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How To Predict Performance on the Job ?

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Did you know? Technical skills and job experience alone are not sufficient to predict performance on the job. Here are 4 strong predictors of job performance.

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How To Predict Performance on the Job ?

  1. 1. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB
  2. 2. ARE SKILLS & PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES SUFFICIENT TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE?
  3. 3. The goal is to really maximize the green decisions and also minimize the red decisions EVER HEARD OF TAYLOR RUSSELL’S FRAMEWORK? Our prediction ActualPerformance Correct decisions Incorrect decisions
  4. 4. MUST AVOID WHEN HIRING DISCRIMINATION HARD SKILLS ONLY UNDEVELOPABLE Undevelopable : unable or unwilling to learn and train
  5. 5. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE? COGNITIVE ABILITY
  6. 6. DID YOU KNOW? INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND JOB PERFORMANCE Frank Schmidt and John Hunter They found that cognitive ability was the single strongest predictor of performance in a very broad range of jobs.
  7. 7. Cognitive ability, AKA “intelligence” is what determines our reasoning power and problem solving power. COGNITIVE ABILITY The capacity to learn, reason, problem solve, plan, think abstractly, and comprehend complex ideas. Arvey & alii, 1995
  8. 8. COMMON MYTHS DEBUNKED ___ COGNITIVE ABILITY IN THE WORKPLACE COGNITIVE ABILITY AND JOB PERFORMANCE MYTHS ABOUT COGNITIVE ABILITY Cognitive ability only matters in complex jobs All you need is a certain amount – any more does not help
  9. 9. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE? THE ROLE OF SKILLS
  10. 10. DID YOU KNOW? JOB PERFORMANCE REQUIRES 4 CATEGORIES OF SKILLS 1) KNOWLEDGE 2) TECHNICAL SKILLS 3) SOFT SKILLS 4) SELF-UPGRADING
  11. 11. Hire for personal abilities, and train for skills JOB PERFORMANCE : HARD SKILLS ARE NOT ENOUGH • Hard skills alone are not good predictors of performance on the job. • Idem for years of job experience (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). • Performance on the job requires the WHOLE SKILLSET: comprising Soft Skills, and Self-Upgrading Skills.
  12. 12. JOB PERFORMANCE REQUIRES 4 CATEGORIES OF SKILLS : SOFT SKILLS TOP 10 SKILLS in 2020 (link) SOFT SKILLS ARE: Personal and interpersonal behaviours and characteristics that develop and maximize human performance • Experience-based • People-related • Attitudinal • Behavioural • Non-domain-specific • Trans-situational • Non-technical • Intangible
  13. 13. SOFT SKILLS : EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE The EQ-i 2.0® Model, based on the Bar-On (1997) model of EI - Source: MHS (link) The 5 Domains of Emotional Intelligence in Goleman’s Model of EI EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  14. 14. • Learning to learn. • Equipping with new skills. • Making oneself more knowledgeable. • Lifelong learning, learning agility, personal adaptability. JOB PERFORMANCE REQUIRES 4 CATEGORIES OF SKILLS : SELF-UPGRADING SKILLS
  15. 15. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE? THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY
  16. 16. Cognitive ability, AKA “intelligence” is what determines our reasoning power and problem solving power. PERSONALITY Our unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Funder, 2011
  17. 17. An evolution of the Big Five model of personality, the HEXACO model (and behaviour-based questionnaire), measures 6 dimensions of personality to predict performance on the job. JOB PERFORMANCE AND PERSONALITY HEXACO H E X A C O “Moral character is described by the honesty-humility personality dimension, a factor that had been overlooked in the famous “big five” model of personality.” (T. Cohen, Scientific American Mind – Link) Whereas Cognitive Ability tells us a lot about what a person can do, Personality tells us about what a person is willing to do and how they might go about doing it. P. Dunlop
  18. 18. Source : sacsconsult.com.au IMPACT OF PERSONALITY ON JOB PERFORMANCE HEXACO Personality traits evaluated in Ashton & alii’s HEXACO Model
  19. 19. KEY FINDINGS JOB PERFORMANCE AND PERSONALITY HEXACO CONSCIENTIOUSNESS has been shown to predict performance across many jobs. HONESTY-HUMILITY along with conscientiousness and guilt proneness, predicts positive job performance and ethical leadership. EXTRAVERSION has been shown to predict performance in sales jobs. Personality can also be used to predict negative work outcomes. For example : • people who are less agreeable seem to be more inclined to withdraw from their work. • people who are less honest tend to engage in activities like counterproductive work behaviours, stealing or taking longer breaks. (Source: P. Dunlop)
  20. 20. PERSONALITY AND JOB PERFORMANCE IMPORTANCE OF SITUATIONS WEAK SITUATIONS Our personality is likely to be most important in situations where we have the freedom to choose how we behave. STRONG SITUATIONS Quite often, personality does not determine our behavior so much : it is the situation that determines how we behave. SITUATION PERSONALITY BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY BEHAVIOUR SITUATION Strong situations : when the boss is watching, the least conscientious person will try to work hard; the most extroverted person will probably stay quiet when in a library.
  21. 21. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE? THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION
  22. 22. Without the will to do the tasks, skills and knowledge alone won't lead to performancePERFORMANCE ON THE JOB Personality SKILLS Cognitive ability Motivation Both ability (cognitive & physical ability, knowledge, necessary skills), and motivation are essential for a person to perform well on a job. JOB PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATION M.Gagne
  23. 23. MOTIVATION IS DESCRIBED AS : THE DIRECTION, INTENSITY, AND DURATION OF BEHAVIOUR. The direction of behavior : • is indicated by the choices a person makes (e.g. : between two activities). Intensity of behaviour : • is another indicator of motivation considering the efforts a person is willing to put into an activity. The duration of a behaviour : • the longer a person spends on an activity, or the more they persist in the face of obstacles indicates high motivation for this activity.
  24. 24. DIFFERENT WAYS TO MEASURE MOTIVATION • Evaluating people’s behaviours Measure how much time people persist on a task Do they persist or give up in the face of obstacles? Measure reaction time (faster reaction times indicate more motivation). • Non-verbal signs Observe facial expressions and body posture Do people look happy, focused and attentive? (hi-M) Observe eye movements : pupil dilatation indicates interest; blinks indicate shifts of attention. Observe body language : Leaning the body in conversation and keeping an open posture indicates interest; crossing one’s arms and turning one’s body away indicate lack of interest or motivation to avoid. • Asking people to report on it Engagement surveys, pulse surveys, feedback, eNPS. PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB HOW TO MEASURE MOTIVATION?
  25. 25. WHAT KIND OF MOTIVATION PREDICTS BEST PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB? Different types of motivation affect performance and well being. Deci and Ryan developed a motivation model (Self-determination theory), which distinguishes between 2 types of motivation : MOTIVATION PREDICTING PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB
  26. 26. MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE SELF-DETERMINATION CONTINUUM Self-Determination Theory : Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Ryan & Deci, 2000. ( Source : Researchgate)
  27. 27. WHAT KIND OF MOTIVATION PREDICTS BEST PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB? Two types of motivation lead to the best performance and well-being outcomes: • Intrinsic motivation the person finds interest, enjoyment, inherent satisfaction in the task. • Extrinsic autonomous motivation the person finds the task important, meaningful, or has a strong sense of duty. People with these 2 types of motivation put more energy into their work. MOTIVATION AS A PREDICTOR OF PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB
  28. 28. HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE? SYNTHESIS
  29. 29. 4 STRONG PREDICTORS OF PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB HOW TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB
  30. 30. RESOURCES & REFERENCES • The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods, Schmidt & Hunter (Researchgate – link). • HEXACO Personality Inventory : http://hexaco.org/ • Individual Differences and Personality, Ashton, Elsevier. • Daniel Goleman : Emotional Intelligence (link). • MHS : The EQ-i 2.0 Model and The Science Behind It (link). • Self-Determination Theory, Deci & Ryan, Guilford (link).

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