Contents What is civilization? Mesopotamia; cradle of civilization Ancient Rome civilization Civilization across Indus river Most terrifying civilizations of the world
What is civilization? The word "civilization" comes from the Latin word. To be "civilized" essentially meant being a townsman, governed by the constitution and legal statutes of that community
Definition of civilization Civilization is defined as: highly organized society marked by advanced knowledge of trade, government, arts, science and often time written language
Features of Civilization 1.) cities 2.) well-organized central governments 3.) complex religion 4.) job specialization 5.) social classes 6.) arts and architecture 7.) public works 8.) writing
Earliest Civilization Mesopotamia is a Greek word that means “between the rivers”, specifically, the area between the Tigris River and Euphrates River (present day Iraq) Lasted for approximately 3000 years
Geographic Conditions Little rainfall Hot and dry climate Arid soil containing little minerals No stone or timber resources
History of Mesopotamia Over the centuries, many different people lived in this area creating a collection of independent states Sumer- southern part (3500-2000 BCE) Akkad- northern part (2340 – 2180 BCE) Babylonia- these two regions were unified (1830-1500 BCE and 650- 500 BCE)
Religion Position of King was enhanced and supported by religiongods were worshippedat huge temples called Belief that gods lived on theziggurats distant mountaintopsPolytheistic religion consisting Each god had control ofof over 3600 gods and certain things and each citydemigods was ruled by a different godProminent Mesopotamian gods Kings and priests acted asEnlil (supreme god & god of air) interpreters as they told the people what the god wantedIshtar (goddess of fertility & life) them to do (ie. byAn (god of heaven) examining the liver or lungsEnki (god of water & underworld) of a slain sheep)Shamash (god of sun and giver oflaw)
Ziggurats Large temples dedicated to the god of the city Temple on top served as the god‟s home and was beautifully decoratedZiggurat of Ur - Inside was a room for2000BCE offerings of food and goods Famous ziggurat was Tower of Babel (over 100m above ground and 91m base)
Sumerians social, economic and intellectual basis Irrigated fields and produced 3 main crops (barley, dates and sesame seeds) built canals, dikes, dams and drainage systems develop cuneiform writing invented the wheel Abundance of food led to steady increase of population (farm, towns, cities) first city of the world Developed a trade system with bartering: mainly barley but also wool and cloth for stone, metals, timber, copper, pearls and ivory Individuals could only rent land from priests (who controlled land on behalf of gods); most of profits of trade went to temple However, the Sumerians were not successful in uniting lower Mesopotamia
Akkadians Leader: Sargon the Great Sargon unified lower Mesopotamia (after conquering Sumerians in 2331 BCE) Established capital at Akkad Spread Mesopotamian culture However, short-lived dynasty as Akkadians were conquered by the invading barbarians by 2200 BCE
Babylonians KING HAMMURABI’S BABLYON (6th Amorite king) who conquered Akkad and Assyria (north and south) He build new walls to protect the city and new canals and dikes to improve crops Economy based on agriculture and wool / cloth individuals could own land around cities Hammurabi’s Legacy: law code • Babylonians reunited Mesopotamia in 1830 BCE • central location dominated trade and secured control • YET AGAIN, Mesopotamia was not unified for long…
Development of Writing Pictograms: picture to show meaning Ideograms: signs to represent words / ideas Phonetics: signs to represent sounds*Phonetics are the basis of most writing systems
Interesting Facts! Mesopotamia, specifically Babylon used a mathematical system based on sixty as all their numbers were expressed as parts of or multiples of sixty Some parts of the „base-sixty‟ system still remain today: 360 degrees in a circle, 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in 1 hour
Rules for Women During the earliest period, the Sumerian women enjoyed the greatest social and sexual freedom, although their strongest and most respected positions were within the temple, as priestesses, caretakers.. Such sexual freedom did not extend throughout the society. Adultery was punishable by death and a womans social "value" was based on the number of her children.
Legacies of Mesopotamia Revolutionary innovations emerged in Mesopotamia such as: codified laws ziggurats Irrigation Metal working, tools Trade transportation wheel Writing mathematics prosperous living based on large scale agriculture
The ancient Roman civilizationdeveloped: A written language A system of government Advances in arts and sciences A common culture
Physical CharacteristicsAncient Rome was…. Next to the Mediterranean Sea It covered parts of Europe, Asia and Africa A peninsula Rocky and mountainous Built on hills Next to the Tiber River
Representative Democracy Citizens (wealthy men) voted for representatives to make laws for them. Laws applied to everyone.We use a representative democracy in America today!
Adaptations to the Environment Ancient Romans adapted to their mountainous land by1. Growing olives and grapes2. Having small farms on terraced hillsides3. Trading on the Mediterranean Sea
Jobs of the Romans Farmers Road builders Traders
Architecture Romans used archesin buildings, bridges and aqueducts.
Aqueducts weredesigned to pump water in tothe city. The water was usedfor humans and for irrigation.
Road Building The Romans created a network of paved highways. This joined the empire together and allowed soldiers to move swiftly from one area to another.
Roman Art Roman artists created: Pottery Jewelry Tools Mosaics were a special art form that used small pieces of tile, glass or stone.
Religion The Romans began by worshipping different gods and goddesses (like the Greeks), but eventually become Christians.
Ancient Romans also…. Changed our calendar to 365 days and named the months Gave us 1/3 of our English language Used Roman numerals that we still see today on clocks, watches, and in books I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
The People of Ancient Rome Men were citizens Women were caretakers Boys were educated Girls learned handicrafts
Geographical conditions Flat plain formed by two rivers – the Indus and the Ganges Natural barriers of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush mountains offered protection (Except Khyber and Bolan Pass) Seasonal winds called monsoons Unpredictable floods, Wet and Dry Seasons
Mohenjo-Daro MapTrue or False: Mohenjo-Daro had a sophisticated water and sewage system.
The Aztecsbelieved thatfor every 52years thatpassed, theworld wouldend unless thegods werestrong enough.And theybelieve the bestway to toughenup a god is witha constanthuman sacrifice
Most of thesacrificing wenttowards keepingtheir Sun godhappy, and it tookplace on top of giantpyramid, so at leastthe view wasprobably prettygood. Then they holda man and take outhis heart (which waslikely still beating).Then, as if thingscouldnt get anyworse, theyd throwhim down thestaircase.
Theywereverycruel, they don’thesitateto kill aperson.
First they wouldbathe the newbornbaby in wine, tosee if it was strongenough to surviveand after that theytoss all imperfectbabies off thecliff, letting themsplatter on therocks below.
Every single Spartan male was a soldier. Every other job was done by slaves. A mandidnt even get aheadstone when he died, hedidnt deserve it. The only Spartans who got markedheadstones were the ones who died in battle, during victory. And if you lost your shield during battle, you got the death penalty
There was anoccasionevery yearupon whichthe youngSpartan menwereencouraged tosneak aroundand murder asmany slavesas theycould, withouthaving to feelbad about it.