History of human civilization

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it includes Masopotemium civilization.. civilization across Indus river. and the terrifying civilizations of the world.

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History of human civilization

  1. 1. Contents What is civilization? Mesopotamia; cradle of civilization Ancient Rome civilization Civilization across Indus river Most terrifying civilizations of the world
  2. 2. What is civilization? The word "civilization" comes from the Latin word. To be "civilized" essentially meant being a townsman, governed by the constitution and legal statutes of that community
  3. 3. Definition of civilization Civilization is defined as: highly organized society marked by advanced knowledge of trade, government, arts, science and often time written language
  4. 4. Features of Civilization 1.) cities 2.) well-organized central governments 3.) complex religion 4.) job specialization 5.) social classes 6.) arts and architecture 7.) public works 8.) writing
  5. 5. Mesopotamia: “The Cradle ofCivilization”
  6. 6. Earliest Civilization Mesopotamia is a Greek word that means “between the rivers”, specifically, the area between the Tigris River and Euphrates River (present day Iraq) Lasted for approximately 3000 years
  7. 7. Geographic Conditions Little rainfall Hot and dry climate Arid soil containing little minerals No stone or timber resources
  8. 8. History of Mesopotamia Over the centuries, many different people lived in this area creating a collection of independent states Sumer- southern part (3500-2000 BCE) Akkad- northern part (2340 – 2180 BCE) Babylonia- these two regions were unified (1830-1500 BCE and 650- 500 BCE)
  9. 9. Religion  Position of King was enhanced and supported by religiongods were worshippedat huge temples called  Belief that gods lived on theziggurats distant mountaintopsPolytheistic religion consisting  Each god had control ofof over 3600 gods and certain things and each citydemigods was ruled by a different godProminent Mesopotamian gods  Kings and priests acted asEnlil (supreme god & god of air) interpreters as they told the people what the god wantedIshtar (goddess of fertility & life) them to do (ie. byAn (god of heaven) examining the liver or lungsEnki (god of water & underworld) of a slain sheep)Shamash (god of sun and giver oflaw)
  10. 10. Ziggurats  Large temples dedicated to the god of the city  Temple on top served as the god‟s home and was beautifully decoratedZiggurat of Ur -  Inside was a room for2000BCE offerings of food and goods  Famous ziggurat was Tower of Babel (over 100m above ground and 91m base)
  11. 11. Ziggurats
  12. 12. States included inMesopotamiancivilization
  13. 13. Sumerians social, economic and intellectual basis Irrigated fields and produced 3 main crops (barley, dates and sesame seeds) built canals, dikes, dams and drainage systems develop cuneiform writing invented the wheel Abundance of food led to steady increase of population (farm, towns, cities) first city of the world Developed a trade system with bartering: mainly barley but also wool and cloth for stone, metals, timber, copper, pearls and ivory Individuals could only rent land from priests (who controlled land on behalf of gods); most of profits of trade went to temple However, the Sumerians were not successful in uniting lower Mesopotamia
  14. 14. Akkadians Leader: Sargon the Great Sargon unified lower Mesopotamia (after conquering Sumerians in 2331 BCE) Established capital at Akkad Spread Mesopotamian culture However, short-lived dynasty as Akkadians were conquered by the invading barbarians by 2200 BCE
  15. 15. Babylonians KING HAMMURABI’S BABLYON  (6th Amorite king) who conquered Akkad and Assyria (north and south)  He build new walls to protect the city and new canals and dikes to improve crops  Economy based on agriculture and wool / cloth  individuals could own land around cities  Hammurabi’s Legacy: law code • Babylonians reunited Mesopotamia in 1830 BCE • central location dominated trade and secured control • YET AGAIN, Mesopotamia was not unified for long…
  16. 16. Development Of WRITING
  17. 17. Development of Writing Pictograms: picture to show meaning Ideograms: signs to represent words / ideas Phonetics: signs to represent sounds*Phonetics are the basis of most writing systems
  18. 18. Interesting Facts! Mesopotamia, specifically Babylon used a mathematical system based on sixty as all their numbers were expressed as parts of or multiples of sixty Some parts of the „base-sixty‟ system still remain today: 360 degrees in a circle, 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in 1 hour
  19. 19. Women in Mesopotamia
  20. 20. Rules for Women During the earliest period, the Sumerian women enjoyed the greatest social and sexual freedom, although their strongest and most respected positions were within the temple, as priestesses, caretakers.. Such sexual freedom did not extend throughout the society. Adultery was punishable by death and a womans social "value" was based on the number of her children.
  21. 21. Legacies of Mesopotamia Revolutionary innovations emerged in Mesopotamia such as:  codified laws  ziggurats  Irrigation  Metal working, tools  Trade  transportation  wheel  Writing  mathematics  prosperous living based on large scale agriculture
  22. 22. The ancient Roman civilizationdeveloped: A written language A system of government Advances in arts and sciences A common culture
  23. 23. Physical CharacteristicsAncient Rome was…. Next to the Mediterranean Sea It covered parts of Europe, Asia and Africa A peninsula Rocky and mountainous Built on hills Next to the Tiber River
  24. 24. Representative Democracy Citizens (wealthy men) voted for representatives to make laws for them. Laws applied to everyone.We use a representative democracy in America today!
  25. 25. Adaptations to the Environment Ancient Romans adapted to their mountainous land by1. Growing olives and grapes2. Having small farms on terraced hillsides3. Trading on the Mediterranean Sea
  26. 26. Jobs of the Romans  Farmers  Road builders  Traders
  27. 27. Architecture Romans used archesin buildings, bridges and aqueducts.
  28. 28. Aqueducts weredesigned to pump water in tothe city. The water was usedfor humans and for irrigation.
  29. 29. Road Building The Romans created a network of paved highways. This joined the empire together and allowed soldiers to move swiftly from one area to another.
  30. 30. Roman Art Roman artists created: Pottery Jewelry Tools Mosaics were a special art form that used small pieces of tile, glass or stone.
  31. 31. Religion The Romans began by worshipping different gods and goddesses (like the Greeks), but eventually become Christians.
  32. 32. Ancient Romans also…. Changed our calendar to 365 days and named the months Gave us 1/3 of our English language Used Roman numerals that we still see today on clocks, watches, and in books I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
  33. 33. The People of Ancient Rome Men were citizens Women were caretakers Boys were educated Girls learned handicrafts
  34. 34. Civilization across Indus river
  35. 35. The Harappan Civilization 3300 BCE - 2400 BCE
  36. 36. Indus Civilization Map
  37. 37. Geographical conditions Flat plain formed by two rivers – the Indus and the Ganges Natural barriers of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush mountains offered protection (Except Khyber and Bolan Pass) Seasonal winds called monsoons Unpredictable floods, Wet and Dry Seasons
  38. 38. Mohenjo-Daro MapTrue or False: Mohenjo-Daro had a sophisticated water and sewage system.
  39. 39. Aerial View of Mohenjo-Daro
  40. 40. Wide View, Mohenjo-Daro
  41. 41. The Great Bath, Mohenjo-Daro
  42. 42. Bath Area, Mohenjo-Daro
  43. 43. Well, Mohenjo-Daro
  44. 44. A Main Street, Mohenjo-Daro
  45. 45. Granery, Mohenjo-Daro
  46. 46. pottery, Mohenjo-Daro
  47. 47. A Male Head, Mohenjo-Daro Dravidian
  48. 48. A Priest-King, Mohenjo-Daro
  49. 49. Necklace, Mohenjo-Daro
  50. 50. Public Well, Harappa
  51. 51. Drain, Harappa
  52. 52. Female Figures, Harappa
  53. 53. Burial Pottery, Harappa
  54. 54. Male Skeleton, Harappa
  55. 55. Female Skeleton with Child, Harappa
  56. 56. Harappan Writing Undecipherable to date.
  57. 57. Sanskrit writing
  58. 58. TheCaste BrahminsSystem Kshatriyas WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? Vaishyas The legs? The feet? ShudrasWhat is a JATI?
  59. 59. The Celts
  60. 60. They foughtbattles andcame back bycollectinghundred ofheads. Theybring themhome anddecoratethere houseswith them.
  61. 61. The reason forall of thesehead-choppingwas that theCelts believedthat the headheld thesoul, and so ifyou cut a deadguys head offbefore all ofthat juicy soulleaked out of it.
  62. 62. The Celtswouldsometimespaintthemselvesblue andfightcompletelynaked.
  63. 63. The Aztecs
  64. 64. The Aztecsbelieved thatfor every 52years thatpassed, theworld wouldend unless thegods werestrong enough.And theybelieve the bestway to toughenup a god is witha constanthuman sacrifice
  65. 65. Most of thesacrificing wenttowards keepingtheir Sun godhappy, and it tookplace on top of giantpyramid, so at leastthe view wasprobably prettygood. Then they holda man and take outhis heart (which waslikely still beating).Then, as if thingscouldnt get anyworse, theyd throwhim down thestaircase.
  66. 66. The Spartans
  67. 67. Theywereverycruel, they don’thesitateto kill aperson.
  68. 68. First they wouldbathe the newbornbaby in wine, tosee if it was strongenough to surviveand after that theytoss all imperfectbabies off thecliff, letting themsplatter on therocks below.
  69. 69. Every single Spartan male was a soldier. Every other job was done by slaves. A mandidnt even get aheadstone when he died, hedidnt deserve it. The only Spartans who got markedheadstones were the ones who died in battle, during victory. And if you lost your shield during battle, you got the death penalty
  70. 70. There was anoccasionevery yearupon whichthe youngSpartan menwereencouraged tosneak aroundand murder asmany slavesas theycould, withouthaving to feelbad about it.
  71. 71. The Mongols
  72. 72. It isestimatedthat theMongols--underGenghis Khanand others--killed 40million peopleWith swords.
  73. 73. See thisstadium? Thats100,000 peoplethere.Now imagine400 of thosestadiums, eachfull of people.
  74. 74. During aninvasion ofIndia, aMongoliangeneral builta pyramid infront of thewalls ofDelhi out ofhumanheads.

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