MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF A GLACIER USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE(UAV)
MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF A
GLACIER USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL
o Glaciers are large sheets of snow and ice that are found on land
all year long and those move under their own gravity.
o Various causes to Glacier melting are:
• Global Warming – Rise of Temperature.
• Dust and Debris Coverage.
• Movement of Tectonic Plates.
o Warmer temperatures cause glaciers to melt faster than they can
accumulate new snow.
WHY DOES IT MATTERS?
o If temperatures keep rising, glaciers will continue
melting, and some could disappear completely.
o As glaciers and the giant ice sheets melts, they add more
water into the river, which ultimately causes sea level to rise.
UAV ( Unmanned Aerial
o UAVs are new photogrammetric measurement
tool which are evolving as low-cost
alternatives to the classical manned aerial
photogrammetry and high cost Satellite
o Thanks to GPS technology, these UAVs can be
programmed to make very detailed flight
patterns that can be flown automatically and in
very extreme weather conditions. Also INS
help fix the exterior parameter.
GROWING USE OF UAV
Precision farming using UAV data
3D model of an area using UAV
Monitoring atmospheric pollution
Field measurements are sparse or infrequent and subject to
disagreeable conditions or danger in many environments especially
in case of such higher altitudes and other inaccessible areas.
Growing use of UAV for geospatial purpose
Disaster Site Monitoring & Mapping
Forestry Management & Forest Fire Operations Support
Monitoring and the effects of poaching and habitat destruction.
Traffic Accident Analysis
Fire Scene Inspection (Pre / During / Post) and many more
Protection of Archeological Site.
Real-time capability and the ability
for fast and low cast data acquisition
while transmitting the image, video
and orientation data in real time to the
ground control station makes them
The major objective of this project is to introduce the use of UAV in
Geospatial work in Nepal and measuring the spatial pattern of
temperature was a topic of our interest
To understand the variation of temperature comparing the present
data with past ones
This result can suggest us at what rate the climate change has
impact on temperature of some particular Glacier
To implement UAV as a data collecting instrument carrier for
conducting mini projects
UAV platform that can fly with a sensor load + Flight Control System:
GPS + INS ( Inertial Navigation System) for accurate positioning of
Camera center for image calibration/ georeferencing + Battery type
of particular thermal band
Camera mount, Ready to fly (RTF),Wind resistance, Camera mount with
Altitude of the flight of drone
Distribution pattern of Ground Control Points (GCP)
Area to be covered ,Size and number of images
Flying height and flying speed
No of flight sessions and interval between the exposure
Focal length of sensors
Pixel size on image/Ground sampling distance (GSD)
Conducting the flight over the area
Recording the temperature from the ground stations as well
This data can be compared later with the information obtained from
UAV during work validation
4.Data Processing and Documentation
Obtain past data from concerned authorities and study the pattern
considering the present collected data
To validate the data collected using UAV with the information given
by ground stations
To visualise the pattern of temperature change for the past 30 years
Lirung Glacier, Nepal
4th largest Debris covered Glacier, Location: 28015’ N,85032’ E
Lies in Langtang National Park, Rasuwa District
Purchase instruments like
UAV platform that can fly with a sensor load range of 500gms to
Flight Control System: GPS + INS ( Inertial Navigation System) for
accurate positioning of Camera center for image calibration/
Camera mount: With automatic tilting system so that camera can be
focused to a particular direction; Nadir for example
Fly (RTF): for manual control and flight. RF
signal depending on project area
resistance: If yes, it would be better for stability
point Navigation System for Autonomous flight
Flight time: Depending on project area, 20+ minutes.
This depends on payload and battery type
type and rating: LIPO ( lithium polymer battery)
eg. 3S 4250mAh / 4S 4250mAh / 4S 100000mAh i.e
Battery with higher mAh has longer flight time.
photography, LIDAR and remote sensing techniques from
large manned aircrafts and satellites, which was not
project is an attempt in NEPAL to introduce the use of
UAV as a data acquisition platform to monitor an effect of
climate change i.e. rise of temperature
Use of UAV systems as
photogrammetric data acquisition