .
  2. 2. PROTOCOL  Definition  Quality assurance services.  Assessment of the services.  Audit and it types and cycle.  Evaluation of patient counselling.  Quality assurance in DI services  Evaluation methods & monitoring.
  3. 3. DEFINITION  Quality assurance is a management technique used to ensure the quality of practice and its outcome.
  4. 4. Quality Assurance Services(QA) PATIENT COUNSELLING ADR reporting Ward round participation Drug information services Patient interview Case note review Medication chart review Therapeutic consultation Drug interactions pharmacoeconomics Poison management News letter initiation & conducting pharmaceutical research & development Hospital formulary Dosage adjustment calculations Therapeutic drug monitoring Therapeutic guideline preparation.
  5. 5. Contd…….  Assuring the quality through ‘customers’ who may be Patients Carers Clients or Other health care professionals.
  6. 6. ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICES  Performance appraisal.  Peer review.  Professional audit and clinical audit.
  7. 7. AUDIT Clinical audit-multidisciplinary in nature. It involves receiving the service and discover deficiencies. Types of audit: o Self audit. eg: community pharmacist. o Peer or group audit. eg: pharmacist from one hospital look at the services provided from other hospital. o External audit.
  8. 8. WHAT IS MEASURED IN AUDIT?  3 aspects are audited:  Structures or resources involved. eg:staff,their experience and knowledge,books,training courses,drug stock,equipment and lay out premises.  The processes used. eg: prescribing policies,disease management protocols.  The outcome of the activity. eg: change in health status,attitude or behaviour of the patient ,also change in BP ,serum biochemistry etc.
  9. 9. AUDIT CYCLE  Continuous process -involves a cycle of measurement,evaluation&improvement. desire for improvement (or) evidence of poor quality service. set or improve standards identify problems observe practice And implement changes compare practice to standard
  10. 10. EVALUATION OF PATIENT COUNSELLING  It divides into: Introduction items Content items Process items Conclusion items
  11. 11. POINTS TO EVALUATE COUNSELLING.  Conduct Self introduction and patient or patient’s agent.  Explain the purpose of counselling.  Make apppropriate use of patient profile information  Assess the patient understanding of the reasons for therapy.  Respond with empathic response.  Use languages that the patient can understand.
  12. 12. Contd…..  Display effective non-verbal behaviour.  Maintain control and direction of counselling session.  Use open ended questions  Present facts and concepts in logical order.  Provide complete information to the patient.eg indications,dosage regimen,etc.  Provide complete information.  Verify understanding through feedback.  Summarize using key points.
  13. 13. Quality assurance in DI services To evaluate every aspect of practice and to improve existing services. Assessment techniques: I. Work load statistics II. Auditing III. Enquirer’s assessment IV. Peer review
  14. 14. Evaluation methods & monitoring Input level Processes level Output levels
  15. 15. Input levels Staff Resources Organization
  16. 16. Processes level Receiving queries Search strategy Data collection Literature evaluation Formulation & communication of reply Documentation & storage
  17. 17. Output levels User satisfaction Patient outcome DI publication Problem identification Corrective actions effectiveness of correction Communication of results
  18. 18. References  Pharmaceutical practice edited by A.J.Winfield,R.M.E. Richards 2nd edition pg no:332,351,462,463.  Remington: the science and practice of pharmacy 21st edition vol. 1.

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