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Essential grammar in use

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Essential grammar in use

  1. 1. m: CAMBRIDGE pull-out grammar reference pocket guide [MM _ , * Î _ n. îizi"î’2- i r“ i i? » Aself-study referente and practice bookfor elementary students of Enghsh with answers
  2. 2. Essenflal Grammar II1 Aself-study referente and practice bookfor elementary with answers THIRD EDlTlON Raymond Murphy
  3. 3. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Seîo Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK wwwcambridgeorg Information on this title: wwwcambrìdgeorg/ 9780521675802 © Cambridge University Press 2007 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permissìon of Cambridge University Press. First published 1990 Second edition 1997 Third edition 2007 11th printing 2011 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogare record for this publication i5 availableflom the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-67580-2 Edition with answers ISBN 978-0-521-67581-9 Edition without answers ISBN 978-0-521-67543-7 Edition with answers and CD-ROM ISBN 978-0-521-67544-4 CD-ROM for Windows (single user) ISBN 978-0-521-67545-1 Network CD-ROM (30 users) ISBN 978-3-12-539538-1 Klett edition with CD-ROM ISBN 978-3-12-5395 36-7 K1ettEdition Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
  4. 4. Contents Thanks vii T0 the student viii T0 the teacher x Present 1 am/ ìs/ are am/ is/ are (questions) I am doing (present contìnuous) are you doing? (present continuous questions) I do/ work/ like etc. (present simple) I don’t (present simple negative) D0 you ? (present simple questions) I am doing (present contìnuous) and I do (present simple) I have and I’ve got ©OOlOU'I-l>-b->[) Past 10 was/ were 11 worked/ got/ went etc. (past simple) 12 I didn’t Did you ? (past simple negative and questions) 13 I was doing (past contìnuous) 14 I was doing (past contìnuous) and I did (past simple) Present peijeci. ‘ 15 I have done (present perfect 1) 16 I’ve just I’ve already I haven’t yet (present perfect 2) 17 Have you ever P (present perfect 3) 18 How long have you ? (present perfect 4) 19 for since ago 20 I have done (present perfect) and I did (past) Passive 21 is done was done (passive 1) 22 is beìng done has been done (passive 2) Verbforrns 23 be/ have/ do in present and past tenses 24 Regular and irregular verbs Future 25 What are you doing tomorrow? 26 I’m going to 27 will/ shalll 28 will/ shall 2 Modals, inrzperative etc. 29 might 30 can and could 31 must mustn’t d0n’t need to [Η ‘P " M M A ììi
  5. 5. 32 should 33 I have to 34 Would you lìke P I’d like v 35 D0 this! Don’t do that! Let’s do this! 36 I used to There and i! 37 thcre is there are 38 there was/ were there has/ have been there will be 39 It ALIXÎÎÎd/ ‘y verbs 40 I am, »I don’t etc. 41 Have you? Are you? Don’t you? etc. 42 too/ either so am I / neither do I etc. 43 isn’t, haven’t, d0n’t etc. (negatives) Qiiestions 44 is it ? have you E’ do they P etc. (questions 1) 45 Who saw you? Who did you see? (questions 2) 46 Who is she talking to? What is it like? (questions 3) 47 What ? Which ? How ? (questions 4) 48 How long does it take P 49 D0 you know where P I don’t know what etc. Reportcd speech 50 She said that He told me that —ing and to 51 work/ working go/ going do/ doing 52 to (I want to do) and —ing (I enjoy doing) 53 I want you to I told you to 54 I went to the shop to G0, get, do, make and have 55 go to go on go for go —ing 56 get 57 do and make 58 have Pronouns and possessives 59 I/ me he/ him they/ them etc. 60 my/ his/ their etc. 61 Whose is this? It’s mine/ yours/ hers etc. 62 I/ me/ my/ mine 63 myself/ yourself/ themselves etc. 64 -’s (Kate’s camera / my brother’s car etc. ) IF Y()ll ARE NOI SllHt WHICH UNIIS Il) SIUDY, USE lHl: SÎUDY GUIDE ON PAGE Z/ l
  6. 6. A and the 65 a/ an 66 train(s) bus(es) (singular and plural) 67 a bottle / some water (countable/ uncotmtable 1) 68 a cake / some cake / some cakes (countable/ uncountable 2) 69 a/ an and the 70 the 71 go to work go home go to the cinema 72 l like music I hate exams 73 the (names ofplaces) D(. ’f€1'iI'll'I‘I€l’S una’ pro/ zouiis 74 this/ that/ these/ those 75 onc/ ones 76 some and any 77 not + any no none 78 not + anybody/ anyone/ anythìng nobody/ no-one/ nothing 79 somebody/ anything/ nowhere etc. 80 every and all 81 all most some any no/ none 82 both either neithei- 83 a lot much many 84 (a) little (a) few Adjecfivcs and aduerbs 85 old/ nice/ interesting etc. (adjectives) 86 quìckly/ badly/ suddenly etc. (adverbs) 87 old/ older expensive / more expensive 88 older than more expensive than 89 not as as 90 the oldest the most expensive 91 enough 92 too M/ ord order 93 He speaks English very well. (word order 1) 94 always/ usually/ often etc. (word order 2) 95 still yet already J 96 Give me that bookl Give it to me! Coiijunrrioiis and claiises 97 and but or so because 98 When 99 If we go Ifyou see etc. 100 IfI had If we went etc. 101 a person who a thing that/ which (relative clauses 1) 102 the people we met the hotel you stayed at (relative clauses 2) II Yllll ARE NOI SURE WHICH UNIIS I0 SlllDY, USE IHE SÎUDY GUIDE UN PAGE 21|.
  7. 7. Prepositions 103 at 8 0’cl0ck on Monday in April 104 from to until since for 105 before after during while 106 in at on (places 1) 107 in at on (places 2) [08 to in at (places 3) 109 under, behind, opposite ctc. 110 up, over, through etc. 111 on at by with about '112 afraid of , g00d at etc. of/ at/ for etc. (prepositions) + —ing 113 listen to , l00k at etc. (verb + preposition) Phmsal verhs 114 go in, fall 011', run away etc. (phrasal verbs 1) 115 put on your shoes put your shoes on (phmsal verbs 2) Appendices Appendix 1 Active and passive 243 Appendìx 2 Lìst of ìrregular verbs 244 Appendix 3 Irregular verbs in groups 245 Appendix 4 Short forms (he’s / I’d / don’t etc. ) 246 Appendix 5 Spelling 248 Appendix 6 Phrasal verbs (take 0fl'/ give up etc. ) 250 Appendix 7 Phrasal verbs + object (put out a fire / give up yourjob etc. ) 251 Additional exercises 252 Study guide 271 Key t0 Exercises 283 Key t0 Additional exercises 310 Key t0 Study guide 313 Index 315 H’ YUU ARL NUI’ SURL WIHCH UNITS H) SÌUDY, USI: IHE SÎUDY GUIDE UN PAGE 271.
  8. 8. Thanks For their help in producing this third edition of Essential Gramnmr in Use, I would like to thank Liz DriscolLjessica Roberts and Alison Sharpe. I would also like to thank the teachers and revieurers From varìous countries who provided me with feedback on the previous edition. Illustrations by Kate Charlesworth, Richard Deverell, Gillian Martin, Roger Penwill, Lisa Smìth, Ian West and Simon Williams Design by Kamae Design vii
  9. 9. This is a grammar book for elementary students of English. There ave 115 units in the book and each unit is about a different point of English grammar. There is 21 list Thanks vii T0 xlm xtudenl viii T0 lhc tmchcx x Prmzu ofunìts at the beginning 0F the book è “‘“’Î""° aIn/ is/ are (qunmom) (Corlterlts). 3 I am doing (pmscnn contìnuous) D0 not Study al] thc units in order 7 fiîom beginning to end. It ìs better to 2 choose the units that you need to do. ' For example, if you have a problem with the present pelfect (I have been, he has done etc), study Units 15-20. are yuu doing? (prcscnl connnuous questioni) l do/ work/ fike etc, (present simple) l don’t (present simple ncgzlive) Do you ? (pnsuu simple quccùom) I mm duiug (prcscnl contìnuous) and I do (pmenz simple) I lmve and I've gol 77K: numbm m. " P49: nunxbgnîfl" '"‘"”’*'" “U110 un" o; 7wî3."’°"*"nyxnm, b. . _ 4m "îwlwrv ' "t? 87D Use the Contents or the Index (at the Iifimlîsîjkfiggég aPmlrophu/ {înì _ ìlwron m, ab ì . ns m) ‘t (a (vu b l( fth b k t f d l ‘t 011:” “m vJL"°”“'M orrl m ‘marcio; «s0 ac o e 0o o In tle unl v. m5 ‘Nphcìflflnbnîlhfi hm q»)? ‘HM ".4 . E: uni/ i; r’ "m! s4 ' e “ha (or un1ts) that you need. ;4"‘: v_ no "Wmawr wmmflélofllku; u’ W , 4m . .. “M335: d‘ m». 1,52’ b: Ifinc {ypflm/ . I ‘ore; «miele: «I 7a m)": "Www v7.3; ""°"‘ """“ c9 72"21’ ‘Vhwxv-‘ru m» ‘In 711-77 ( bauli- ’ ° "36 mm (liutai/ un un, “ “Fwùd 90 ”""= vrw u. "' -- dr) a9 una, “ m mugflcm 553 ‘BY/ inviarc) 41k www w ‘Mm-mm, 0,5,” l POmxu ‘dlflurdwjy ' 53" "‘I"VSnvqc_ 7 m‘) : ;g°‘""“(m7/, -tu. ./h( M 43" HM condmon-I mi“? ""9 . - r H. rum, WM/ ruw“ "Nat- , — ÌÈxIyac-rznjrcnv III: MM Zflu m. .0; 114.14“ L‘ I . m ' n 100407 mi u. mlîgrbîllîznn, 974m ° «hm: 1mm”; "k 97 v ' H“ ‘Wfl/ mllrloq If you are not sure m. .. 5.. ... . which unlts you III Psgupn . _ ‘ 11 max-v bui- need to Study, use m 3:" ""'l‘mf"'""‘ ""'“‘ 33:22:211"‘T: :?: î.. ..î. :.”""“ . - u». u" mrxz? .. , . .._, .,. _.. ... ._. _., ..ttt the studyguldfl 3t m“, .___w, u. .. n“. u". .. n“. .. .1-. .» gtvfltwpîhlîsurflxfinq inning-hm J! r5; . ‘ mn-unzll“ ytnfin . ... . . . . . , -. _. . , - m- the back ofthe m i. ... ... ... ... m. .. van-w- ww n». .. cm‘. n“, www. i- m . .:. ... w., » _ , ,______, ,, _ ‘ m. .. m. .." u. .. . ... ..». .. boolx. " 4.. .». n.10. 1.2173 ne. .." . ._. .,. . 17 : ... ... ... ... c_. ... . c d __ «m. .. _. .._. m. ..” n.2. . J _ ll Ifiunùlîrîfibfi‘ ' n “Mm h” ti; D” m” 33.: --. .x. ... ._. . gnu. ..» z: w». , 1-. .. . , "“ _ _ m-w u-a-"c-n-T‘ v---«- m» " h. “ . <n. .."‘”'». . “s. ..” su“. .. n . -.. . «uh-Abnvnl-mxnl u. ..“ Aw- I-«Inc c-n. puma una I| u “n, .. .;. .—4.m——--u—i. u:. .a, .. 14 Ludo-n _ uIhu-nuhnnnnuunt Ava-van Ip-L-«vm CA-u): BUII>LIIIÉIÙ . ,. . ... c, o, .. .. h-. . ; . . 2.. .". .. , ,., . m". .. u. ..“ cm. .-“ . ... .-i n.12,. u .5.. . _ . ... ... ... . _ rW. ... ..'. L:: .:: ::: ::" .1 S, “ ‘ "". .t. î:î. “”‘. ... " "" , ____‘____, __ _, _)____L_k___ 27.11.. 4.. .-. .‘ cm. ..“ m”. .. luhrvhbulqywwl “"" “" A _ n w". .. . ... - M. .- " 32;”. .. . ;:': ... "“u, .w. .. hm. 3-» n»: c-m n» z». - sw. .. . . . , , n , ... .w. ... ... ... ... ... ... . pygnr-‘u www cww-w-a v-w max-n hm: C-u fl-nutrt’: 1.. .»: I I'm“ I“ a . .. -. «u». .. s. . . . ‘ m h" ° 2.. .; “l. .. “L11. nnmflîx. .. 3313i: wn-a- cm»- Pnvflflflrfl . . “mi. ..” . .. .1- 7;"; - _w____g____fl_ gay; ‘M-v- “r” "Mm-—- . ... ... .4 . ... .. . c». .. un”. -- x. *:: ,:: ‘*: :.r: °.. ,- muti. ..“ ‘e wa-u-“Pfmn u»- n . . i1‘! L Study guide (gmges 271-282)
  10. 10. Each unit is two pages. The information is on the left-hand page and the exercises are on the right: lnformation sona-u y. _. m. _. mmnm. . ... ».. .., m“. .. w-. ,.. ... ... -. un-uqwmmgv‘. . _.. .‘ nr——. .r, .__n. w x. =». ... ... -.. ... .,. .. a. u. .. ruu-xnqnux-Q. - 41 guru". .. ‘J urta-tanga. .. »— m». usa-ì. .- ». x.. ... .n—. 4 -—, A . m.. ... ... .a—. ... ... ... —. ... - . _._. ... ,.. ... . m. .. m- ‘rî-nl-finaflt -—. -_— —_—. —. una. .. _—. ’-_—u . —-—. —«—— 2:2; . ._. ..: u;: «r. .. . ... .u. ., . baristi n uu——upun—u-—. _.. .—m—n_, r-nnnn-u-u. 1.. ... . han‘. . ..—u7.. —.. . . n-. .,_. .«. .,. .. ; mm“; m. «un-M n.4.-. -. ... —.. ,ym m». .- r. .—. .,u. .._ .4—n. h4nu4 , u . ».. r 5.. ... . tu. » ‘, —444 Ikvwnwvu . ..«. ... ,., ... Study the left-hand page (information), and then do the exercises on the right-hand page. Use the Key to check your answers. The Key is on pages 283-309. Study the left-hand page again if necessary. Don’t forget the seven Appendircs at the back 0E the book (pages 243-251). These will give you information about active and passive forms, irregular Verbs, short forms, spelling and phrasal vcrbs. There are also Additional exercises at the back of the book (pages 252-270). There is a list of thcsc exercises on page 252. CD Rom You can buy this book with or without a CD Rom. On the CD Rom there are more exercises on all the units, and these are dìfferent fiîom the exerciscs in thc book. There are also more than 600 test questions. Auurnvl-a n “ìîîìl‘iiîîiilî% n Exercises r1 i «mummia-r ì. Iliuijìgîll} I
  11. 11. T0 the teacher The most important teatures of this book are: D It is a grammar book. It does not deal with other aspects of the language. D It is for elementary learners. It does not cover areas of grammar which are not normally taught at elementary level. El It is a reference book with exercises. It is not a course book and is not organised progressively. El It is addressed to learners and intended for self-study. Organisation of the book There are 115 units in the book, each one focusing on a particular area of graimnar. The material is organised in grammaticali categories, such as tenses, questions and articles. Units are not ordered according to difficulty, and should therefore be selected and used in the order appropriate for the learner(s). The book should not be worked through from beginning to end. The units are listed in the Contents and there is a comprehensive Index at the end of the book. Each unit has the same format consisting of two facing pages. The grammar point is presented and explained on the left-hand page and the corresponding exercises are on the right. There are seven Appendices (pages 243-251) dealing with active and passive forms, irregular verbs, short forms (contractions), spelling and phrasal verbs. It might be useful for teachers to draw students’ attention to these. At the back of the book there is a set ofAdditional exercises (pages 252-270). These exercises provide ‘mjxed’ practice bringing together grammar points froni a number of difÎerent units (especially those concerning verb forms). There are 35 exercises in this section and there is a full list on page 252. Also at the back of the book there is a Sìudy guide to help students decide which units to study - see page 271. Finally, there is a Kcy (pages 283-309) for students to check their answers to all the exercises in the book. An edition without the Study guide and Key is available for teachers who would prefer it for their students. Level The book is for elementary learners, i. e. learners with very little English, but not for complete beginners. It is intended mainly for elementary students who are beyond the early stages ofa beginners’ course. It could also be used by low-intermediate learners whose grammar is weaker than other aspects of their English or who have problems with particular areas of basic grammar. The explanations are addressed to the elementary learner and are therefore as simple and as short as possible. The vocabulary used in the examples and exercises has also been restricted so that the book can be used at this leve]. Using the book The book can be used by students working alone (see Tò the student) or as supplementary course materia]. In either case the book can serve as an elementary grammar book. When used as course material, the book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. lt might be used by the whole class or by individua] students needing extra help and practice.
  12. 12. In some cases it may be desirable to use the left-hand pages (presentation and explanation) in class, but it should be noted that these have been written for individua] study and reference. In most cases, it would probably be better for teachers to present the graimnar point in their preferred way with the exercises being done for homework. The IeR-hand page is then available for later reference by the student. Some teachers may prcfer to kccp thc book for revision and remedial work. In this case, individua] students or groups of students can be directed to the appropriate units for self-study and practice. CD Rom The book is sold with or without a CD Rom. This contains further exercises on al] the units in the book, as well as a bank of more than 600 test questions from which users can select to compile their own tests. The CD Rom is also available separately. Essential Grammar in Use Third Edition This is a new edition of Essential Cramiraar in Use. The diflerences between this edition and the second edition are: D The book has been redesigned with new colour illustrations. D There is one new unit (Unit 35) and some reorganisation, so that most units have different numbers from the previous edition. D There are many (usually minor) revisions to the explanations, examples and exercises. D There are two new pages of Additional exercises (pages 252-270). D There is a new Study guide at the back of thc book to help users decide which units to study. D There is a new CD Rom with further exercises to accompany the book. xi
  13. 13. 112 am/ is/ are mother is a journalist. My father is a doctor and my I'm not married. My favourite eolour is blue. My favourìte sports are football and swimming. I'm ìnterested in art. positive tiegative (I’m) ( (he’s) (he’s not or he isn’t) (she’s) (sl1e’s not or she isn’t) (it’s) (it’s not or it isn’t) (we’re) we (we’re not or we aren’t) (you’re) you are not (you’re not or you aren't) they (they’re not or they aren’t) (they’re) shortform xhoriforms D I’m cold. Can you close the window, please? D I’m 32 years old. My sister is 29. D Steve is ill. I-Ie’s in bed. E My brother is afraid of dogs. D It’s ten o’clock. You’re late again. l: Ann and I are good friends. D Your keys are on the table. D I’m tired, but I’m not hungry. that’s = that is there’s = there is Il Tom isn’t interested in politics. I-Ie’s interested in music. jane isn’t a teacher. She’s a student. D Those people aren’t English. They’re Australian. 3 It’s sunny today, but it isn’t warm. here’s = here is D Thank you. That’s very kind of you. D Look! There’s Chris D ‘Here’s your key. ’ am/ is/ are (questions) —> Unit 2 ‘Thank you. ’ there islare -> Unit 37 ‘J a/ an -> Unit 65 short forms -> Appendix 4
  14. 14. Exercises Unit 1 1.1 Write the short form (she's / we aren't etc. ). 1 she is 3 it is not 5 I arn not 2 they are . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4 that is . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 6 you are not . ., 1.2 Write am, is or are. 1 The weather nice today. 5 Look! There . ... ... ... ... ... . . . Carol. 2 I . ... ... ... ... ... .. not rich. 6 My brother and I . ... ... ... ... ... . . . good tennis players. 3 This bag . ... ... ... ... ... . . . heavy. 7 Emily . ... ... ... ... ... . . . at home. Her children . ... ... ... ... ... . . . at school. 4 These bags . ... ... ... ... ... .. heavy. 8 I a taxi driver. My sister a nurse. 1.3 Complete the sentences. 1 Steve is 111. . ... .. . ... . . . in bed 2 I’m not hungry, but . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . thirsty. 3 MrThomas is a very old man. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 98. 4 These chairs aren’t beautiful, but comfortable. 5 The weather is nice today. warm and sunny. 6 ‘ . ... ... .. late. ’ ‘No, I’m not. I’m early! ’ 7 Catherine isn’t at home. at work. 8 your coat. ’ ‘Oh, thank you very much. ’ 1.4 Look at Lisa's sentences in 1A. Now write sentences about yourself. 1 (name? ) My 5 (favourite colour or colours? ) 2 (from? ) I . . My . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 (age? ) 6 (interested in . 4 (job? ) I 1.5 Wrìte sentences for the pictures. Use: afraid angry cold hot 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 I-Ie 5 1.6 Write true sentences. positive or negative. Use is/ isn't or are/ aren't. 1 (11/ hot today) or . .., ... J.t’_s 2 (it / vvindy today) It 3 (niy hands / cold) My 4 (Brazil / a very big country) . ... ... .. 5 (diamonds / cheap) 6 (Toronto / in the US) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . Write true sentences. positive or negative. Use I'm / I'm not. 8 (hungry) I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 9 (a good swimmer) 10 (interested in football) —> Additional exercise 1 (page 252) 13
  15. 15. am/ is/ are (questions) positive ques ti on r Are you married? w ‘p1 . . x No, I m smgle. J How old are you? Ì E ‘Am I late? ’ ‘No, you’re on time. ’ D ‘Is your mother 2t home? ’ ‘No, she’s out. ’ D ‘Are your parents at home? ’ ‘No, they’re out. ’ D ‘Is ìt cold in your room? ’ ‘Yes, a little. ’ D Your shoes are nice. Are they new? We say: E Is she at home? / Is your mother at home? (not Is at home your mother? ) D Are they new? / Are your shoes new? (not Are new your shoes? ) Where ? /What ? /Wh0 ? / How ? /Why ? D Where ìs your mother? Is she at home? Z1 ‘Where are you from? ’ ‘Canada. ’ Z1 ‘What colour is your car? ’ ‘It’s red. ’ D ‘How old ìs Joe? ’ ‘He’s 24.’ D How are your parente? Are they well? D These postcards are nice. How much are they? Il This hotel isn’t very good. Why ìs it so expensive? what’s = what is who’s = who is how’s = how is where’s = where is D What’s the time? D who’s that man? D Where’s Lucy? D How’s your father? Short answers I Yes, not. ‘Are you tired? ’ ‘Yes, I am. ’ ‘Are you hungry? ’ ‘No, I’m not, but I’m thirsty. ’ ‘Is your friend English? ’ ‘Yes, he is. ’ ‘Are these your keys? ’ ‘Yes, they are. ’ ‘That’s my seat. ’ ‘No, ìt isn’t. ’ ÙÎIHD amlislare —> Unit 1 questions —> Unit 44 whatlwhichlhow —> Unit 47
  16. 16. Exercises 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Unit 2 Find the right answers for the questions. A London. B No, I’m not. C Yes, you are. D My sister. E Black. F N0,it’s black. G In your bag. H No, she’s American. I Very well. Where’s the camera? Is your car blue? Is Linda from London? An1 I late? Wheres Ann from? What colour is your bag? Are you hungry? How is George? who’s that wonmn? Jàb-Ìlvw-x O®lOU’I Make questions with these words. . ... . home . .., ..Ar9.. .s9s4.r. .parente. -. 1 (is / at home / your mother) 2 (your parents / are / well) 3 (interesting / is / yourjob) 4 (the shops / are / open today) (from / where / you / are) . . . ... .. . . interested in sport / you / are) . . is / near here / the post office) at school / are / your children) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . , , you / are / late / why) 5 6 7 8 9 ( ( ( ( Complete the questions. Use What / Who l Where / How . your parents? the bus stop? ,. your children? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . these oranges? .. your favourite sport? .. ... ... ... ... ... .. the man in this photograph? your new shoes? 115g (name? ) (American? ) (how old? ) (a teacher? ) (married? ) (wife a lawyer? ) (from? ) (her name? ) (how old? ) They’re very well. At the end of the street. Five, six and ten. 41.50 a kilo. Skiìng. Thafis rny Father. Black. Write the questions. Paul. No, I’m Australian. I’m 30. No, I’m a lawyer. Yes, I am. No, she’s a designer. She’s ltalian. Anna. She’s 27. OCZÌNOUI-P-b-‘lvi-x Write short answers (Yes, I am. l N0, he isn't. etc. ). 1 Are you married? . N°2 l) 2 Are you thirsty? 3 Is it cold today? 4 Are your hands cold? . 5 Is it dark now? 6 Are you a teacher? —> Additional exercises 1-2 (pages 252-53)
  17. 17. I am doing (present contìnuous) Wefire ruvming. She’s eatìng. It’s raining. They’re running. She isn’t reading. The sun isn’t shining. They aren’t walking. The present continuous is: am/ is/ are + doing/ eating/ running/ writing etc. D I’m working. I’m not watching TV. D Maria is reading a newspaper. D She isn’t eating. (or She’s not eating. ) D The phone is rìngìng. Z) We’re havìng dinner. are (not) Z1 You’re not listenìng to me. (orYou aren’t listenìng . ..) D The children are doing their homework. am/ is/ are + —ing = soniething is happening now. ‘ I’m working she’s wearîng a hat they’re playìng football I’m not watching television past now _fi4rure Please be quiet. I’m working. (= I’m working now) Look, there’s Sarah. She’s wearing a brown coat. (= she is wearing it now) i The weather is nice. It’s not raining. _ ‘Where are the children? ’ ‘They’re playing in the park. ’ E (on the phone) We’re havìng dinner now. Can I phone you later? D You can turn ofÎthe television. I’m not watching it. Spelling (—> Appendix 5): come —> coming write —> writing dance —> dancìng run -—> running sit —-> sitting swim —> swimming lie —> lying amlis/ are —> Unit 1 are you doing? (questions) -—> Unit 4 I am doing and l do —> Unit 8 I6 What are you doing tomorrow? —> Unit 25
  18. 18. Exercises 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 1 Unit 3 What are these people doing? Use these verbs to complete the sentenees: play cab have lie sit wait 1 2 3 . . an apple. 4 I-Ie . . . . .. They , . on the fioor. tor a bus. . . .. .. .. breakfast. football. 6 on the table. ’JI Complete the sentences. Use these verbs: CDNOLD-ùbùhìvd have stand swim work build go Please be quiet. I WQÉkl/ Vl9.. ... . . ‘Wheres john? ’ ‘I-Ies in the kitchen. I-le , . . ’ ‘You on niy foot. ’ ‘Oh, I’m sorry. ’ Look! Somebody . ... ... ... ... ... ... .. in the river. Weîe here on holiday. We . at the Central Hotel. ‘where's Sue? ’ ‘She . ... . . . . a shower, ’ They . . . . . .. a new hotel in the city centre at the moment. I now. Goodbye. cook stay Look at the pieture. Write sentences about Jane. Use She's —ing or She isn't —ing. have dinner) . i watch television) sit on the fioor) She . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 1 ( 2 ( 3 ( 4 (read a book) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 (play the piano) 6 ( 7 < 8 ( wear a hat) . ... ... ... ... ... . . . write a letter) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . What's happening now? Write true sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O (I / Wash / iny hair) . ... . . or . . (it / snow) (I / sit / on a chair) (I / eat) (it / min) (I / learn / English) (I / listen / to music) (the sun / shine) (I / wear / shoes) (I / read / a newspaper) 17
  19. 19. («mi l are you oîcring? Ai ” (present continuous questions) 36' positive question doing doing? working working? going ' going? staying staying? etc. etc. you are they ‘Are you feeling OK? ’ ‘Yes, I’m fine, thanks. ’ ‘Is it raìning? ’ ‘Yes, take an umbrella. ’ why are you wearing a coat? It’s not cold. 5 ‘what’s Paul doing? ’ ‘He’s reading the newspaper. ’ ‘what are the children doing? ’ ‘Theyì-e watching television. ’ Look, there’s Emilyl where's she going? who are you waìting for? Are you waiting for Sue? ÎÎDDÙIÎDD " Study the word order: is/ are + subject + —ing Is he working today? Is Paul working today? (not ls working Paul today? ) Where are they going? where are those people going? (nolwhere are going those people? ) Short answers ‘Are you going nowv? ’ ‘Yes, I am. ’ ‘Is Paul working today? ’ ‘Yes, he is. ’ ‘Is it raining? ’ ‘No, it isn’t. ’ ‘Are your friends staying at a hotel? ’ ‘No, they aren’t. They’re staying with me. ’ DDDD 18 l am doing —> Unit 3 What are you doing tomorrow? —> Unit 25 questìons —* Units 44-47
  20. 20. Exercises Unit 4 4.1 Look at the pictures and write the questions. 0, it's broken. 4.2 Look at the pictures and complete the questions. Use: cry eat go laugh look at resid- What 5044.. .. 2 4.3 Make questions from these words. Put the words in the right order. 1 (is / working / Paul / today) 2 (what / the children / are / doing) 3 (you / are / listenìng / to me) 4 (where / your friends / are / going) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 (are / watching / your parents / television) . ... ... ... . . . 6 (what / ]essica / is / cooking) 7 (why / you / are / looking / at me) 8 (is / coming / the bus) p‘, W, W’, vu q, nJ q, q, 4.4 Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn't. etc. ). 1 Are you watching TV? 4 ls it raining? 2 Are you wearing a watch? 5 Are you sitting on the fioor? 3 Are you eating something? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 6 Are you feeling well? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . —> Additional exercise 3 (page 253] 19
  21. 21. I do/ work/ like etc. (present simple) We, read. 0L lot. l-le’s eating an ice-cream. They read a lot. He likes ice-cream. They read / he likes / l work etc. = the. present simple: I/ we/ you/ they read like work live watch do have ' he/ she/ it reads likes works lives watches does has l! Remembcr: he works / she lives / it rains etc. E I work in a shop. My brother works in a bank. (not My brother work) L Lucy lives in London. Her parents live in Scotland. o It rains a lot in winter. Ihave —> he/ she/ it has: C John has a shower every day. Spelling (—> Appendix 5): —es after -s / -sh / -ch: ass —> asses finish —> finishes watch —> watches P P —y —> -ies: study —> studies try —> trìes also: do —> does go --> goes we use the present simple for things that are true in genera], or for things that happen sometirnes or all the time: D l like big cities. D Your English i5 good. You speak very well. D T1111 works very hard. He starts at 7.30 and finishes at 8 o'clock in the evening. D The earth goes round the sun. D we do a lot of different things in our free time. D lt costs a lot ofmoney to build a hospital. always/ never/ often/ usually/ sometimes + present simple D Sue always gets to work early. (not Sue gets always) D I never eat breakfast. (nor I eat never) E Wc often go away 3t weekends. j Mark usually plays football on Sunday's. E l sometimes walk to work, but not very often. ld0n't (negative) —> 7.5;}. 73 D0 you .7 (questions) —> pnit 7' l am doing and l do -> 4.7i: 3 20 always/ usually/ often etc. (word order) —> 11.25‘: "Lx;
  22. 22. Exercises Unit 5 5.1 Write these verbs with —s or —es. 1 (read) she 3 (Hy) it 2 (think) he . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4 (dance) he . ... .. 5 (have) she 6 (finish) it 5.2 Complete the sentences about the people in the pictures. Use: eat go live play- play sleep . . the piano. 4 . tennis. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . in a very big house. 5 to the cinema a lot. a lot of fruit. 6 seven hours a night. 5.3 Complete the sentences. Use: boil close cost cost like like meet open speale teach wash Maria . .5P. '%Ql‘5.. ... ... . four languages. The shops in the city centre usually at 9 o’cl0ck in the mornizig. The City Museuin at 5 o’clock in the evening. Tina is a teacher. She . . . . mathematics to young children. Myjob is very interesting. I . . a lot ofpeople. -P—bàl)i—- Peter’s Car is always dirty. He never . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 1t. Food is expensive. lt . . a lot ofmoney. Shoes are expensive. They . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . a lot of money. 9 water at 100 degrees Celsius. 10 julia and l are good friends. I hcr and she . . me. UJIOUI 5.4 Write sentences from these words. Use the right form of the verb (arrive or arrives etc. ). (always / early / Sue / arrive) . ... ... Ss49.. .aiwaa2.. .arr. ix@s. .emu. .. . . . 1 2 (to the cinema / never / l / go) l . . 3 (work / Martina / hard / always) -l (like / Chocolate / children / Lisually) r 5 (lulia / parties / enjoy / always) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 6 (often / people’s names / I / forget) 7 8 (television / Tim / watch / never) . ... ... .. . . (usually / dinner / we / have / at 7.30) . . . 9 (lenny / always / nice clothes / wear) 5.5 Write sentences about yourself. Use always/ neverloftenlusually/ sometimes. (watch TV in the evening) 9436i“ (read in bed) l . . (get up before 7 o’clock) ( ( o to work/ school by bus) . drink coffee in the morning) O‘ D
  23. 23. linîi I ‘r l I 7'). l l: ltÌ)ilil"iZ (present. simple. ncgjzittivc) H)’; I rr’ (E993 ‘ l don’t («lo not) cîoesufit (da z-s not) D C D D C E Rema: l/ Vv/ KJ/ yiìll/ [ilty (lozirft D lie/ shc/ it (loesnfit D D D D "/ c' ui D ÎlDFl Unit 5 Unit 7
  24. 24. l. ‘xe. .r, r;—. i<r= «< Unit 6 5.1 Write the negative derfib. 9m. the. etano vera w3c! !- f. ‘ "I _C4.uluJ-Inn înFnv. -.xnfinn, ,runrl, unroifr> rar-nfsnrn: uIiH1 ‘l “(Q2 7€}. ‘(IN-f li: / {/54 ’ ‘f. ) l’ 1 classìt-«l music? yes no r) ‘P. boxin-{gîl no yes E 3 hcnror tìlnxs? yt no 5.3 Write about yoursclf. Use: l never or (gran? I don't very often. ‘i A L. " (mi or . |.. Ì'V. . or 5.4 Complete the sentences. AII of them are negative. Use don't/ doesn't + these verbs 19:11:, 6.5 Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. ga re: 5P. Wk5 like . m
  25. 25. lJn you (prcsttrìi simple (QLHTTSÎHJiIS) 1T ‘il D0 Do [M25 VilC 1L‘ El I‘) licxv. ‘ «il-ten di) Vl/ hzt (lo: s "°‘-“. .; . - . _ D Ì f «lo l/ w.: -/y. :iiI/ r.licy Ù does hc/ Slìsî/ it D l u l/ vusj/ yaîiti/ tlitiy di). _ì l/ we/ ytwii/ titzy don’t. 1:25, —— 1x0, 4 hr/ shc/ it does. lie/ she/ it doesn't. _ DNÎD DDHD 24 Unit 5 I stînziflt . (ne-zz-‘aiicd > Unit 6 (itreîiuîans x Units 44-47
  26. 26. 7,1 7,4, Unit 7 P? __‘A’I, :+n_lll r ecfinnc, urifknnn _7,'I fili - Drymgou. like drammi»: Make questions from these words + do/ does. Put the words in the rightwnrhrv where. dagoar parents Lwe Do. ..gw alwatgs. . get. ..ui>. T” r. -._A_’_Ìr’""‘. 540M. 4:9. JNritP chnrtnnswerslXesjtLdnec Additional exercises 4--7
  27. 27. l l am doing (present contìnuous) and jack is watching televìsion. l-le is n.01 playing the guitar. Butjack has a guitar. He often plays it and he plays very we jack plays the guitar, but he is not playing the guitar now. Is he playing the guitar? No, he isn’t. (present contimrous) Does he play the guitar? Yes, he does. (present simple) Present tor-itinuons (I am doing) = now, at the time of speaking: I’m doing part now future "il as-gkrl b ire n/ k '19 P? I di» É’ i ‘x’: di llkîe cmi 51h‘- Use o 3 l: 7,43"; pres-si Units 3-4 present sirrgfla —> Units 5--7 Unit 25
  28. 28. Exercises Unit 8 8.1 Answer the questions about the pictures. S. g __ Does he take photographs? .. Y?—?2.. ..y. lÌ'<. .d-r?9.5.: .. ls he taking a photograph? what is he doing? Is she driving a bus? Does she drive a bus? what is she doing? Are they teaching? Do they teach? .. ... ... ... ... .. . . what do they do? Does he clean Windows? . . ls he cleaning a window? what is he doing? 8.2 Complete the sentences with am/ is/ are or do/ don't/ d0es/ d0esn't. 1 Excuse me, you speak English? 2 ‘where's Kate? ’ ‘I . know. ’ 3 what’s funny? why . you laughing? 4 ‘what your sister do? ’ ‘She’s a dentist. ’ lt ‘where you come from? ’ ‘Canada. ’ 5 6 7 How much it cost to send a letter to Canada? 8 Steve is a good tennis player, but he play very often. . raining. I . Want to go out in the rain. 8.3 Put the verb in the present continuous (l am doing] or the present simple (I do). 1 Excuse me, (you/ speak) English? 2 ‘wherekjlòin? ’ (he/ have) a shower. ’ 3 (I/ not/ watch) television very often. 4 Listenl Somebody . , (sing). 5 Sandra i5 tired. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (she/ want) to go home now. 6 How often . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (you/ reati) a newspaper? 7 ‘Excuse 1ne, but . . (you/ sit) in my place. ’ ‘Oh, I’m sorry. ’ 8 I’m sorry, (l/ not/ understand). Can you speak more slowly? 9 It’s late. (l/ go) home now. (you/ come) with me? 10 what time (your father / fmish) work every day? 11 You can turn otf the radio. (l/ not/ listen) to it. 1.2 ‘where’s Paul? ’ ‘In the kitchen. (lie/ cook) something. ’ 13 Martin . ... ... ... ... . . . . . (not/ usually/ drive) to work. l-le . ... ... ... ... . . . ” (usually/ walk). 14 Sue (not/ like) coffee. (she/ prefer) tea.
  29. 29. ) l‘ ‘ l have and I've got l" ti‘. You can say I have or l’ve got, he has or he’s got: I (I’ve got) or we (we’ve got) you have got (yourve got) l’ve, got a. headoche. they (they’ve got) _ he (he’s got) o’ she has got (she’s got) it (it’s got) N slzortform l have blue eyes. or l’ve got blue eyes. E Tim has two sisters. or Tini has got two sisters. Our car has four doors. or Our car has got four doors. E Sarah isn’t feeling well. She has a headache. or She’s got a headache. They like annnals. They have a horse, three dogs and six Cats. or They’ve got a horse I haven’t got / have you got? etc. negative qnestlon short answers I I r we have not we have. you (haven’t) you haven’t. they they got l he . . she it Il l’ve got a motorbike, but I haven’t got a car. Tracey and jefi" haven’t got any children. D It’s a nice house, but it hasn’t got a garden. Il ‘Have you got a camera? ’ ‘No, l haven’t. ’ ” ‘what have you got in your bag? ’ ‘Nothing. It’s empty. ’ D ‘Has Helen got a car? ’ ‘Yes, she has. ’ l: what kind of car has she got? l don’t have / do you have? etc. ln negatives and questions you can also use do/ does z ' They don’t have any children. (= They haven’t got any children. ) It’s a nice house, but it d0esn’t have a garden. (= it hasn’t got a garden) l: Does I-Ielen have a car? (= Has I-Ielen got a car? ) D what do you have in your bag? (= what have you got in your bag? ) 28 had / didn't have (past) —> ' . have breakfast I have a shower etc. —> Unit 58 some/ any —> Unit 76
  30. 30. lasîiîasgot asma -‘wt" ’ gjgfigggîgggggigpnîîgg? j. ’ Î i y i ’ ÌLÎÉ . ì E {Îggîi ; i » r ‘ "' r rwawsmrwwme<swacwmvmwwzewmmmwîrww-imwmwowmmsarxwîerflm g g’ ‘ i’ i E . .1 ‘ . , Dane goti: got any btorîrers m: .. e e . i . . e . r; . . . Slîlîfiîìa i .1 sstsuwàmèxhwaflaamunaxaxàvnryîwxîlflx! cxxalîwuzxzamnwwxwdxwkîeatîxrtw gato‘ ai ‘ne; frane eîîîldrern; g Élîé lîîîîìfi a ai 531g g mgag. asgg. ga. gìwggtgsg. ... ... ;.; ..; a.. g.s. .agw. t.a. mww, mggg 5% tra ' . , . , u xx H . . _ E . ma altri o? fio dea lév. ..v? ,3 , . . , . . Z“ gliene mimmi; E fittîîtîîf; 1mm a cari? ” i} ore ninfa Et . . 4 5 I »‘; ì’l: ... ... .,. ... sîonîerliîiîg . a (i: rsi--omessese-rivìmvzrteivt-«maowrymamwaktz-arm; 11;. olîîiîîeîîds. iamavainsawmmmnamwxtwmxommsratmîwmxwmwnarwmwamxwmszi: mmmaremma»: fl . . i A, g? É Most. in; è . . . . ', y i "w : — 4 mirafiori. " . ., a x1 . . . r. . ‘ . , E lì tari; ama; the: fiorai; I . ... ... ... .,. ... ... ... ... ... ... .,. ... ... ... ... .. r5 eîrtîrrsece . ... ... ... ... .,a. ... ,.. ... ... ... ... ... .., 9 W e most. how W e '“ i‘ i591’:
  31. 31. am/ is (present) —> was (past): 3 I am tired. (now) D Where ìs Kate? (now) The weather is good today. I was tired last night. are (present) -> were (pzist): j You are late. (now) E! They aren’t here. (now) You were late yesterday. 77 positive negative question I I I I? P hc wasv- m e} e: was ha. she I ‘ she} (Wassfi t) ” she? i: 1 it it? l WÙ WC were not i i WC? l you were you (werelfl) l were you? . they l L they l they? I El Last year Rachel was 22, so she is 23 now. Z1 When I was a child, I was afraid of dogs. Wc were hungry after the journey, but we weren’t tired. El The hotel was comfortable, but it wasn’t expensive. E1 Was the weather nice when you were on holiday? E Your shoes are nice. Were they expensive? El Why were you late this morning? 7 7' "TI r I Short answers I/ he/ she/ it was. I/ he/ she/ ìt wasn’t. Yes, No, we/ you/ they were. we/ you/ they weren’t. ‘Were you late? ’ ‘No, I wasn’t. ’ i ‘Was Ted at work yesterday? ’ ‘Yes, he was. ‘ E ‘Were Sue and Steve at the party? ’ ‘No, they weren’t. ’ 30 am/ is/ are a Units 1-2 I was doing a Unit 13 Now Robert is at work. At midnight last night he wasn’t at work. l-Ie was in bed. He was asleep. Where was Kate yesterday? The weather was good last week. They weren’t here last Sunday. i? ' ’
  32. 32. Exercises Unit 10 1t‘! Where were these people at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon? iii. ‘ ' ' r, Èîîlll. eterna w . . w 3'232 ‘r; .: 2 “ '5': - 1 n.34": .= .->*-x—! -:-. ‘ ' ‘y , ,-. -, ‘è {Ògî/ «sgi ” JNel-‘i r l ' ‘il r7! IT': ,,A"5" JL-ÈCÈÌ KÀ HÌ SUÌÎ 14.51 AN! ) ÀIRS H l] I. fîFN 0.2 Write am/ is/ are [Drescntl or was/ were lnastl N15 '77 rn clîr‘ 0.3 Write was/ were or wasn't/ weren't ‘was wasrfit .4 Write (questions from these words -: - was/ were. Put the words in the right order. 5044. @3395. I‘. 4- L_d#_lì___ V
  33. 33. i I H I cm‘; "i “ workeci/ got/ went etc. (pastsimple) They watch television every evening. i Qaresent simple) They watched television yesterday evening. (past simple) watched is the past simple: I/ we/ you/ they watched he/ she/ it D The past simple is often -ed (regular verbs). For example: dance —> danced stay -> stayed need —+ needed work —-> worked clean —> cleaned start —> started D I clean my teeth every morning. This morning I cleaned my teeth. 3 Terry worked in a bank from 1996 to 2003. 3 Yesterday it rained all morning. lt stopped at lunchtime. 3 We enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people. The party finished at midnight. Spelling (—> Appendix 5): try —> trìed stop —> stopped study —+ studied pian -> planned copy —-> copied Some verbs are irregulai‘ (= not regular). The past simple is noi‘. -ed. Here are some important irregular verbs (see also Appendix 2—3): begin —> began fall —> fell leave —> left sell -> sold break broke find found lose lost sit sat bring brought fly flew make made sleep slept build built forget forgot meet met speak spoke buy bought get got pay paid stand stood catch caught give gave put put take took come came go went read read (red)* tell told do did have had ring rang think thought drink drank hear heard say saîd win won eat ate know knew see saw write wrote * pronourzcezi ‘red’ 3 I usually get up early, but this morning I got up at 9 o’cl0ck. 3 We did a lot of work yesterday. D Caroline went to the cinema three tinies last week. 3 james came into the room, took offhis coat and sat down. 32 was/ were —> Unit 10 I didn't] Did you ? (negative and questions) —> Unit 12 ago —> Unit 19 i - - ' ' ’Î w l‘
  34. 34. l Exercises 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Unit 11 Complete the sentences. Use a verb from the box. eletta- die enjoy finish happen open rain start stay want 1 l , rny teeth three times yesterday. 2 lt was hot in the room, so I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . the window. 3 The film was very long. lt at 7.15 and at 10 o’clock. When I was a child, l to be a doctor. The accident . . . . last Sunday afternoon. It’s a nice day today, but yesterday it all day. We . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. our holiday last year. We at a very nice place. when he was 90 years old. UJNONUÌ-P- Annas grandfather Write the past simple of these verbs. 1 get. ... ... .9.°l? 4 pay . ... ... ... .. 7 go . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 10 know . ... .. 2 see . . 5 visit. . 8 think 11 put . ... .. . . 6 buy 9 copy 12 speak 3 play Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Pul the verbs in the correct form. v ammira (u: 41g LastTuesday Lisa (1) from London to Madrid. She (2) fly, get up at 6 o’clock in the morning and (3) a cup ofcofÎee. At 6.30 have she (4) home and (5) . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . to the airport. When she leave, drive (6) there, she (7) the car, (s) to the airport get, park, walk building, and (9) in. Then she (10) breakfast at a café check, have and (11) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . for her fiight. The plane (12) on time and wait, depart (13) . . in Madrid two hours later. Finally she (I4) arrive, take a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. Write sentences about the past (yesterday l last week etc. ). 1 james always goes to work by car. Yesterday . ... . N€V‘1Î<. .ÈQ. -WOY‘<. -bU. ..CWÎ. : . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 2 Rachel often loses her keys. She last week. 3 Kate meets her friends every evenìng. She . ... ... .. . ycsterday evenjng, 4 I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I 5 We often go to the cinema at weekends. Last Sunday we . . 6 I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I 7 Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 8 Our Éiiends often. come to see us. They Write sentences about what ygg did yesterday. i went
  35. 35. l 4 34 i 1 didn't 4 Did you ? (past simple negative and questions) Wc use did in past simple ncgativcs and questions: infinitive positive negative play played I play start started wc start watch watched you _ watch have had they d‘? n, “ have see saw he (dldn t) see do did she do go went it go quesrion play? start? watch? have? see? do? go? do/ does (present) —> did (past): D I don’t watch television very often. I didn’t watch television yesterday. D Does she often go away? Did she go away last week? We use did/ didn’t + in. nitive (watch/ play/ go etc): I watched but l didn’t watch (not l didn’t watched) they went did they go? (no! did they went? ) he had hc didn’t have you did did you do? 3 I played tennis ycsterday, but I didn’t win. 3 ‘Did you do the shopping? ’ ‘No, I didn’t have time. ’ 3 Wc went to the cinema, but wc didn’t enjoy the film. Study the word order in questions: did + Subject + infinitive your sister you the accidcnt your parents What How S/ rort aMsu/ ers l/ we/ you/ they did I/ we/ you/ thcy No’ he/ she/ it Yes’ he/ shc/ it D ‘Did you sec joc ycsterday? ’ ‘No, I didn’t. ’ D ‘Did it rain on Sunday? ’ ‘Yes, it did. ’ D ‘Did Helen come to the party? ’ ‘No, she didn’t. ‘ D ‘Did your parents have a good holiday? ’ ‘Yes, they did. ’ worked/ got/ went etc. (past simple) —> Unit 11
  36. 36. Exercises 12.1 12.2 12.3 Unit 12 Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative. 1 I saw Barbara, but I .5.€.4.’<. _.. ..]a11e. 2 They workcd on Monday, but they on Tucsday. 3 Wc went to thc post ofiicc, but wc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. to thc bank. 4 She had a pcn, but she . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. any paper. 5 jack did Frcnch at school, but he . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . German. Write questions with Did ? 1 l watched TV last night. How about you? 2 I enjoyed the party. How about you? 3 I had a good holiday. How about you? 4 I finished work carly. How about you? 5 I slept vcll last night. How about you? . ... ... .Pλ. GL. ..BQM Nato“ TV . Laàt. .nieh. t What did you do yesterday? Write positive or negative sentences. 1 (watch TV) or 2 (gct up before 7 o’clock) I . . 3 (have a shower) 4 (buy a magazine) 5 (eat meat) 6 (go to bed before 10.30) 12.4 Write B's questions. Use: gO cost go to bed late happen have a nice time stay- win arrive 1 A: Wc went to NcwYork last month. 5 A: Wc came home by taxi. B: Where ? B: How much . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . ? A: With some friends. A: Ten pounds. 41- 2 A: I was late for the meeting. 6 A: I’m tired this morning. B: What time . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . ? B: .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . ? A: Half past ninc. A: No, but I didn’t slccp very well. 3 A: I played tennis this afternoon. 7 A: Wc went to the beach yesterday. B. 13 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. > A: No, l lost. A: Yes, it was great. 4 A: I had a nicc holiday. 8 A: The window is broken. B: GoodWherc ? B: How . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ? A: T0 the mountains. A: I don’t know. 12.5 Put the verb in the correct form — positive, negative or question. -—> Additional exercises 10-13 (page 256) 1 Wc went to the cinema, but the film wasn't very good. Wc it. (enjoy) 2 Tim . .. ... ... ... ... .. . . some new clothes yesterday — two shirts, ajackct and a pullover. (buy) 3 ‘ . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. yesterday? ’ ‘No, it was a nicc day. ’ (rain) 4 Wc were tired, so wc . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . long at the party. (stay) 5 It was very warm in the rooin, so I a window. (open) 6 ‘Did you phone Chris this morning? ’ ‘No, I . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. time. ’ (have) 7 ‘I cut my hand this morning. ’ ‘How . .. ... ... ... ... ... . . . that? ’ (do) 8 ‘Why wercn’t you at thc meeting yesterday? ’ ‘I about it. ’ (know) 35
  37. 37. lt is 6 0’clock now. Paul is at home. I-le is watching television. 4 oîlotk At 4 o’clock he wasn’t at home. I-le was at the sports club. Hc was swimming in the pool. l-Ic wasn’t watching television. 3.30 4.00 / > 4.15 d l he finishcd he starte swimming swimmj ng .3 . a ÉEÉÈ/ ‘ è ) i‘, 3 —4.. / [é was/ were + —ing is the past contimzous: positive negative qnesfion doing doing? watching watching? doing watching playing ' playing? swimming swimming? W919 n°13 lìving lìving? (weren’t) playing swimming lìving D What were you doing at 11.30 yesterday? Were you working? D ‘What did hc say? ’ ‘I don’t know. l wasn’t listenìng. ’ D lt was raìnìng, s0 wc didn’t go out. D In 2001 we were lìving in Canada. D Today she’s wearing a skirt, but yestcrday she was wearing trousers. D I woke up early yesterday. lt was a beautiful morning. The sun was shining and the birds were singing. Spelling (live —> lìving / run —> running / lie —> lying etc. ) —> Appcndix 5 am/ is/ are + —ing Qnescrnt) —> was/ were + —ing (past): present past D I’m working (now). D l was working at 10.30 last night. D It isn’t raining (now). D lt wasn’t raining when wc went out. D What are you doing (now)? D What were you doing at three 0’clock? was/ were —> Unit 10 l was doing and l did (past eontìnuous and simple) —> Unit 14
  38. 38. Exercises Unit 13 13.1 Look at the pictures. Where were these people at 3 0'cl0ck yesterday afternoon? And what were they doing? Write two sentences for each picture. jACK KATE at home at the cinema ' ” 2t the station watch TV watch a film ' wait for a train MR AND MRS HALL in the park walk 1 2 jack and Kate . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . They . ... ... .. . . 3 Tim 6 And you? 13.2 Sarah did a lot of things yesterday morning. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 7.10 — 7.25 1 At 8.45 2 At 10.45 she 3 At 8 o’cl0(: k 13.3 Complete the questions. Use was/ were —ing. Use what/ where/ why if necessary. N you/ live) in 1999? . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . at 2 dclock? when you got up? .. ... ... ... ... . . . s0 fast? a suit yesterday? In London. I was asleep. No, it was sunny. Because she was late. No, a T—shirt andjeans. it/ rain) Sue/ drive) . . . . (Tim/ wear) . . ( (you/ do) ( ( Uî-Iàbàlvw 13.4 Look at the picture. You saw Joe in the street yesterday afternoon. What was he doing? Write positive or negative sentences. Joe 1 (wear / ajacket) 2 (carry / a bag) 3 (go / to the dentist) 4 (eat / an ice-cream) . ... ... ... ... ... .. (carry / an umbrella) (go / home) (wear / a hat) (ride / a bicycle) HL. I’m gomg shopping. a)lOU’I
  39. 39. I-Ie answered the jack was reading The phone rang. He stopped reading. a book. phone. What happened? The phone rang. (past simple) What was Jack doing when the phone rang? He was reading a book. i (past Continuo“)? What did he do when the phone rang? } r , i’) I-le stopped reading and answered the phone. (m5 Slmp L jack began reading before the phone rang. So uzhen the phone rang, he was reading. he started the phone he stopped he answered reading rang readìng the phone he was reading past simple past continuato‘ i D A: What did you do yesterday morning? D A: What were you doing at 10.30? B: We played tennis. (from 10 to 11.30) B: Wc were playing tennis. start finish start 10 oT/ ock . 11.30 10 Naiade 4444+ 144% m x x i x x we played wc were playing complete action myîrxished acrion D jack read a book yesterday. (= from D jack was reading a book when the beginning to end) phone rang. D Did you watch the film on television D Were you watching television when last night? l phoned you? D lt didn’t rain while we were on D lt wasn’t raining when l got up. holiday. D I started work at 9>o’cl0ck and finished at 4.30. At 2.30 I was working. D lt was raining when we went out. (= it started raining before we went out) D I saw Lucy and Steve this Inorning. They were waiting at the bus stop. D Kelly fell asleep while she was reading. | did [past simple] —> Units ll—12 l was doing (past contìnuous) —> Unit I3 while —— Unit 105
  40. 40. Exercises Unit 14 14.1 Look at the pictures. Put the verbs in the correct form, past contimious or past simple. 14.2 1 2 10 ì P Lucy . ... .. . .l? ".°i<€' . ... .. (break) her arm last week. [t . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . (happen) when she . . (paint) her room. She (fall) offthe ladder. PÉÈF‘? ?? PÌFÈÈÈÉPÉP? B. ‘ AI BI A2 B2 A. ‘ —> Additional exercises 14—-15 (pages 257-58) The train . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . (arrive) at thc station and Paula . . (get) off. Two friends of hers, jon and Rachel, (wait) to meet her. RAUL/ l , K:? Yesterday Sue . . (walk) along the road when she . ... ... ... . . . . . (meet) james. I-Ie. . . .. .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (go) to the station to catch a train and he z-x . carry) a bag. .. ... ... ... ... ... .. (stop) to They talk for a few minutes. Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple. What . “l'9%? (you/ do) when the phone (ring)? I . . (watch) television. Was jane busy when you went to see her? Yes, she (study). What time . ... .. . . . . (the post / arrive) this morning? lt . . (come) while l (have) breakfast. Was Tracey at work today? No, she . ... ... ... ... ... . . . How fast . (not/ go) to work. She was ill. (you/ drive) when the police . . (stop) you? I’m not sure, but I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . (not/ drive) very fast. (your team / win) the football match yesterday? The weather was very baci, so we . . (not/ play). .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (you/ break) the window? .. ... ... ... .. . . (play) football. I (hìt) the window. (you/ see) jenny last night? (wear) a very nice jacket. (you/ do) at 2 o’c1ock this morning? How (kick) the ball I was asleep. (lose) my key last night. How (you/ get) into your room? I (climb) in through a window. 39
  41. 41. l’ve, cleaned mg shoes. I la I . w l He has cleaned his shoes. (= his shoes are clean now) They are at home. They are going out. They have gone out. (= they are not at home now) has cleaned / have gone etc. is the present peyfect (have + past participle): ’ cleaned cleaned? ha” (Ve) , finished finished? WWW , ,e, ,,5 have n“ (haven t) started started? lost lost? has (i5) done done? irregular verbs has not (hasn’t) been bee“? gone gone? 1 . . past parttaple Regulnr ixerbs The past participle is -ed (the same as the past simple): clean -> I have cleaned finiti! -* wc have finished start —- she has started Irregular verbs The past participle is not -ed. Sometimes the past simple and past participle are the same: buy —* l bougbt / I have boughl han: *-> h: had / hc has had Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different: bmak -> l brokc l l have broker) se: -v you saw / you have seen {all -* it fell l it has falla: go °-> they went / they have gone We use the present perfect for m1 action in the past with a result now. ‘ D l’ve lost my passport. (= I can’t find my passport now) D ‘Wheres Rebecca? ’ ‘She’s gone to bed. ’ (= she is in bed noti») D We’ve bought a new car. (= we have a new car now) D It’s Rachels birthday tomorrow and l haven’t bought her a present. (= I don’t have 21 present for her now) D ‘Bob is away on holiday. ’ ‘Oh, where has he gone? ’ (= where is he now? ) D Can I take this newspaper? Have you finished with it? (= do you need it now? ) present perfect —> Units 16-19 present perfect and past simple —i- Unit 20 irregular verbs —> Unit 24, Appcndix 2-3
  42. 42. Exercises Unit 15 15.1 Look at the pictures. What has happened? Choose from the box. [ go to bed stop raining ì close the door fall down have a shower She . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. They 15.2 Complete the sentences with a verb from the box. break decide {mi-sh- invite see not/ see forget take buy read go tell go not/ tell ‘Can I have a look at your newspaper? ’ ‘Yes, I . ... ... .. with it. ’ I some new shoes. Do you want to see them? ‘Where is LiZ? ’ ‘She's not here. She . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. out. ’ I’m looking for Paula. you . ... .. her? Look! Somebody . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . that window. ‘Does Lisa know that you’re going away? ’ ‘Yes, I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . her. ’ I can’t find my timbrella. Somebody . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. it. ‘Where are my glasses? ’ ‘I don’t know. I . ... ... ... .. . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . them. ’ I’m looking for Sarah. Where she ? I know that woman, but I . ... ... ... ... ... her name. Sue is havìng a party tonìght. She a lot ofpeople. What are you going to do? .. you ? A: Does Bil_l know about the meeting tomorrow? B: I don’t think so. I him. ‘Do you want this magazine? ’ ‘No, I O3lCU‘| -P-b«ìl)>—k 11 12 13 14 it, thanks. ’
  43. 43. 42 I've just I've already I haven't yet (present perfeet 2) l’ve just just = a short time ago A: Are Diane and Paul here? B: Yes, they've just arrived. : Are you hungry? B: No, l’ve just had dinner. : Is Tom here? B: No, I’m afraid he’s just gone. (: he has just gone) l’ve already already : before you expected / before I expected D A: What time are Diane and Paul coming? B: They’ve already arrìved. (: before you expected) D It’s only 9 o’clock and Anna has already gone to bed. (= before I expected) D A: jon, this is Emma. B: Yes, I know. We've already met. I haven’t yet / Have you yet? yet r until now We use yet in negative sentences and questions. Yet is usually at the end. yet in negative sentences (I haven’t yet) A: Are Diane and Paul here? 13: No, they haven’t arrived yet. (but B expects Diane and Pan] to arrive soon) _ A: Does James know that you’re going away? B: No, l haven’t told him yet. (but B is going to tell hini soon) I: Silvia has bought a new dress, bL1t she hasn’t worn it yet. Oh, it's nice. Hatve, you worn Li; got? yet in questions (Have you yet? ) D A: Have Diane and Paul arrìved yet? B: No, not yet. We’re still waiting for them. D A: Has Nicole started her newjob yet? B: No, she starts next week. D A: B: Oh, it’s nice. Have you worn it yet? This is my new dress. present perfect —> Units 15, 17——20 word order —> Unit 94 still, yet and already —> Unit 95
  44. 44. Exercises 16.1 16.2 16.3 1 6.4 Unit 16 Write a sentence with just for each picture. m5 L5 o, ” 1 2 He 3 They 4 The tace . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Complete the sentences. Use already + present perfect. ì 1 What time is Paul arriving? 2 Do your friends want to see the film? 3 Don’t forget to phone Tom. 4 When is Martin going away? 5 6 Do you want to read the newspaper? When does Sarah start her newjob? Write a sentence with just (They've just / She's just etc. ) or a negative sentence with yet (They haven't yet / She hasn’t yet etc. ). 1 afeivminutes now 3 a fcw HIÎHIIÌFS ago mamo _ our-saw (she / go / out) 9<>n9..9i.4t. ..g9tt. ... (the bus / go) The bus . 5 afetu minutes Write questions with yet. ‘1 Your friend has got a newjob. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her: 2 Your friend has some new neighbours. Perhaps he has met them. You ask him: you . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 Your fiiend must pay her phone bill. Perhaps she has paid it. You ask her: 4 Tom was trying to sell his car. Perhaps he has sold it. You ask a friend about Tom:
  45. 45. Have you been to Rome? Yes, I have. Many times. Have you ever b J 7 No, I've never een to apan. been to Japan. We use the present‘ perfecf (have been / have had / have played etc. ) when we talk about a time from the past until now — for example, a person's life: Have you aver been tojapan? tirrzefrom the past tmtil now past now D ‘Have you been Lo France? ’ ‘No, I haven’t. ’ D l’ve been to Canada, but I haven’t been to the United States. D Mary is an interesting person. She has had many different jobs and has lived in many places. D l’ve seen that “roman before, but I can't remember where. D How many times has Brazil won the World Cup? D ‘Have you read this book? ' ‘Yes, l’ve read it twice. ’ (twice = two times) present‘ pegfect + ever (in questions) and never: D ‘Has Ann ever been to Australia? ’ ‘Yes, once. ’ (once = one time) D ‘Have you ever played golf? ’ ‘Yes, I play a lot. ’ D My sister has never travelled by plane. D l’ve never ridden a horse. D ‘Who is that man? ’ ‘l don’t know. l’ve never seen him before. ’ gone and been two zuee/ es later where's Bi| |.7 He's away. He's gone to Spain. Hi. I've been on holiday. I've been lo Spain. Bill has gone to Spain. (: he is in Spain now) Bill has been to Spain. (: he went to Spain, but now he is back) Compare: D I can't find Susan. Where has she gone? (= where is she now? ) D Oh, bello Stisanl I was looking for you. Where have you been? present perfect —> Units 15-16. 1B present perfect and past simple —> Unit 20
  46. 46. Exercises 17.1 1 7.2 17.3 1 7.4 You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever ? Write the questions. No, never. Yes, many times. Yes, once. No, never. Yes, a few times. (London? ) (play / golf? ) (Australia? ) (lose / your passport? ) (fly / in a helicopter? ) (win / a race? ) No, never. ( Yes, twice. ( N o, never. NewYork? ) drive / a bus? ) 9 (break / yourleg? ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 Yes, once. Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in Exercise 17.1.) 1 (New York) . Sh. e.‘. à.. ..tz9sn. ..t<>. -.tfl.9w 2 (Australia) She 3 (win / a race) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 4 (fiy / in a helicopter) , . Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things? 5 (NewYork) I 6 (play / tennis) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 7 (drive / a lori-y) 8 (be / late for work or school) . ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Mary is 65 years old. She has had an interesting Iife. What has she done? all over the world ten books a lot ofinteresting things a lot ofinteresting people married three times write travel meet 2 She Write gone or been. Bill is on holiday at the moment. He's to Spain. ‘Wheres jane? ’ ‘She’s not here. l think she's to the bank. ’ Hello, Sue. Where have you ? I-Iave you . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . to the bank? ‘Have you ever . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. to Mexico? ‘ ‘No, never. ’ My parents aren’t at home at the moment. They’ve There’s a new restaurant in town. Have you . ... .. . . to it? Rebecca knows Paris well. She's . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . there many times. Helen was here earlier, but I think she’s . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. now. OLIC. C‘DIOU'I-LLHI)I—- —> Additional exercises 16, 18 (pages 258-59, 260) 45
  47. 47. 46 jane is on holiday in Ireland. She is there now. She arrived in Ireland on Monday. Today is Thursday. l-low long has she been in Ireland? She has been in lreland Compare is and has been: She has been in Ireland { since Monday" J since Monday. lfor three days. How Long have gou been in Ireland. ? She is in Ireland now. is : present has been = present perfect for three days. M0 nday Compare: present simple Dan and Kate are married. Are you married? Do you know Lisa? I know Lisa. Vicky lives in London. I have a car. present continuous I’m learning German. David is watching TV. lt’s raining. for and since —> Units 19, 104 fi-OLV Tlmtsday present perfect simple (have been / have lived / have known etc. ) They have been married for five years. (n0tThey are married for five years. ) How long have you been married? (not How long are you married? ) How long have you known her? (not How long do you know her? ) l’ve known her for a long time. (not I know her for How long has she lived in London? She has lived there all her Iife. How long have you had your car? l’ve had it since April. present perfect contirrnons (have been + —ing) How long have you been learning German? (not How long are you learning German? ) l’ve been learning German for two years. How long has he been watching TV? He’s been (: He has been) watching TV since 5 0’cl0ck. It’s been (= It has been) raining all day.
  48. 48. Exercises 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Unit 18 Complete these sentences. ‘I 2 3 ooxloxui-J: jane is in Ireland. She . . h“ in Ireland since Monday. I know Lisa. I her for a long time. Sarah and Andy are married. They Brian is ill. I-Ie We live in Scott Road. We Catherine works in a bank. She . ... ... .. Alan has a headache. I-Ie . ... . . . married since 1999. ill for the last few days. . ... .. there for a long time. .. ... ... ... ... ... . . . in a bank for five years. a headache sincc hc got up this morning. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ., English for six months. I’m learning English. I Make questions with How Iong ? IOU'I-I‘—L>ÌI)>— K5 pne is on holiday. . Scott and judy are in Brazil. I-Iow long I know Amy. How long . ... .. . . Diana is learning Italian. My brother lives in Canada. I’m a teacher. It 1S raining. 5 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with: for ten minutes all day all her life since lie was 20 since Sunday 1 2 She . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 They . ... . . , 4 The sun 5 She . ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 6 I-Ie . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Which is right? 1 2 3 4 00040111 Mark-l-i-kres/ has lived in Canada since April. (has lived i5 right) jane and I are friends. I know / I've known her very well. jane and I are friends. I know / l’ve known her for a long time. A: Sorry I’m late. How long are you waiting/ have you been waiting? 13: Not long. Only five minutes. Martin works / has worked in a hotel now. I-Ie likes his job a lot. Ruth is reading the newspapcr. She is reading / She has been reading it for two hours. ‘l-Iow long do you live / have you lived in this house? ’ ‘About ten years. ’ ‘Is that a new coat? ’ ‘No, I have / I've had this coat for a long time. ’ Tom is / has been in Spain at the moment. I-Ie is / He has been there for the last three days.
  49. 49. . re i [W [for since ago À .5 for and since Wc use for and since to say houz long: E] jane ìs in Ireland. She has bcen there { t? ” three days" s1nce Monday. We use for + a period of time We use since + the start of the perìod (three days / two years etc): (Monday / 9 o’clock etc): start q)’ the period i for three da s _ y Monday smce Monday Monday | Tuesday Ì Wednesday l I past now past now ‘ _ t l s1nce three days ten minutes Monday Wednesday an hour two hours 9 o’c1ock 12.30 a Week four weeks 24 july Chrìstmas a month six months January I was ten years old five years a long time 1985 we arrived Cl Richard has been Ìll Canada for SÎX D Richard has been in Canada since months. (not since six months) January. (z from january to now) D We’ve been waiting for two hours. D We’ve been Waiting since 9 0’cl0ck. (not since two hours) (z from 9 0751051; to now) E) l’ve lived in London for a long time. t] l’ve lived in London since I was ten years old. ago ago : before now: I: Susan started her new job three weeks ago. (= three weeks before now) E ‘When did Tom go out? ’ ‘Ten minutes ago. ’ (= ten minutes before now) ZJ I had dinner an hour ago. ’ Life was very different a hundred years ago. Wc use ago with the past (started/ did/ had/ was etc. ). Compare ago and for: 3 When did Jane arrive in Ireland? She arrived in Ireland three days ago. 3 How long has she been in Ireland? She has been in Ireland for three days. 48 present perfect + for/ since —> Unit 18 from/ until/ since/ for —> Unit 104 for and during —> Unit 105 a" —ÎÎÎ -.
  50. 50. Exercises 19.1 19.2 19.3 1 9.4 19.5 Unit 19 Write for or since. 1 jane has been in Ireland Monday. 2 jane has been in Ireland . ... . . . three days. 3 My aunt has lived in Australia . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. '15 years. 4 jennilîer is in her office. She has been there 7 0’cl0ck. 5 India has been an independent country . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 1947. 6 The bus is late. We’ve been waiting . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 20 minutes. 7 Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . many years. 8 Mìchael has been ill . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... a long time. He has been in hospital . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . October. Answer these questions. Use ago. 1 When was your last meal? 2 When was the last time you were ill? 3 When did you last go to the cinema? 4 When was the last time you were in a car? 5 When was the last time you went on holiday? Complete the sentences. Use for or ago with these words. 1 jane arrived 1n Ireland . . (three days) 2 jane has been in Ireland . ... .. (three days) 3 Lynn and Mark have been married . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . (20 years) 4 Lynn and Mark got married . ... ... .. . . (20 years) 5 Dan arrived . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .. (an hour) 6 I bought these shoes (a few days) 7 Silvia has been learning English (six months) 8 Have you known Lisa . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . ? (a long time) Complete the sentences with for or since. 1 (Jane is in Ireland — she arrived there three days ago) . 2 (jack is here — he arrived on Tuesday) Jack has 3 (It’s raining — it started an hour ago) It’s been . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 4 (I know Sue — I first met her in 2002) l’ve . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 (Claire and Marthew are married — they got married sLx months ago) Claire and Matthew have 6 (Liz i5 studying medicine at university — she started three years ago) 7 (David plays the piano — he started when he was seven years old) David has . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Write sentences about yourself. Begin your sentences with: I’ve lived l’ve had l’ve been l’ve been learning I’ve known 1
  51. 51. 1m: l have done (present perfect) and ; ;“'»W' p l did (past) l l‘ With a finished tinte (yesterday / last week ero), we use the past (arrìved/ saw/ was etc. ): past + finished tinte yesterday. yesterday last week. last week We arrived at 3 0’cl0ck. six months ago in 2002. filzished time six months ago. past now Do no! use the present peifect (have arrived / have done / have been etc. ) with a finished time: I saw Paula yesterday. (not I have seen) __ Where were you on Sunday afternoon? (notWhere have you been) D We didn’t have a holiday last year. (notWe haven’t had) l: ‘What did you do last night? ’ ‘I stayed at home. ’ E William Shakespeare lived from 1564 to 1616. He was a writer. I-le wrote many plays and poems. Use the past to ask When ? or What time P: D When did you buy your computer? (rzotWhen have you bought? ) D What time did Andy go out? (notWhat time has Andy gone out) l u I‘ Compare: present {ierfert past 3 I have lost my key. D I lost my key last week. (Z i can’t find it now) 3 Ben has gone home. D Ben went home ten minutes ago. (= he isn’t here now) D Have you seen Kate? D Did you see Kate on Saturday? (= where is she nomi? ) time untilinow finished time î-l past now past now l: Have you ever been to Spain? D Did you go to Spain last year? (= in your life, until now) l: My friend is a writer. He has written D Shakespeare wrote many plays and ' many books. poems. l: The letter hasn’t arrived yet. 3 The letter didn’t arrive yesterday. l: 'We’ve lived in Singapore for six years. 3 We lived in Glasgow for six years, but (= we live there now) now we live in Singapore. 50 past simple —= - Units I1—12 present perfect —> Units 15-18
  52. 52. Exercises 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Unit 20 Complete the answers to the questions. 1 Have you seen Kare? Yes, l. 119". .. five minutes ago. 2 Have you started your newjob? Yes, I . ... ... . . . last week. 3 Have your friends arrived? Yes, they . . . at 5 0’cl0ck. 4 Has Sarah gone away? Yes, on Friday. 5 Have you worn your new suit? Yes, yesterday. Are these sentences OK? Correct the verbs that are wrong. (The verbs are underlmgg. ) . . . . 1 l’ve lost niy key. I can’t find it. . . . . l2i. ri. ... s°<4.. 5.6x. 2 Have you seen Kate yesterday? 3 l’ve finished rny work at 2 0’cl0ck. 4 I’m ready now. l’ve finished my work. 5 What time have you finished your work? 6 Sue isn’t here. She’s gone out. 7 Steve’s grandinother has died two years ago. .. ... .. 8 Where have you been last night? Put the verb in the present perfect or past. 1 My friend is a writer. He (write) many books. 2 We . ... ... dÌ—d-")l5 "(l-Ve (not/ have) a holiday last year. 3 I . ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (play) tennis yesterday afternoon. 4 What time . ... .. (you/ go) to bed last night? 5 (you/ ever/ meet) a famous person? 6 The weather . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (not/ be) very good yesterday. 7 Kathy travels a lot. She . ... ... .. . . . . (visit) many Countries. 8 I (switch) oft" the light before going out this morning. 9 I live in New York now, but I . ... .. .. . (live) in Mexico for many years. ‘I don’t know. I 10 ‘Whafis Canada like? I5 it beautiful? ’ i (not/ be) there. ’ Put the verb in the present perfect or past. ; (you/ ever/ be) to Florida? 1 A B: Yes, we . (go) there on holiday two years ago. A B (you/ have) a good time? : Yes, it . . . . . . (be) great. 2 A: Wheres Alan? B: Yes, he A: And Rachel? B: I don’t know. I (you/ see) him? (go) out a Éew minutes ago. . . (not/ see) her. l 3 Rose works in a factory. She (work) there for six months. Before that she . . (be) a waitress in a restaurant. She (work) there for two years, but she (not/ enjoy) it very much. 4 A: Do you know Martins sister? B: I . .. ... ... . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . (see) her a Éew times, but I (never/ speak) to her. . . (you/ ever/ speak) to her? A: Yes. I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (meet) her at a party last week. She’s very nice. —> Additional exercìses 19-23. 29-31 (pages 260-62, 265-67) 51
  53. 53. 52 Compare active and passive: Somebody cleans The office Somebody cleaned [D The office The passive is: present simple past simple the office is cleaned every day. the office was cleaned yesterday. / ' / am 15 are (not) + was/ were The office is cleaned every day. The office was cleaned yesterday. every day. (JCÉÎVÈ) (passive) yesterday. (aictivc) grassi/ e) past participle done built taken cleaned invented inj ured (ìtC. The past participle of regular verbs is -ed (cleaned/ damaged etc. ). For a list ofirregular past participles (done/ built/ taken etc. ). see Appendix 2-3. D Butter is made from mjlk. D Oranges are imported into Britain. D How often are these rooms cleaned? D I am never invited to parties. D This house was built 100 years ago. I: E E was/ were born E I: ‘Where were you born? ’ passive + by Il These houses were built 100 years ago. When was the teleplione invented? We weren’t invited to the party last week. ‘Was anybody injured in the accìdent? ’ ‘Yes, two people were taken to hospital. ’ I was born in Berlin in 1989. (n.0: I am born) ‘In Cairo. ’ D The telephone was invented by Mexander Bell in 1876. (= Alexander Bel] invented it) D I was bitten by a dog a few days ago. D Do you like these paintings? They were painted by a friend of mine. ‘ ìs being done I has been done —> Unit 22 actìve and passive —> Appendix 1 ìrreguìar verbs —> Unit 24, Appendix 2-3 by —> Unìt H] i
  54. 54. Exercises 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Unit 21 Write sentences from these words. Some of the sentences are questions. Sentences 1-7 are present. 1 (the office / clean / every day) 2 (these rooms / clean / every day? ) 3 (glass / make / from saiid) 4 (stainps / sell / in a post office) 5 (this rooni / i10t / use / very often) 6 7 (we / allow / to park here? ) (how / this word / pronounce? ) Sentences 8-15 are past. The house . ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 8 (the office / clean / yesterday) 9 (the house / paint / last inonth) 10 (my phone / steal / a few days ago) 11 (three people / injure / in the accident) . ... . . . 12 (when / this bridge / build? ) 13 (I / not / wake up / by the noise) 14 (how / these Windows / break? ) 15 (you / invite / to ]on’s party last week? ) These sentences are not correct. Correct them. 1 100 years ago. .. ... ... Tl"Îé. ..l"°‘45€—. ..N“5?. ... bWLl? . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... _. Football plays in most Countries of the World. Why did the letter send to the wrong address? A garage is a place where cars repair. Where are you born? How many languages are speaking in Switzerland? Somebody broke into our house, but nothing stolen. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. When was invented the bicycle? -P—L»Jl) <IDÌOUI Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs: elean damage 1 The room every day. 2 l saw an accident yesterday. Two people to hospital. 3 Paper . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. from wood. 4 There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of the roonis . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . 5 ‘Where did you get this picture? ’ ‘It . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . to me by a friend ofmine. ’ 6 Many Anierican programmes . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . on British television. 7 8 take find give invite make make show steal ‘Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding? ’ ‘No. They . . . ... ... ... ... ... .. . ., but they didn’t go. ’ ‘How old is this film? ’ ‘It . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . in 196D. 9 My car . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. last Week, but the next day it . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . by the police. Where were they born? 1 (lan / Edinburgh) 119m Edîhbiéîfiha. .. 2 (Sally / Manchester) Sally . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 (her parents / Ireland) Her 4 (you / PP? ) I i) (your niother / ?? ?)
  55. 55. rum is being done has been done (passive 2) t‘ is/ are being Qwesent mntinuous passive) i Somebody is painting the door . (attive) The door is being painted. fiaassive) l D My car is at the garage. 1t is being repaired. (= somebody is repairing it) D Some new houses are being built opposite the park. (= somebody is building thern) Compare the present continuous and present simple: D The office ìs being cleaned at the moment. (contìnuous) The office is cleaned every day. (simple) D In Britain football matches are often played at the weekend, but no matches ate being played next weekend. For the present continuous and present simple, see Units 8 and 25. has/ have been (present perjècr passive) before now Somebody has paînted the door . (attive) The door has been painted. (passive) D My key has been stolen. (= somebody has stolen it) D My keys have been stolen. (z somebody has stolen them) i D I'm not goìng to the party. I haven’t been invited. (= nobody has invited me) D Has this shirt been washed? (= has somebody washed it? ) Compare the present perfect and past simple: D The room isn’t dìrty any more. It has been cleaned. Qarcsent peject) i The room was cleaned yesterday. (past simple) D I can’t find my keys. I think they’ve been stolen. Qxresent pegfert) My keys were stolen last week. (past simple) For the present perfect and past simple, see Unit 20. I 54 is done / was done —-> Unit 21 active and passive —> Appendix 1 .
  56. 56. Exercises 22.1 22.2 22.3 Unit 22 h! ‘ x‘: tua‘ . ___à I i‘5 __1 v ) agì‘ ' . What's happening? 1 The car. . 2 A bridge . . 3 The Windows . . . . . . Look at the pictures. What is happening or what has happened? Use the present continuous (is/ are being . ..) or the present perfeet (has/ have been . ..). the office / clean) the shirts / iron) . ( (the window / break) The window . . (the roof/ repair) The roof. ( ( ( ( the car / damage) . ... . . the houses / knock / down) _. ... . . ... the trees / cut / down) . . they / invite / to a party) Complete the sentences. (Study Unit 21 before you do this exercise. ) 1 I can‘t use my ofiice at the moment. it). .. 115. 1752319. (paint). We didn’t go to the party. We (not/ invite). The washing machine was broken, but it’s OK now. It . . . . The washing machine . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. (repair) yesterday afternoon. A factory ìs a place where things . . . . (make). How old are these houses? When (they/ build)? A: (the computer / use) at the moment? B: Yes, Steve is using it. l’ve never seen these Howers before. What . . (repair). O0 IOU| -I‘—DJN . . . (they/ cali)? 9 My sunglasses . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . (steal) at the beach yesterday. 10 The bridge is closed at the moment. It . ... .. (damage) last week and it . . . ... .. (not/ repair) yet. ——> Additional exereises 24-27 (pages 263-64) 55
  57. 57. .. i be/ have/ do in present and past tenses (7 T’ ‘il’. be (= am/ is/ are/ was/ were) + —ing (cleaning/ working etc. ) am/ is/ are + —ing (present continuar/ s) —> Units 3—-4 and 25 was/ were + —ing (vasi contìnuous) —> Unit13 _ Please be quiet. I’m working. D It isn’t raining at the moment. E What are you doing this evening? I: I was working when she arrived. l: What were you doing at 3 o’clock? i’ be + pastpartiriple (cleaned/ made/ eaten etc. ) am/ is/ are + pastpartiriple (passive present simple) —) Unit 21 was/ were + past participle (passive past simple) —> Unit 21 D I’m never invited to parties. D Butter is made from milk. D These offices aren’t cleaned every day. 3 The office was cleaned yesterday. Il These houses were built 100 years ago. 3 How was the window broken? D Where were you born? l ' l have/ has + past‘ participle (cleaned/ lost/ eaten/ been etc. ) have/ has + past participle (present peiflett) è Units '15—18 D l’ve cleaned my room. D Tom has lost his passport. D Kate hasn’t been to Canada. D Where have Paul and Nicole gone? P) do/ does/ did + infiniiive (clean/ like/ eat/ go etc. ) do/ does + irgfinitive gnresent simple negative ami questions) è Units 6-7 did + infinitive (past simple negative and questions) —> Unit 12 D l like cofÎee, but I don’t like tea. D Chris doesn’t go out very often. 3 What do you usually do at weekends? 3 Does Silvia live alone? C I didn’t watch TV yesterday. D lt didn’t rain last week. E What time did Paul and Nicole go out? 56 irreguiar verbs —> Unit 24, Appendix 2-3 D lt wasn’t raining, so we didn’t need an umbrella.
  58. 58. Exercises Unit 23 23.1 Write is/ are or do/ does. 1 you work in the evenings? 6 the sun shining? 2 Where . ... .. l"? .. ... .. they going? 7 What time . ... ... ... ... .. . . the shops close? 3 Why . ... ... ... ... .. . . you looking at me? 8 Maria working today? 4 . .. ... ... ... ... .. Bill live near you? 9 What . ... ... ... ... ... _. this word mean? 5 . .. ... ... ... ... .. you like cooking? 10 . ... ... ... ... ... .. you feeling all right? 23.2 Write am not/ isn't/ aren't or don't/ doesn't. AII these sentences are negative. 1 Tom . ... . . .dx°"<5.l. '.‘. ’l'<. .. work at weekends. 2 I’m very tired. l want to go out this evening. 3 I’m very tired. l . going out this evening. 4 Gary . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . working this week. He’s on holiday. 5 My parents are Llsually at home. They go out very often. 6 Nicole has travelled a lot, but she . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . speak any foreign languages. 7 You can turn ofÎthe television. I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . watching it. 8 Lìz has invited us to her party next week, but we going. 23.3 Write waslwere/ did/ havelhas. l Where your shoes made? 6 What time she go? 2 you go out last night? 7 When . ... ... .. these houses built? 3 you doing at 10.30? 8 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Steve arrived yet? 4 Where . ... ... ... .. your mother born? 9 Why . . you go home early? 5 Barbara gone home? lO How long they been married? 23.4 Write islarelwas/ were/ havelhas. ‘l joe . ... . . ... . . . lost his passport. 2 This bridge . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . built ten years ago. 3 you finished your work yet? 4 This tovn is always clean. The streets cleaned every day. 5 Where you born? 6 I . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ._just made some coffee. Would you like some? 7 Glass made from sand. 8 This is a very old photograph. lt taken a long time ago. 9 David . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . bought a new car. 23.5 Complete the sentences. Choose from the box and put the verb into the correct form. damage {ai-n- enjoy Ago pronounce eat listen use open go understand 1 I’m going to take an umbrella with me. It’s . ... . . ... . . . . 2 Why are you so tired? Did you . ... . .9? . ... .. . . to bed late last night? 3 Where are the chocolates? Have you . . . .. . . . them all? 4 How is your newjob? Are you it? 5 My car was badly . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. in the accident, but l was OK. 6 Chris has got a car, but she d0esn’t it very often. 7 Mary isn’t at home. She has . ... ... . . . , .. .. . . away for a few days. 8 I don’t . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . the problem. Can you explain it again? . . to music. Martin ìs in his room. He’s . ... .. I don’t know how to say this word. How 15 1t . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . ? l-Iow do you this window? Can you show me? iAi-r l-‘OO
  59. 59. A Regular verbs The past simple and past participle of regular verbs is -ed: clean —ì cleaned live -> lived paint —> painted study —> studied Past simple (—> Unit 11) D I cleaned my room yesterday. D Charlie studied engineering at university. Past participle have/ has + past participle (present perfect ——> Units 15-18): D I have cleaned my room. ’ D Tina has lived in London for ten years. be (is/ are/ were/ has been etc. ) + past participle (passive —-> Units 21-22): D These rooms are cleaned every day. D My car has been repaìred. Irregular verbs The past simple and past participle ofirregular verbs do not end in -ed: make break cut made broke cut made broken cut past simple past participle Sometimes the past simple and past participle are the same. For example: make find ' buy cut made found bought cut D I made a cake yesterday. (past simple) D I have made some coffee. (past participle —presentperflett) D Butter is made from milk. (past participle — passive present) past simple } past participle Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different. For examplezi break know begin go past simple past’ participle broke knew began went broken known begun gone D Somebody broke this window last night. (past simple) D Somebody has broken this window. (past participle — present peifect) D This window was broken last night. (past participle — passive past) irregular verbs —> Appendix 2-3 spelling (regular verbs) —> Appendix 5

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