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Good
Morning. .
Dr. VAIBHAV BUDAKOTI
vaibhavbudakoti831994@gmail.com
https://www.facebook.com/DrVibhuCreatingSmiles
2
Presented by:
Dr. VAIBHAV BUDAKOTI
PG III year
SCIENCE OF COLOR AND
SHADE SELECTION
CONTENTS
Introduction
Elements of Color
 Physics of light
 Science of color
 Perception of color
Color in dentistry
Shade matching
Currently available shade matching devices
Conclusion
References
3
4
INTRODUCTION
• Being prosthodontist, we deal with
restorative dentistry. Restorative dentistry
is a blend of science and art.
• Aesthetics which is one of the main
concerns in the restorative dentistry
depends totally upon proper shade
matching of prosthesis with surrounding
structures which can be teeth or soft
tissues.
• Color matching is done for better compliance.
• Perception of color is physiological response by
human eyes and sensory structures of brain towards
the light reflected from an object.
5
NATURE OF COLOR
• Color is all about light.
• For color to be seen , light is reflected from an object
and stimulates the neural sensors in the eye’s retina to
send a signal that is interpreted in visual cortex of brain.
6
LIGHT
5. Shammas A, Alla RK. Color and shade matching in dentistry. Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs 2011;25(4):172-75.
7
Light is a part of electromagnetic
waves.
Electromagnetic Radiation
8
Electromagnetic wave or radiation is a form of energy
that propagates as both electrical and magnetic waves
traveling in packets of energy called photons.
• White light which is seen by human eye is
called visible light that falls in the range of
380 to 780 nm.
• Other waves like radio, micro, infra, x rays
and gamma rays cannot be seen by
human eyes so called the invisible
spectrum. Both visible and invisible
spectrum make up the electromagnetic
spectrum.
9
10
• Relatively equal quantities of electromagnetic
energy over the VL
Pure White Light
770nm
380nm
+ + + + + + =
11
by sir Isaac newton in 1676
COLOR
• Color is a property of light.
• Objects have no color of their own, they just
reflect a particular wavelength from the color
spectrum.
• For e.g., blue objects absorbs all of the
wavelengths, except for blue.
12
Color6
1: a phenomenon of light or visual
perception that enables one to
differentiate otherwise identical objects
2: the quality of an object or substance
with respect to light reflected or
transmitted by it. (GPT9)
13
14
REFLECTION
15
An object that appears a
certain color reflects the
light frequency that
correspond to that color.
16
INTERFERENCE
17
If the crest of one wave coincide with crest of another
wave the amplitudes are additive while if crest of one
wave coincide with trough of another wave resultant
amplitude is decreased or may be even cancelled. This
is destructive interference.
18
SCATTERING
19
It is scattering of light that makes sky appear blue, make
clouds white and turns the sun red at sunset. In the air, part of
the sunlight is scattered. THE SHORTER THE
WAVELENGTH THE MORE IS SCATTERING. Therefore in
the scattered light the shorter wavelengths predominate
COLOR PERCEPTION
20
rods and cones are photoreceptors that process light into nerve impulses.
Rods are 120 million in no. and helps in adjusting vision in dim light or low light levels
Cones are 6 millions in no. and adjust vision in bright light and sensitive to color.
Lighting conditions
21
Low lighting condition
Only rods are used.
High lighting
condition
Cones are used
Scotopic
vision
Photopic
vision
Dark
adaptation
40 mins.
Primary requisites for perception of
color
1. The object
2. A light source for illumination
3. An observer
• The most important phenomena that come into play
during color matching are:
1. Successive contrast
2. Simultaneous contrast
3. Color constancy
22
Color matching
23
successive
contrast simultaneous
contrast
color
constancy
projection of a
negative afterimage
(complementary
color) that occurs
after staring at a
colored object.
instantaneous change
in chromatic sensitivity
characterized by a
change in appearance
of hue due to
surrounding colors.
occurs because we think
of objects themselves as
being colored, so that an
object seems to be the
same color even if the
light received by the eye
varies considerably .
successive contrast
24
Occurs when one color is viewed following the observation of
another color.
Positive
afterimages
Negative
afterimages
Simultaneous contrast
25
Perception of color is affected by three
factors :
Surrounding relative lightness:
Surrounding color:
Surrounding relative saturation:
 Color constancy occurs because we think of objects
themselves as being colored, so that an object
seems to be the same color even if the light
received by the eye varies considerably .
26
Color constancy
Color adaptation13
 Color vision decreases rapidly as object is
observed.
 Original color appears to become less & less
saturated until it appears almost grey.
 Simultaneously, Chroma of complementary colors
appears greater.
27
28
Quality of Light
LIGHT
INTENSITY
PROPER
ILLUMINANTS
COLOR
TEMPERATURE
COLOR
RENDERING
INDEX
29
Proper illumination is necessary for accurate perception of color.
not only enough lightening is required to evaluate color properly but it is also essential to
achieve a proper quality of light.
This is accomplished by using the correct light intensity and the proper illuminants.
The appropriate color temperature and color rendering index must be considered when
selecting a light source.
LIGHT INTENSITY
Regulator of
pupil
diameter
 Maintaining the lightning intensity of
150 to 200 foot-candles will facilitate
accurate shade analysis and matching.
30
Color temperature
31
RED
YELLOW BLUE
WHITE
Measure of a lights colour
Color temp reported in degrees Kelvin
1000K 2000K 5555K 8000K
Color Rendering Index
• Indicates how well a light source renders color as
compared to a standard source.
0 100
32
Natural Daylight
 Daylight is often used as the standard against which
other light sources are compared.
 CRI is 100
 Distribution of light wave from the sun depends upon:
 time of day
 on humidity
 on pollution
33
 During morning & evening hours the
shorter wavelength light (blue &
green) are scattered, & only longer one
(at the red end of spectrum) penetrate
the atmosphere.
 Northern daylight around noon hour
on a bright day considered ideal
because there is harmonious balance
within the visible light spectrum.
34
 Northern day light has an average color temperature of
around 6500⁰ K, but this varies with the time of day,
humidity & pollution.
35
STANDARD ILLUMINANTS
International Commission on Illumination ( CIE),
In 1931
A B C
Tungsten light source
with color temperature
of about 2,856K
yellowish red light
Tungsten light
source coupled
with a liquid filter
direct sunlight
(noon) with color
temperature of about
4,874K
average daylight (shady/
indirect sunlight) with
color temperature of
6,774 K.
36
STANDARD ILLUMINANTS
International Commission on Illumination,
D E F
different daylight
conditions as measured
by color temperature.
Theoretical light
source with equal
amounts of energy at
each wave length.
Series of fluorescent
light sources
D50 D65 37
STANDARD ILLUMINANTS
F
L
There is a coating on the
spirals, which makes this
light white.
CRI = 50-80.
CRI = 80-98
COMPACT FLUORESCENT
LIGHT (CFL’S)
LIGHT EMITTING
DIODES
38
• Light source with color temperature close to 5500 k i.e. D55
which is spectrally balanced throughout the visible spectrum
is ideal for color matching.
• D65 is considered to be true color temperature of white light
as perceived by human observers.
• Is commonly used standard lighting for visual shade
matching in dental clinic.
39
OPTICAL TRIAD
TRANSLUCENCY
OPALESCENCE
FLUORESCENCE
40
TRANSLUCENCY 41
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENAMEL AND DENTIN
relative amount of light transmitted through a material
OPACITY TRANSLUCENCY TRANSPARENT
• Enamel and dentin have different structural
characteristics and consequently they exhibit
different light wave interaction
• Enamel due to its highly mineralized prismatic
structure, low organic content and a small amount of
water have a higher transmission of light than
dentin.
• Dentin has less mineral content, an organic tubular
structure and higher water content and is less
translucent.
42
43
At the incisal third the enamel is 1.5mm and lends to translucency
In middle third it becomes more translucent
And in cervical third it thins out to 0.2-0.3mm making it transparent and
showing underlying dentine
OPALESCENCE44
Scattering of smaller wavelengths of the visible spectrum and
transmission of longer wavelengths
making the opalescent objects more bluish when viewed
under reflected light and more orange when viewed in
transmitted light
• Human teeth enamel is opalescent.
• At the incisal edges of the teeth the longer
wavelengths are transmitted while the shorter
wavelengths are reflected via scattering.
• Thus enamel appears bluish dispite being colorless.
45
• All teeth that are naturally covered by the enamel
present opalescence
• However, better observed in the upper central incisors,
in the form of a blue band, located near to the incisal
edge called opalescent halo.
46
FLUORESCENCE
luminescence phenomenon, which means that it causes
spontaneous light emission by a process other than heating
47
Natural teeth as observed in
Daylight and black light
• Fluorescence is present in both enamel and dentin;
• it is associated with the amount of organic matter, it
presents three times greater intensity in dentin
than in enamel This difference results from the
presence of collagen fibers
48
METAMERISM13,10
Two colors that appear to be a match under a
given lighting condition but have different spectral
reflectance are called metamers, & phenomenon is
called metamerism.
49
Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part III. Color control. J Prosthet Dent1974;31(2):146-154.
This means that a sample that appears to match
under the operatory light, may no longer be
satisfactory in daylight.
Problem of metamerism can be avoided by selecting
a shade & confirming it under diff lighting conditions.
E.g; natural daylight
fluorescent light.
50
COLOR IN DENTISTRY
• Pigment colors
• Dimensions of colors
51
BASIC COLOR SCHEMES
• The color wheel is basic tool for combining colors.
• Primary colors – Red
Yellow
Blue
• Secondary colors – Green
Orange
Purple
• Tertiary colors
52
COLOR HARMONIES
• Two or more colors having fixed relation in a color wheel.
1. Complementary color scheme
2. Analogous color scheme
3. Triadic color scheme
4. Tetradic or rectangular color scheme
5. Split complementary color scheme
6. Square color scheme
53
COLOR REPRODUCTION
ADDITIVECOLOR THEORY
54
55
SUBTRACTIVE COLOR THEORY
DIMENSIONS OF COLOR
At the beginning of 20th century, Professor ALBERT
H. MUNSELL noted that each color has a logical
relationship to all other colors.
He brought clarity to color communication by
establishing an orderly system for accurately
identifying every color.
56
MUNSELL COLOR ORDER
SYSTEM1,2,4,10,13
Most popular method for describing color .
• Albert Munsell was an artist and teacher who developed The Atlas
of the Munsell Color System in 1915.
This color wheel includes the dimensions of :
HUE
VALUE
CHROMA
57
HUE
• often referred to as the basic color of an object.
• Refers to the dominant wavelength present in
spectral distribution.
• The attribute of color by means of which a color is
perceived to be red, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc.
• White, black, and grays possess no hue.
58
Hue of an object determined by the wavelength.
Shorter the wavelength , closer the hue will be to
the violet portion of spectrum; the longer the
wavelength , closer it will be to the red portion.
59
In Munsell color system, Hues are divided into 10
gradations:
 Yellow
 Yellow-red
 Red
 Red-purple
 Purple
 Purple-blue
 Blue
 Blue-green
 Green
 Green-yellow
60
61
CHROMA
1. the purity of a color, or its departure from white or gray
2. the intensity of a distinctive hue; saturation of a hue
3. chrome describes the strength or saturation of the hue
(color)
Achromatic shades have a Chroma near 0.
Natural teeth are found with Chroma ranges from 0.5 to 4.
62
VALUE
Defined as relative lightness or darkness
of a color or brightness of an object.
Brightness of an object is direct
consequences of the amount of light
energy the object reflects or transmits.
Value is the only dimension of color that
may exist alone.
63
In Munsell system, Value is divided into 10
gradations, with 0 being Black & 10 being White
Natural teeth range in Value from 5.5 to 8.5
A restoration that has too high a Value may be
easily detected & is common esthetic fault in
metal- ceramic prosthesis.
64
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIMENSIONS
OF COLOR
 Munsell color solid can be represented
in following manner:
 Hues are uniformly spaced around
central axis of color wheel.
 Centre of wheel is achromatic or Value
portion.
 Each spoke of the wheel represents
the gradations in Chroma occuring
within a hue.
65
The wheels on the top of the stack have higher Value
than those on the bottom of the stack.
Wheels are not the same size because it is not
possible to achieve the same degree of color purity,
or Chroma, for all Hues.
66
CIELAB COLOR SYSTEM1,2,4,10,13
Determined by Commission Internationale de I’Elcairagein
1978.
CIELAB relates the tristimulus values to a color space.
In this system the color differences which you perceive
correspond to distances measured colorimetrically
67
68
69
• Cielab color order defines color space by three
coordinates L, a and b.
• where L is similar to value in munsell color system.
• a and b represents chromatic characteristics of a color.
• a represents red green axis and b represents yelllow blue
axis.
• L refers to lightness coordinate ranging from 0 to 100.
• +ve a values reflect red color range , negative a green
color range
• +ve b indicate yellow color range.
GOOD MORNING. .
70
71
SHADE MATCHING
VIEWERS ASSOCIATED EFFECTS
Color blindness
Age
Fatigue
Nutrition
Medication
Binocular difference.
72
COLOR BLINDNESS
Is caused by a deficiency in or absence of one or
more photosensitive pigments present in cones.
Defects in color vision affects about 8 % of the male
population & less of the female population.
Diff types exist:
Achromatism– complete lack of Hue sensitivity.
Dichromatism-- sensitivity to only 2 primary Hues
either red or green are not perceived.
73
Anomalous trichromatism– sensitivity to all three
Hues with deficiency or abnormality of one of the
three primary pigments in the retinal cones.
Dentists should have therefore there color
perception tested.
If any deficiency detected, dentist should seek
assistance when selecting tooth shades.
74
There are a number of chronic diseases that can have
significant affects on color perception as well.
Diabetes, glaucoma, leukemia, Addison disease,
pernicious anemia, sickle cell anemia, multiple
sclerosis, Parkinson disease, liver disease, and
alcoholism have been shown to compromise color
vision .
75
AGE
• Aging is detrimental to color-matching abilities because
the cornea and lens of the eye become yellowish with
age, imparting a yellow-brown bias.
• This process begins at age 30, becomes more
noticeable at age 50 and has clinical significance after
60 years of age.
• After age 60, many people have significant difficulties
in perceiving blues and purples.
76
FATIGUE
• Tired eyes cannot perceive color as accurately as alert
eyes.
• Compromised visual perception is due to systemic,
local or mental fatigue.
• Successive shade observations (treating many
patients requiring shade assessment during a single
workday) can be primary cause of fatigue.
77
BINOCULAR DIFFERENCE
• The perception difference between the left and the
right eye.
• To test for binocular difference, two objects are placed
side by side under uniform illumination. They may
appear different, e.g., the one on right may seem
slightly lighter than the one on the left.
78
• Placing shade tabs either above or below (rather than
next to) the tooth to be matched will help to
eliminate error caused by binocular difference.
79
SHADE SELECTION
Shade – a term used to describe a particular
Hue, or variation of a primary Hue, such as
greenish shade of yellow.
OR
A term used to describe a mixture with black or
gray as opposed to a tint that is a mixture with
white. (GPT-9)
80
GENERAL PRINCIPLES15
81
Sorensen J A, Torres T J. Improved color matching of metal-ceramic restorations. Part-1: A
systematic method for shade determination. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
1987;58(2):133-9.
 Neutral colored shade matching environment should be created i.e. the
walls, staff clothing and patient drape should be ideal neutral grey.
 Any lipstick or bright makeup done by the patient have to be removed
 Drape the patient with a neutral-colored cover if the patient is wearing
bright-colored clothing.
• Shade selection should be done at the beginning of
the appointment
This is because the eyes of dentist are not fatigued
from dental procedures.
Moreover, teeth become dehydrated and change
color during preparation and the debris generated in
the form of enamel, metal and cement grindings can
coat everything in the mouth.
82
Have the patient’s mouth at dentist’s eye level.
Rapid shade comparison should be made for
no more than 5 seconds.
83
GENERAL PRINCIPLES15
• Assess Value levels by squinting.
Half-closed eyes decrease the amount of light
entering the eye to inactivate the cones and
allow peripherally located rods of the retina to
discriminate lightness and darkness.
84
GENERAL PRINCIPLES15
• Compare shade selection under varying
conditions
 wet versus dry (Teeth increase in Value when they
are dry.)
 Lip retracted versus lip down, under different
lighting conditions.
85
GENERAL PRINCIPLES15
Canines should be used as reference in selecting a
shade because they have the highest chroma of the
dominant Hue of the teeth.
Maxillary incisors are similar in Chroma to premolars.
Mandibular incisors are usually one Chroma level lower
than maxillary incisors.
Canines are two Chroma levels higher than maxillary
incisors.
86
Shade comparison should be made quickly, with the
color sample placed under the lip directly next to
the tooth being matched.
This will ensure that the background of tooth &
shade sample are the same, which is essential for
accurate matching.
87
Shade selection should be made at 3 to 6 feet
from the oral cavity is more useful, since it is
representative of the conditions under which
patient’s teeth will most often be observed.
Verification of the shade should be made in the
presence of second individual such as dental
assistant.
88
89
COMMERCIAL SHADE GUIDES
COMMERCIAL SHADE GUIDES
Each shade tab has an opaque backing color–
neck, body & incisal color.
90
VITA CLASSICAL SHADE GUIDE
91
Introduced in 1960 by Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany
16 tabs are available in 4 hue groups categorized as A,B,C and D
• A1-A4 Reddish-brownish
• B1-B4 Reddish-yellowish
• C1-C4 Greyish shades
• D2-D4 Reddish-grey
92
1 is least chromatic and highest value
4 is most chromatic lowest value.
HUE SELECTION
Choosing the nearest Hue 1st & then selecting the
appropriate match of Chroma & Value from the tabs
available is the recommended technique.
The region with the highest Chroma (cervical region
of canine), should be used for initial Hue selection.
93
CHROMA SELECTION
Once Hue is selected, the best Chroma match is chosen.
Several comparisons are necessary when determining
which sample best represents the Hue & its corresponding
Chroma level.
Between comparisons glancing at grey object, will rests to
operators eye & help avoid retinal cone fatigue.
94
VALUE SELECTION
Value is determined by arranging the samples in
increasing lightness by holding the shade guide close
to the patient.
95
96
It has been rearranged according to the value based ordering system
(B1, A1, A2, D2, B2, C1, C2, D4, D3, A3, B3, A3.5, B4, C3, A4,C4)
97
VITA CLASSICAL A1-D4 SHADE GUIDE
WITH VITA BLEACHED SHADES
98
• VITA Bleached Shades offer the dentist a practical
tool for the reliable determination and maintenance
of a whitening regimen
• consist of the bleached shades 0M1, 0M2 and 0M3.
99
IVOCLAR CHROMASCOP
SHADE GUIDE
100
• Introduced by Ivoclar Vivadent
• USES NUMBERING SYSTEM
• 100 = WHITE
• 200 = YELLOW
• 300 = ORANGE
• 400 = GRAY
• 500 = BROWN
101
Grouped into 5 series by
HUE
Chroma and value are communicated
by another system of numbers
10 = least chromatic, highest value
40 = most chromatic , lowest value
VITA TOOTHGUIDE 3D-MASTER
• It is a value based shade guide and value based shade
guides are a more accurate means of shade selection
VITA 3D MASTER SHADE GUIDE
• Introduced in 1998 by Vita Zahnfabrik
• 26 tabs arranged three dimensionally.
• 5 basic value groups from lighter to darker
• Chroma varies vertically downwards 1 to 3
• Hue varies horizontally as L, M, R.
103
• Step 1- Value selection with VITA 3D MASTER
• (levels 1 being lightest (high value) and 5 being darkest (low
value))
• Start with darkest group moving right to left.
104
105
Step II: Chroma selection with VITA 3 D MASTER
the chroma (levels 1 2,3) is determined with 1 being least
chromatic and select the color sample of the selected M group
that is closest to the tooth to be compared.
106
107
• Eg.
• It’s a no. letter no. combination
3 M 2
108
Value
Hue
Chroma
(Intensity)
VITA LINEARGUIDE 3D-MASTER
109
110
DENTIN SHADE GUIDE
When using a translucent all ceramic system for a
crown or veneer, communicating the shade of the
prepared dentin to the dental lab is helpful.
111
CUSTOM SHADE GUIDE
An almost infinite number of samples can be made by
using different combination of porcelain powders in
varying distribution.
Procedure is time consuming.
Confined to specialty practice.
112
SHADE DISTRIBUTION CHART
Shade distribution charting is a practical approach to
accurate shade selection & is recommended even
when a fairly good match is available from commercial
shade sample.
Tooth ------ cervical
 middle matched independently,
 incisal
113
The junction areas can be
communicated to lab in the
form of diagram.
Individual characteristics are
marked on such a sketch &
will allow the ceramist to
mimic details like hairline
fracture, hypocalcification &
proximal discolorations.
114
SHADE TAKING DEVICES13,18
These devices have been designed to aid clinicians and
technicians in the specification and control of tooth color.
The earliest color-measuring device designed specifically
for clinical dental use was a filter colorimeter.
The Chromascan was introduced in the early 1980s but
enjoyed limited success due to its inadequate design and
accuracy.
115
BASIC DESIGN
All color-measuring devices consist of
a detector,
signal conditioner, and
software
that process the signal in a manner that makes the
data usable in the dental operatory or laboratory.
116
COLORIMETERS117
COLORIMETERS
Filter colorimeters generally use three or four
silicon photodiodes that have spectral correction
filters that closely simulate the standard observer
functions.
These filters act as analog function generators
that limit the spectral characteristics of the light
that strikes the detector surface.
118
 The inability to exactly match the standard
observer functions with filters while retaining
adequate sensitivity for low light levels is the
that the absolute accuracy of filter colorimeters is
considered inferior to scanning devices such as
spectrophotometers and spectroradiometers.
119
However, because of their consistent and rapid
sensing nature, these devices can be precise with
differential measurements.
This is why they often are used for quality control.
120
DIGITAL CAMERAS AS FILTER
COLORIMETERS
The newest devices used for dental shade matching are
based on digital camera technology.
Instead of focusing light upon film to create a chemical
reaction, digital cameras capture images using charge
couple devices, which contain many thousands or even
millions of microscopically small light-sensitive elements
(photosites).
Like the photodiodes, each photosite responds only to the
total light intensity that strikes its surface.
121
SPECTROPHOTOMETERS &
SPECTRORADIOMETERS5
Spectrophotometers and spectroradiometers are
instruments designed to produce the most
accurate color measurements.
Spectrophotometers differ from
spectroradiometers primarily because they include
a stable light source.
There are two types of basic designs commonly
used for these instruments.
122
The traditional scanning instrument consists of a
single photodiode detector that records the amount
of light at each wavelength.
The light is divided into small wavelength intervals
by passing through a monochromator.
 A more recent design uses a diode array with a
dedicated element for each wavelength.
This design allows for the simultaneous
integration of all wavelengths. Both designs are
considerably slower than filter colorimeters but
remain the tools that are required to examine
and develop accurate color-measuring devices.
124
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE
DEVICES18
The devices are generally one of three types—
colorimeters, spectrophotometers, or digital
color analyzers—and use various measuring
geometries .
125
126
Shade Eye NCC.
Vita Easy shade.
Spectroshade
Shade Scan
SHADE EYE-NCC
127
Free standing hand held
contact probe
DOCKING UNIT
Shofu’s shade NCC (natural color concept) has been
available since 1990’s. it consists of a free standing hand
held contact probe about 3mm in diameter
128
The probe is placed against the tooth, and an activation button is pushed.
This sends a flash of light to the tooth, from the periphery of the probe, and the reflected light is
transported through the center of the probe to the detector where the collected light is evenly
distributed through color filters that closely match the three standard observer functions.
VITA EASYSHADE V
129
The Vita Easyshade is a hand-held spectrophotometer
130Average shade
(5)
1 step
measurem
ent
3 part shade
selection
Check
shade of
prosthesis
received
from lab
131
measuring tip is placed at 90•
measuring tip is placed 90• to tooth
surface
SHADE SCAN
132
SHADE SCAN
• Employs digital artificial vision technology with
integrated CAD/CAM technology.
• Shade is measured by hand held optical device
• Generates a shade map of the tooth, keying different
areas of the dental surfaces to the selected shade
guide by utilizing different resolution.
133
134
SPECTRO SHADE
Most complex in design and most
cumbersome in terms of
hardware.
Windows based system utilizes
dual digital cameras linked
through optic fibres to a fully
functional spectrophotometer.
It indicates the deviation of hue,
value, chroma from a standard.
135
• The handpiece is relatively large compared with the
contact probe designs, and positioning can be tricky
• Light from a halogen source is delivered through fiber
optic bundles and lenses to the tooth surface at 45.
137
SHADE -RITE139
It consists of a hand-held device with its own light source, and an LCD screen facilitates
positioning on the tooth
SHADE -RITE
• Cone shaped sensor is pointed at the tooth to be
replaced, at the junction of the gingival and middle
thirds of the tooth.
• Images are acquired and replaced in its cradle.
• As the unit enters the docking station, it initiates the
system’s software
• Data is uploaded and software selects the most
appropriate shade.
140
141
• The modern dentist must be trained to detect
differences in color and shades in individual
teeth, select a shade that reflects the color and
exact shade, transmit this information to a
dental technician, and be able to deliver an
esthetic restoration
142
REFERENCES
1. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics– Rosenstiel SF, Land MF,
Fujimoto J. Elsevier publication 4th ed. 2014
2. Bashir U, Lakshmanrao B. Color matching instruments and
systems in prosthodontics. Indian Journal of Research.
2016;5(3):145-7.
3. Anusavice. Phillip’s Science of dental materials. Elsevier
publications 11th ed.
143
5. Fundamentals in Fixed Prosthodontics. Shillingburg HT, Hobo S,
Whitsett LD, Jacobi R, Brackett SE. 3rd ed. 425-31.
6. The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. The Journal of Prosthetic
Dentistry. 2017;94(1):10-92.
7. Agarwal VS, Kapur S. Color and Shade Management in Esthetic
Dentistry. Universal Research Journal of Dentistry · September-
December 2013;
8. Shammas A, Alla RK. Color and shade matching in dentistry. Trends
Biomater. Artif. Organs 2011;25(4):172-75.
144
9. Vadher etal. Basics of colors in dentistry. Journal of dental and medical
sciences 2014;13(9):78-85.
10. Sproull S C. Color matching in dentistry. Part 1. The three dimensional
nature of color. J Prosthet Dent. 1973; 29(4): 416-24
11. Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part II practical applications of
the organization of color. J Prosthet. Dent. 1973;29(3):556-66
12. Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part III. Color control. J Prosthet.
Dent. 1974;31(2):146-154
145
13. Brewer J D, Wee A, Seghi R. Advances in color matching. DCNA 2004 48:
341-58
14. Sikri VK. Color: Implication in dentistry. Journal of conservative dentistry
2010;13(4):249-55
15. Sorensen J A, Torres T J. Improved color matching of metal-ceramic
restorations. Part-1: A systematic method for shade determination. The
Journal of prosthetic Dentistry. 1987; 58(2):133-139
16. Bhat V, Prasad K, Sood S. Role of colors in prosthodontics: Application of color
science in restorative dentistry. Indian Journal of dental research
2011;22(6):804-09
146
17. Goldstein R E. Esthetics in dentistry. B C Decker. 2nd ed. 1998. vol 1: 207-
223
18. Yadav p, Aggarwal S, Maheshwari R. association of tooth shade
value with age, gender and colour of sclera in moradabad
population- A cross sectional study. Int J sci res. 2018; 7(4):64-5.
19. Oh WS, Pogoncheff J, O’Brien WJ. Digital computer matching of tooth color.
Materials 2010;3:3694-99
20. Anand M, Shetty P, Bhat SG. Shade m,atching in fixed prosthodontics using
instrumental color measurements and computers. JPD 2009
147
148

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Sceince of colour and Shade Selection by Dr. Vaibhav Budakoti

  • 1. 1 Good Morning. . Dr. VAIBHAV BUDAKOTI vaibhavbudakoti831994@gmail.com https://www.facebook.com/DrVibhuCreatingSmiles
  • 2. 2 Presented by: Dr. VAIBHAV BUDAKOTI PG III year SCIENCE OF COLOR AND SHADE SELECTION
  • 3. CONTENTS Introduction Elements of Color  Physics of light  Science of color  Perception of color Color in dentistry Shade matching Currently available shade matching devices Conclusion References 3
  • 4. 4 INTRODUCTION • Being prosthodontist, we deal with restorative dentistry. Restorative dentistry is a blend of science and art. • Aesthetics which is one of the main concerns in the restorative dentistry depends totally upon proper shade matching of prosthesis with surrounding structures which can be teeth or soft tissues.
  • 5. • Color matching is done for better compliance. • Perception of color is physiological response by human eyes and sensory structures of brain towards the light reflected from an object. 5
  • 6. NATURE OF COLOR • Color is all about light. • For color to be seen , light is reflected from an object and stimulates the neural sensors in the eye’s retina to send a signal that is interpreted in visual cortex of brain. 6
  • 7. LIGHT 5. Shammas A, Alla RK. Color and shade matching in dentistry. Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs 2011;25(4):172-75. 7 Light is a part of electromagnetic waves.
  • 8. Electromagnetic Radiation 8 Electromagnetic wave or radiation is a form of energy that propagates as both electrical and magnetic waves traveling in packets of energy called photons.
  • 9. • White light which is seen by human eye is called visible light that falls in the range of 380 to 780 nm. • Other waves like radio, micro, infra, x rays and gamma rays cannot be seen by human eyes so called the invisible spectrum. Both visible and invisible spectrum make up the electromagnetic spectrum. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. • Relatively equal quantities of electromagnetic energy over the VL Pure White Light 770nm 380nm + + + + + + = 11 by sir Isaac newton in 1676
  • 12. COLOR • Color is a property of light. • Objects have no color of their own, they just reflect a particular wavelength from the color spectrum. • For e.g., blue objects absorbs all of the wavelengths, except for blue. 12
  • 13. Color6 1: a phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects 2: the quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected or transmitted by it. (GPT9) 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. REFLECTION 15 An object that appears a certain color reflects the light frequency that correspond to that color.
  • 16. 16
  • 17. INTERFERENCE 17 If the crest of one wave coincide with crest of another wave the amplitudes are additive while if crest of one wave coincide with trough of another wave resultant amplitude is decreased or may be even cancelled. This is destructive interference.
  • 18. 18
  • 19. SCATTERING 19 It is scattering of light that makes sky appear blue, make clouds white and turns the sun red at sunset. In the air, part of the sunlight is scattered. THE SHORTER THE WAVELENGTH THE MORE IS SCATTERING. Therefore in the scattered light the shorter wavelengths predominate
  • 20. COLOR PERCEPTION 20 rods and cones are photoreceptors that process light into nerve impulses. Rods are 120 million in no. and helps in adjusting vision in dim light or low light levels Cones are 6 millions in no. and adjust vision in bright light and sensitive to color.
  • 21. Lighting conditions 21 Low lighting condition Only rods are used. High lighting condition Cones are used Scotopic vision Photopic vision Dark adaptation 40 mins.
  • 22. Primary requisites for perception of color 1. The object 2. A light source for illumination 3. An observer • The most important phenomena that come into play during color matching are: 1. Successive contrast 2. Simultaneous contrast 3. Color constancy 22
  • 23. Color matching 23 successive contrast simultaneous contrast color constancy projection of a negative afterimage (complementary color) that occurs after staring at a colored object. instantaneous change in chromatic sensitivity characterized by a change in appearance of hue due to surrounding colors. occurs because we think of objects themselves as being colored, so that an object seems to be the same color even if the light received by the eye varies considerably .
  • 24. successive contrast 24 Occurs when one color is viewed following the observation of another color. Positive afterimages Negative afterimages
  • 25. Simultaneous contrast 25 Perception of color is affected by three factors : Surrounding relative lightness: Surrounding color: Surrounding relative saturation:
  • 26.  Color constancy occurs because we think of objects themselves as being colored, so that an object seems to be the same color even if the light received by the eye varies considerably . 26 Color constancy
  • 27. Color adaptation13  Color vision decreases rapidly as object is observed.  Original color appears to become less & less saturated until it appears almost grey.  Simultaneously, Chroma of complementary colors appears greater. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. Quality of Light LIGHT INTENSITY PROPER ILLUMINANTS COLOR TEMPERATURE COLOR RENDERING INDEX 29 Proper illumination is necessary for accurate perception of color. not only enough lightening is required to evaluate color properly but it is also essential to achieve a proper quality of light. This is accomplished by using the correct light intensity and the proper illuminants. The appropriate color temperature and color rendering index must be considered when selecting a light source.
  • 30. LIGHT INTENSITY Regulator of pupil diameter  Maintaining the lightning intensity of 150 to 200 foot-candles will facilitate accurate shade analysis and matching. 30
  • 31. Color temperature 31 RED YELLOW BLUE WHITE Measure of a lights colour Color temp reported in degrees Kelvin 1000K 2000K 5555K 8000K
  • 32. Color Rendering Index • Indicates how well a light source renders color as compared to a standard source. 0 100 32
  • 33. Natural Daylight  Daylight is often used as the standard against which other light sources are compared.  CRI is 100  Distribution of light wave from the sun depends upon:  time of day  on humidity  on pollution 33
  • 34.  During morning & evening hours the shorter wavelength light (blue & green) are scattered, & only longer one (at the red end of spectrum) penetrate the atmosphere.  Northern daylight around noon hour on a bright day considered ideal because there is harmonious balance within the visible light spectrum. 34
  • 35.  Northern day light has an average color temperature of around 6500⁰ K, but this varies with the time of day, humidity & pollution. 35
  • 36. STANDARD ILLUMINANTS International Commission on Illumination ( CIE), In 1931 A B C Tungsten light source with color temperature of about 2,856K yellowish red light Tungsten light source coupled with a liquid filter direct sunlight (noon) with color temperature of about 4,874K average daylight (shady/ indirect sunlight) with color temperature of 6,774 K. 36
  • 37. STANDARD ILLUMINANTS International Commission on Illumination, D E F different daylight conditions as measured by color temperature. Theoretical light source with equal amounts of energy at each wave length. Series of fluorescent light sources D50 D65 37
  • 38. STANDARD ILLUMINANTS F L There is a coating on the spirals, which makes this light white. CRI = 50-80. CRI = 80-98 COMPACT FLUORESCENT LIGHT (CFL’S) LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 38
  • 39. • Light source with color temperature close to 5500 k i.e. D55 which is spectrally balanced throughout the visible spectrum is ideal for color matching. • D65 is considered to be true color temperature of white light as perceived by human observers. • Is commonly used standard lighting for visual shade matching in dental clinic. 39
  • 41. TRANSLUCENCY 41 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENAMEL AND DENTIN relative amount of light transmitted through a material OPACITY TRANSLUCENCY TRANSPARENT
  • 42. • Enamel and dentin have different structural characteristics and consequently they exhibit different light wave interaction • Enamel due to its highly mineralized prismatic structure, low organic content and a small amount of water have a higher transmission of light than dentin. • Dentin has less mineral content, an organic tubular structure and higher water content and is less translucent. 42
  • 43. 43 At the incisal third the enamel is 1.5mm and lends to translucency In middle third it becomes more translucent And in cervical third it thins out to 0.2-0.3mm making it transparent and showing underlying dentine
  • 44. OPALESCENCE44 Scattering of smaller wavelengths of the visible spectrum and transmission of longer wavelengths making the opalescent objects more bluish when viewed under reflected light and more orange when viewed in transmitted light
  • 45. • Human teeth enamel is opalescent. • At the incisal edges of the teeth the longer wavelengths are transmitted while the shorter wavelengths are reflected via scattering. • Thus enamel appears bluish dispite being colorless. 45
  • 46. • All teeth that are naturally covered by the enamel present opalescence • However, better observed in the upper central incisors, in the form of a blue band, located near to the incisal edge called opalescent halo. 46
  • 47. FLUORESCENCE luminescence phenomenon, which means that it causes spontaneous light emission by a process other than heating 47 Natural teeth as observed in Daylight and black light
  • 48. • Fluorescence is present in both enamel and dentin; • it is associated with the amount of organic matter, it presents three times greater intensity in dentin than in enamel This difference results from the presence of collagen fibers 48
  • 49. METAMERISM13,10 Two colors that appear to be a match under a given lighting condition but have different spectral reflectance are called metamers, & phenomenon is called metamerism. 49 Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part III. Color control. J Prosthet Dent1974;31(2):146-154.
  • 50. This means that a sample that appears to match under the operatory light, may no longer be satisfactory in daylight. Problem of metamerism can be avoided by selecting a shade & confirming it under diff lighting conditions. E.g; natural daylight fluorescent light. 50
  • 51. COLOR IN DENTISTRY • Pigment colors • Dimensions of colors 51
  • 52. BASIC COLOR SCHEMES • The color wheel is basic tool for combining colors. • Primary colors – Red Yellow Blue • Secondary colors – Green Orange Purple • Tertiary colors 52
  • 53. COLOR HARMONIES • Two or more colors having fixed relation in a color wheel. 1. Complementary color scheme 2. Analogous color scheme 3. Triadic color scheme 4. Tetradic or rectangular color scheme 5. Split complementary color scheme 6. Square color scheme 53
  • 56. DIMENSIONS OF COLOR At the beginning of 20th century, Professor ALBERT H. MUNSELL noted that each color has a logical relationship to all other colors. He brought clarity to color communication by establishing an orderly system for accurately identifying every color. 56
  • 57. MUNSELL COLOR ORDER SYSTEM1,2,4,10,13 Most popular method for describing color . • Albert Munsell was an artist and teacher who developed The Atlas of the Munsell Color System in 1915. This color wheel includes the dimensions of : HUE VALUE CHROMA 57
  • 58. HUE • often referred to as the basic color of an object. • Refers to the dominant wavelength present in spectral distribution. • The attribute of color by means of which a color is perceived to be red, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc. • White, black, and grays possess no hue. 58
  • 59. Hue of an object determined by the wavelength. Shorter the wavelength , closer the hue will be to the violet portion of spectrum; the longer the wavelength , closer it will be to the red portion. 59
  • 60. In Munsell color system, Hues are divided into 10 gradations:  Yellow  Yellow-red  Red  Red-purple  Purple  Purple-blue  Blue  Blue-green  Green  Green-yellow 60
  • 61. 61
  • 62. CHROMA 1. the purity of a color, or its departure from white or gray 2. the intensity of a distinctive hue; saturation of a hue 3. chrome describes the strength or saturation of the hue (color) Achromatic shades have a Chroma near 0. Natural teeth are found with Chroma ranges from 0.5 to 4. 62
  • 63. VALUE Defined as relative lightness or darkness of a color or brightness of an object. Brightness of an object is direct consequences of the amount of light energy the object reflects or transmits. Value is the only dimension of color that may exist alone. 63
  • 64. In Munsell system, Value is divided into 10 gradations, with 0 being Black & 10 being White Natural teeth range in Value from 5.5 to 8.5 A restoration that has too high a Value may be easily detected & is common esthetic fault in metal- ceramic prosthesis. 64
  • 65. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIMENSIONS OF COLOR  Munsell color solid can be represented in following manner:  Hues are uniformly spaced around central axis of color wheel.  Centre of wheel is achromatic or Value portion.  Each spoke of the wheel represents the gradations in Chroma occuring within a hue. 65
  • 66. The wheels on the top of the stack have higher Value than those on the bottom of the stack. Wheels are not the same size because it is not possible to achieve the same degree of color purity, or Chroma, for all Hues. 66
  • 67. CIELAB COLOR SYSTEM1,2,4,10,13 Determined by Commission Internationale de I’Elcairagein 1978. CIELAB relates the tristimulus values to a color space. In this system the color differences which you perceive correspond to distances measured colorimetrically 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. 69 • Cielab color order defines color space by three coordinates L, a and b. • where L is similar to value in munsell color system. • a and b represents chromatic characteristics of a color. • a represents red green axis and b represents yelllow blue axis. • L refers to lightness coordinate ranging from 0 to 100. • +ve a values reflect red color range , negative a green color range • +ve b indicate yellow color range.
  • 72. VIEWERS ASSOCIATED EFFECTS Color blindness Age Fatigue Nutrition Medication Binocular difference. 72
  • 73. COLOR BLINDNESS Is caused by a deficiency in or absence of one or more photosensitive pigments present in cones. Defects in color vision affects about 8 % of the male population & less of the female population. Diff types exist: Achromatism– complete lack of Hue sensitivity. Dichromatism-- sensitivity to only 2 primary Hues either red or green are not perceived. 73
  • 74. Anomalous trichromatism– sensitivity to all three Hues with deficiency or abnormality of one of the three primary pigments in the retinal cones. Dentists should have therefore there color perception tested. If any deficiency detected, dentist should seek assistance when selecting tooth shades. 74
  • 75. There are a number of chronic diseases that can have significant affects on color perception as well. Diabetes, glaucoma, leukemia, Addison disease, pernicious anemia, sickle cell anemia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, liver disease, and alcoholism have been shown to compromise color vision . 75
  • 76. AGE • Aging is detrimental to color-matching abilities because the cornea and lens of the eye become yellowish with age, imparting a yellow-brown bias. • This process begins at age 30, becomes more noticeable at age 50 and has clinical significance after 60 years of age. • After age 60, many people have significant difficulties in perceiving blues and purples. 76
  • 77. FATIGUE • Tired eyes cannot perceive color as accurately as alert eyes. • Compromised visual perception is due to systemic, local or mental fatigue. • Successive shade observations (treating many patients requiring shade assessment during a single workday) can be primary cause of fatigue. 77
  • 78. BINOCULAR DIFFERENCE • The perception difference between the left and the right eye. • To test for binocular difference, two objects are placed side by side under uniform illumination. They may appear different, e.g., the one on right may seem slightly lighter than the one on the left. 78
  • 79. • Placing shade tabs either above or below (rather than next to) the tooth to be matched will help to eliminate error caused by binocular difference. 79
  • 80. SHADE SELECTION Shade – a term used to describe a particular Hue, or variation of a primary Hue, such as greenish shade of yellow. OR A term used to describe a mixture with black or gray as opposed to a tint that is a mixture with white. (GPT-9) 80
  • 81. GENERAL PRINCIPLES15 81 Sorensen J A, Torres T J. Improved color matching of metal-ceramic restorations. Part-1: A systematic method for shade determination. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 1987;58(2):133-9.  Neutral colored shade matching environment should be created i.e. the walls, staff clothing and patient drape should be ideal neutral grey.  Any lipstick or bright makeup done by the patient have to be removed  Drape the patient with a neutral-colored cover if the patient is wearing bright-colored clothing.
  • 82. • Shade selection should be done at the beginning of the appointment This is because the eyes of dentist are not fatigued from dental procedures. Moreover, teeth become dehydrated and change color during preparation and the debris generated in the form of enamel, metal and cement grindings can coat everything in the mouth. 82
  • 83. Have the patient’s mouth at dentist’s eye level. Rapid shade comparison should be made for no more than 5 seconds. 83
  • 84. GENERAL PRINCIPLES15 • Assess Value levels by squinting. Half-closed eyes decrease the amount of light entering the eye to inactivate the cones and allow peripherally located rods of the retina to discriminate lightness and darkness. 84
  • 85. GENERAL PRINCIPLES15 • Compare shade selection under varying conditions  wet versus dry (Teeth increase in Value when they are dry.)  Lip retracted versus lip down, under different lighting conditions. 85
  • 86. GENERAL PRINCIPLES15 Canines should be used as reference in selecting a shade because they have the highest chroma of the dominant Hue of the teeth. Maxillary incisors are similar in Chroma to premolars. Mandibular incisors are usually one Chroma level lower than maxillary incisors. Canines are two Chroma levels higher than maxillary incisors. 86
  • 87. Shade comparison should be made quickly, with the color sample placed under the lip directly next to the tooth being matched. This will ensure that the background of tooth & shade sample are the same, which is essential for accurate matching. 87
  • 88. Shade selection should be made at 3 to 6 feet from the oral cavity is more useful, since it is representative of the conditions under which patient’s teeth will most often be observed. Verification of the shade should be made in the presence of second individual such as dental assistant. 88
  • 90. COMMERCIAL SHADE GUIDES Each shade tab has an opaque backing color– neck, body & incisal color. 90
  • 91. VITA CLASSICAL SHADE GUIDE 91 Introduced in 1960 by Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany 16 tabs are available in 4 hue groups categorized as A,B,C and D
  • 92. • A1-A4 Reddish-brownish • B1-B4 Reddish-yellowish • C1-C4 Greyish shades • D2-D4 Reddish-grey 92 1 is least chromatic and highest value 4 is most chromatic lowest value.
  • 93. HUE SELECTION Choosing the nearest Hue 1st & then selecting the appropriate match of Chroma & Value from the tabs available is the recommended technique. The region with the highest Chroma (cervical region of canine), should be used for initial Hue selection. 93
  • 94. CHROMA SELECTION Once Hue is selected, the best Chroma match is chosen. Several comparisons are necessary when determining which sample best represents the Hue & its corresponding Chroma level. Between comparisons glancing at grey object, will rests to operators eye & help avoid retinal cone fatigue. 94
  • 95. VALUE SELECTION Value is determined by arranging the samples in increasing lightness by holding the shade guide close to the patient. 95
  • 96. 96 It has been rearranged according to the value based ordering system (B1, A1, A2, D2, B2, C1, C2, D4, D3, A3, B3, A3.5, B4, C3, A4,C4)
  • 97. 97
  • 98. VITA CLASSICAL A1-D4 SHADE GUIDE WITH VITA BLEACHED SHADES 98
  • 99. • VITA Bleached Shades offer the dentist a practical tool for the reliable determination and maintenance of a whitening regimen • consist of the bleached shades 0M1, 0M2 and 0M3. 99
  • 101. • Introduced by Ivoclar Vivadent • USES NUMBERING SYSTEM • 100 = WHITE • 200 = YELLOW • 300 = ORANGE • 400 = GRAY • 500 = BROWN 101 Grouped into 5 series by HUE Chroma and value are communicated by another system of numbers 10 = least chromatic, highest value 40 = most chromatic , lowest value
  • 102. VITA TOOTHGUIDE 3D-MASTER • It is a value based shade guide and value based shade guides are a more accurate means of shade selection
  • 103. VITA 3D MASTER SHADE GUIDE • Introduced in 1998 by Vita Zahnfabrik • 26 tabs arranged three dimensionally. • 5 basic value groups from lighter to darker • Chroma varies vertically downwards 1 to 3 • Hue varies horizontally as L, M, R. 103
  • 104. • Step 1- Value selection with VITA 3D MASTER • (levels 1 being lightest (high value) and 5 being darkest (low value)) • Start with darkest group moving right to left. 104
  • 105. 105 Step II: Chroma selection with VITA 3 D MASTER the chroma (levels 1 2,3) is determined with 1 being least chromatic and select the color sample of the selected M group that is closest to the tooth to be compared.
  • 106. 106
  • 107. 107
  • 108. • Eg. • It’s a no. letter no. combination 3 M 2 108 Value Hue Chroma (Intensity)
  • 110. 110
  • 111. DENTIN SHADE GUIDE When using a translucent all ceramic system for a crown or veneer, communicating the shade of the prepared dentin to the dental lab is helpful. 111
  • 112. CUSTOM SHADE GUIDE An almost infinite number of samples can be made by using different combination of porcelain powders in varying distribution. Procedure is time consuming. Confined to specialty practice. 112
  • 113. SHADE DISTRIBUTION CHART Shade distribution charting is a practical approach to accurate shade selection & is recommended even when a fairly good match is available from commercial shade sample. Tooth ------ cervical  middle matched independently,  incisal 113
  • 114. The junction areas can be communicated to lab in the form of diagram. Individual characteristics are marked on such a sketch & will allow the ceramist to mimic details like hairline fracture, hypocalcification & proximal discolorations. 114
  • 115. SHADE TAKING DEVICES13,18 These devices have been designed to aid clinicians and technicians in the specification and control of tooth color. The earliest color-measuring device designed specifically for clinical dental use was a filter colorimeter. The Chromascan was introduced in the early 1980s but enjoyed limited success due to its inadequate design and accuracy. 115
  • 116. BASIC DESIGN All color-measuring devices consist of a detector, signal conditioner, and software that process the signal in a manner that makes the data usable in the dental operatory or laboratory. 116
  • 118. COLORIMETERS Filter colorimeters generally use three or four silicon photodiodes that have spectral correction filters that closely simulate the standard observer functions. These filters act as analog function generators that limit the spectral characteristics of the light that strikes the detector surface. 118
  • 119.  The inability to exactly match the standard observer functions with filters while retaining adequate sensitivity for low light levels is the that the absolute accuracy of filter colorimeters is considered inferior to scanning devices such as spectrophotometers and spectroradiometers. 119
  • 120. However, because of their consistent and rapid sensing nature, these devices can be precise with differential measurements. This is why they often are used for quality control. 120
  • 121. DIGITAL CAMERAS AS FILTER COLORIMETERS The newest devices used for dental shade matching are based on digital camera technology. Instead of focusing light upon film to create a chemical reaction, digital cameras capture images using charge couple devices, which contain many thousands or even millions of microscopically small light-sensitive elements (photosites). Like the photodiodes, each photosite responds only to the total light intensity that strikes its surface. 121
  • 122. SPECTROPHOTOMETERS & SPECTRORADIOMETERS5 Spectrophotometers and spectroradiometers are instruments designed to produce the most accurate color measurements. Spectrophotometers differ from spectroradiometers primarily because they include a stable light source. There are two types of basic designs commonly used for these instruments. 122
  • 123. The traditional scanning instrument consists of a single photodiode detector that records the amount of light at each wavelength. The light is divided into small wavelength intervals by passing through a monochromator.  A more recent design uses a diode array with a dedicated element for each wavelength.
  • 124. This design allows for the simultaneous integration of all wavelengths. Both designs are considerably slower than filter colorimeters but remain the tools that are required to examine and develop accurate color-measuring devices. 124
  • 125. CURRENTLY AVAILABLE DEVICES18 The devices are generally one of three types— colorimeters, spectrophotometers, or digital color analyzers—and use various measuring geometries . 125
  • 126. 126 Shade Eye NCC. Vita Easy shade. Spectroshade Shade Scan
  • 127. SHADE EYE-NCC 127 Free standing hand held contact probe DOCKING UNIT Shofu’s shade NCC (natural color concept) has been available since 1990’s. it consists of a free standing hand held contact probe about 3mm in diameter
  • 128. 128 The probe is placed against the tooth, and an activation button is pushed. This sends a flash of light to the tooth, from the periphery of the probe, and the reflected light is transported through the center of the probe to the detector where the collected light is evenly distributed through color filters that closely match the three standard observer functions.
  • 129. VITA EASYSHADE V 129 The Vita Easyshade is a hand-held spectrophotometer
  • 130. 130Average shade (5) 1 step measurem ent 3 part shade selection Check shade of prosthesis received from lab
  • 131. 131 measuring tip is placed at 90• measuring tip is placed 90• to tooth surface
  • 133. SHADE SCAN • Employs digital artificial vision technology with integrated CAD/CAM technology. • Shade is measured by hand held optical device • Generates a shade map of the tooth, keying different areas of the dental surfaces to the selected shade guide by utilizing different resolution. 133
  • 134. 134
  • 135. SPECTRO SHADE Most complex in design and most cumbersome in terms of hardware. Windows based system utilizes dual digital cameras linked through optic fibres to a fully functional spectrophotometer. It indicates the deviation of hue, value, chroma from a standard. 135
  • 136. • The handpiece is relatively large compared with the contact probe designs, and positioning can be tricky • Light from a halogen source is delivered through fiber optic bundles and lenses to the tooth surface at 45.
  • 137. 137
  • 138. SHADE -RITE139 It consists of a hand-held device with its own light source, and an LCD screen facilitates positioning on the tooth
  • 139. SHADE -RITE • Cone shaped sensor is pointed at the tooth to be replaced, at the junction of the gingival and middle thirds of the tooth. • Images are acquired and replaced in its cradle. • As the unit enters the docking station, it initiates the system’s software • Data is uploaded and software selects the most appropriate shade. 140
  • 140. 141
  • 141. • The modern dentist must be trained to detect differences in color and shades in individual teeth, select a shade that reflects the color and exact shade, transmit this information to a dental technician, and be able to deliver an esthetic restoration 142
  • 142. REFERENCES 1. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics– Rosenstiel SF, Land MF, Fujimoto J. Elsevier publication 4th ed. 2014 2. Bashir U, Lakshmanrao B. Color matching instruments and systems in prosthodontics. Indian Journal of Research. 2016;5(3):145-7. 3. Anusavice. Phillip’s Science of dental materials. Elsevier publications 11th ed. 143
  • 143. 5. Fundamentals in Fixed Prosthodontics. Shillingburg HT, Hobo S, Whitsett LD, Jacobi R, Brackett SE. 3rd ed. 425-31. 6. The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2017;94(1):10-92. 7. Agarwal VS, Kapur S. Color and Shade Management in Esthetic Dentistry. Universal Research Journal of Dentistry · September- December 2013; 8. Shammas A, Alla RK. Color and shade matching in dentistry. Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs 2011;25(4):172-75. 144
  • 144. 9. Vadher etal. Basics of colors in dentistry. Journal of dental and medical sciences 2014;13(9):78-85. 10. Sproull S C. Color matching in dentistry. Part 1. The three dimensional nature of color. J Prosthet Dent. 1973; 29(4): 416-24 11. Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part II practical applications of the organization of color. J Prosthet. Dent. 1973;29(3):556-66 12. Sproull R C. Color matching in dentistry. Part III. Color control. J Prosthet. Dent. 1974;31(2):146-154 145
  • 145. 13. Brewer J D, Wee A, Seghi R. Advances in color matching. DCNA 2004 48: 341-58 14. Sikri VK. Color: Implication in dentistry. Journal of conservative dentistry 2010;13(4):249-55 15. Sorensen J A, Torres T J. Improved color matching of metal-ceramic restorations. Part-1: A systematic method for shade determination. The Journal of prosthetic Dentistry. 1987; 58(2):133-139 16. Bhat V, Prasad K, Sood S. Role of colors in prosthodontics: Application of color science in restorative dentistry. Indian Journal of dental research 2011;22(6):804-09 146
  • 146. 17. Goldstein R E. Esthetics in dentistry. B C Decker. 2nd ed. 1998. vol 1: 207- 223 18. Yadav p, Aggarwal S, Maheshwari R. association of tooth shade value with age, gender and colour of sclera in moradabad population- A cross sectional study. Int J sci res. 2018; 7(4):64-5. 19. Oh WS, Pogoncheff J, O’Brien WJ. Digital computer matching of tooth color. Materials 2010;3:3694-99 20. Anand M, Shetty P, Bhat SG. Shade m,atching in fixed prosthodontics using instrumental color measurements and computers. JPD 2009 147
  • 147. 148