Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.


Carnation package & practice

  • Login to see the comments


  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one among the most popular commercial cut flowers of the world, ranking second in commercial importance next only to rose. Carnation belongs to the family Caryophyllaceae. The genus name ‘Dianthus’ is derived from the Greek words ‘dios’ meaning ‘God’ or ‘divine’ and ‘anthos’ meaning ‘flower’ and hence known as ‘Divine Flower’. The species name ‘caryophyllus’ is derived from the Greek word ‘caryan’ meaning ‘nut’ and ‘phyllon’ meaning ‘leaf’.The common name ‘carnation’ probably must have come from the Greek word ‘coronation’ because these flowers were used in decorating the crown of Greek athletes. Carnation is the national flower of Spain.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE AND USES Carnations are excellent for cut flowers, bedding, pots, borders, edging, indoors and rock gardens. Carnations are often worn on special occasions, especially Mother’s Day and weddings.  Carnations are also used onTeachers’ Day to express admiration and gratitude to teachers. Carnations are commercially utilized for extraction of perfume in France and the Netherlands. The volatile oil of carnation contains 40% benzyl benzoate, 30% eugenol, 7% phenylethyl alcohol, 5% benzyl salicylate and 1% methyl salicylate. About 100g of oil is obtained from 500kg of flowers.
  4. 4. TherearethreemaintypesofgardenCarnation. 1. Border/malmaision Carnation:- This plant are stiffer & have a broad leaves giving them a massive appearance the flower are large, double, fragrant, & generally have pink shade. The bud are unique perpetual which have long and pointe d bud.
  5. 5.  2. Perpetual Flowering carnation: -  This flower round the year in several flushes they are hybrid involving many dianthus spp. Flowers are generally self colored with long stem & have a great ability to with stand long transportation hence suitable for cut flower.
  6. 6.  3. Marguerite or Chabud:-  This annual carnation have clove cented. Single or double flower that reproduce from seeds the blooms are large with fringed with petals, which do not last very long after harvest but flowers freely for a large period & are comperatively easier to cultivate.
  7. 7. TYPES OF CARNATION: VARIETY OF STANDARD TYPE Domingo Master Baltico Algar Fuente Falicon
  8. 8. VARIETY OF SPRAY TYPE Aveiro Fancy Fuego Osiris Celebration Abril Belen
  9. 9. SOIL Sandy loam soils rich in organic matter content with pH of 5.5-6.5 are most ideal for carnation cultivation. soil must be well drained because the crop is highly susceptible to fusarium wilt.
  10. 10. CLIMATE carnations are grown in greenhouses by maintaining optimum growing environment. The growth and flowering are usually influenced by plant genotype, light, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration of the environment and cultural practices. 1.TEMPERATURE: Ideal night temperature is 10-11°C during winter and 13-15.5°C in summer. Ideal day temperature is 18-24°C. 2.LIGHT: Long day plant. The critical photoperiod for most standard and spray carnations is about 13 hours. 3.HUMIDITY: Humidity of greenhouse should be maintained at 80-85% during beginning of vegetative growth and 60-65% during full growth stage. 4.CO2: 10-30% increase in yield influenced by co2 treatment and temperature and light conditions. The best quality flowers can be produced when CO2 concentration in the greenhouse is maintained at 500 - 750 ppm during day time under high light intensity and in a temperature range of 14-15°C.
  11. 11. PROPAGATION Terminal Cuttings Cuttings Planted In Portrays
  12. 12. Rooting of cuttings in protrays Rooted cuttings
  13. 13. BED PREPARATION Basal fertilizer application Beds ready for planting  The ideal bed width and height are 75 -100 cm and 30 - 45 cm respectively. The bed length should not exceed 25 m. A path width of 45 - 50 cm is ideal.
  14. 14. PLANTING 25 days old rooted cuttings Planting Spacing : 15cm x 10cm / 15cm x 15cm / 15cm x 20cm
  15. 15. METHOD OF PLANTING Four row system Six row system Grow-bag system of cultivation
  16. 16. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  Nitrogen 250g, P2o5 80g, k2O200g, Ca 125g and Mg 40g /m2/year in 20-40 splits at fortnight intervals after three weeks after planting , gives quality flowers. Applications of N (80-200ppm) and K2O(200ppm) as fertigation solution @200 liters water/1000m2 area resulted in better plant growth and flower production.
  17. 17. WATER MANAGEMENT Spraying of water through misting has to be done for at least two weeks. After 3 weeks of planting, drip irrigation has to be adopted.
  18. 18. SPECIAL OPERATION PINCHING Single pinching in standard carnation
  19. 19. Pinch and a half (2 + 4 laterals) Pinch and a half (2 + 6 laterals) Double pinch (8 laterals) Double pinch (16 laterals)
  20. 20. DISBUDDING Removal of axillary/ lateral buds
  21. 21. PLANT SUPPORT In recent times, nets are used for supporting carnation plants. The netting can be done with GI wire of 16 gauge for length wise fixing and nylon threads for width. Nylon G.I. wire
  22. 22. PLANT PROTECTION a.Pestmanagement 1.Red Spider Mite:- Suck the sap, affected leaves turns pale and withered and shows severe webbing. affected plants becomes stunted and distorted. Spray Dicofol @ 2 ml/l or Wettable sulphur @ 5g/lt. Mite colony Nymphs and eggs Adult mite
  23. 23. 2.Aphids:- Suck the sap from the leaves of growing plants leading to reduce plant vigour. also transmit carnation ring spot and carnation mosaic viruses. Spraying the plants with Thiomethoxam 1 ml/l or Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 0.1 g/l tr. Aphid 3.Thrips:- Suck the sap from the leaves, causing them to turn yellow and then patchy white, often with black specks and slight wrinkling. Spray Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l or Fenitrothion 50 EC @ 3.5 ml/l Thrips infested flower
  24. 24. 4.Bud Borer:- Larvae feed on leaves, flower buds and flowers. Spray Novaluron @ 3 ml/lit or Indoxacarp 14.5 SL @ 1 ml /l or Fenitrothion 50 EC at 1.5ml/hl. 5.Nematodes:- Nematodes cause reduced root system, stunted shoot growth and reduction in the number of blooms. Apply Furadan, Aldicarp or Nemaphos @ 10gm/m2 A larva feeding on flower bud Infested root
  25. 25. B. Disease management 1.Fusarium wilt :- Affected plants show foliage wilting, Rotting of the stem below ground level . Drenching the soil with Benomyl (0.1%) or Ridomil (0.2%) . Biological control with Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces sp, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens Fusarium wilt affected plants Rotting of stem
  26. 26. 3.Stem & Root rot:- Show withering and yellowing of foliage, leaf death, external browning of stems and internal browning at nodes. Drenching with Benomyl @ 2.5g/lit 2.Alternaria leaf spot:- Pathogen causes spots on the leaves and stems and the affected leaves wither and die prematurely. Foliar application of Dithane M-45 @ 0.2% or Carbendazim @ 0.1% controls the disease. Leaf spot In leaves & In flower bud Phytopthora stem rot
  27. 27. 4.Grey Mold:- Affects the petals. Initially a wet tan coloured blotch develops on petal tips which spread rapidly to produce a fluffy grey mould. Benlate @ 0.1% controls this disease. 5.Bacterial wilt 6.Bud rot 7.Rust 8.Black spot Black spot Grey mould
  28. 28. c. Physiological Disorders 1.Calyx Splitting:- Irregular or fluctuating temperature Closer spacing low boron levels enhance calyx splitting Spray borax @ 0.1% and place a rubber band around the calyx of the flower which has started opening.
  29. 29. HARVESTING & YIELD: Standard type flower harvested when their outer petals starts to elongate outside calyx (paint brush stage).  Spray type flower harvested with 2-3 open flowers on each stem. Standard type : 300-350 flowers/m2(8 -12 flowers/plant) Spray type: 250 flowers/m2 Harvesting stage of Standard carnation and Spray carnation
  30. 30. POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY Stripping Bunching Packing Harvesting Grading
  31. 31. PACKING
  32. 32. THANK YOU…