Communication Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch
Structure                                   Ø Nonverbal Communication  1. Communication                                   ...
Table of contents (part 1):Communication  n The communication process                    7  n Giving presentations        ...
Table of contents (part 2):Effective meetings  n In general                         130  n Moderation                     ...
Important informationn The following charts are not made for  “presentations”!!!n They are much too monotonous, much too  ...
Two functions       Support                                            Manuscript     in lectures                   Prof. ...
Never   show such chartsin your presentations!!!        Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   7
Communication process     Some basics
Communicationn One of most important skills for managersn Often source of problems, conflicts or  dissatisfactionn Communi...
There are different forms ofcommunicationn Verbaln Nonverbaln Writingn Listening               Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsc...
Communication process                                         n Sender determines                                         ...
Example 1Father to children:n „We will eat in 10 minutes!“Children may understand:n „He wants us to be there in 10 minutes...
Example 2French manager to German manager:  „We will meet tomorrow at 10.00 o‘clock!“What does he/she expect?Ø It would be...
Encoding and decoding may beaffected ...n ... by values, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions,  education, language, culture, a...
Communication                                                       Sender   Receiver„Problematic“ communication:Ø Little ...
Barriers to communication (1)May disrupt communication or stop it altogether             Sender                           ...
Barriers to communication (2)People    n Background (division, department)          n Education          n Values         ...
Barriers to communication (3)Organization   nOrganizational culture               nRumours               nConflicting prio...
Barriers to communication (4)Language   n Terminology (jargon)           n Nonverbal           n Mother tongue vs. learned...
Barriers to communication (5)Logistics   n Geography            n Time zones            n Method (face-to-face, telephone,...
Communication may also be complicatedby the number of people involved             3 individuals             3 potential in...
Improve communication by taking thefollowing actions (1)1.   Choose most appropriate method of     transmission for your c...
Improve communication by taking the     following actions (2)3.    Deliver the message in a clear and constructive way:   ...
Giving presentations             Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   24
Imagine, you are doing a presentationn Student‘s projectn Bachelor thesis in companyn Seminarn Conferencen Meeting in the ...
What impresses the audience?The sympathy/antipathy is decidedn 50 - 60 % by non verbal impression  n   (body language, i.e...
The reason for that:n The pace of speaking of a  German-speaking person:   n   100 words/minn The capacity of human brains...
Because of that ...n ... we have to take special care of our body  language!n ... let‘s have a close look to some rules!  ...
Non verbal impression1. Posture2. Gestures3. Facial expression4. Eye contact5. Outfit6. Distance areas7. Gestures         ...
1. Posturen The posture of a person is the first signal  that impresses other people!n The posture decides the impression ...
For that reason ...do not                               butn change standing and                ü stand firm on both legs ...
2. People look the way they are     Whom would you believe?      32
Facial expressionn Permanent signal between our fellow human  beings and ourselves.n Shows our view of life.n Influences i...
If we go through life with ...n dissatisfactionn a grumpy face     (mürrisch)n pessimistic prejudicesn doubt against every...
4. The first meeting              Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   35
Eye contact  At the first meeting people look into the  eyes of each other and find out – often  unconsciously - aboutn sy...
We incline to neglect the eye contact if weü are unsureü feel embarrassed (verlegen, peinlich berührt)ü feel disturbedü cr...
5. The Outfit            Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   38
Pay attention!n You should look well-                     n Take special care on  groomed and fitting                     ...
6. Distance areas              Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   40
We distinguish between three distanceareas1. General distance:            1,2 – 1,5 m     Ø   You don‘t feel disturbed!2. ...
7. Gesturesn Gestures are a very powerful signal!n Mind cross cultural differences!                   Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walte...
Gestures are                               allowed in this                               area!Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch...
Examples           Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   44
Exercise: Holding a speechn My hobbyn Why do I study Textile and Clothing  Managementn What do I intend to do in my job!n ...
Verbal impression1. Articulation2. Short breaks during speaking3. Rhetoric4. Rules for designing a manuscript5. Stage frig...
1. ArticulationTry to vary your articulationn High – deepn Loud – lown Fast – slowØ The tension of your speech is decided ...
2. Short breaks during speakingn Advantages for you as                 n Advantages for listeners    speakerØ You win time...
3. Rhetoricn Some rules for doing presentations                  Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   49
I. The beginning of a presentationn   Active greetingn   No empty phrases, no platitudesn   No excusesn   Start only when ...
II. The main part of a presentationn   No speech before the speechn   Objectives, list of content if necessaryn   Clear st...
III. The end / the conclusionn   No never ending endn   No „I hope“n   Appeal to listeners better than „thank you“        ...
Examplesn I am pleased that I had the opportunity to  present the new data management  system of my company.              ...
Short exercisePlease work outthe end of a presentationat the University of Valencia (Spain) about yourstudies!            ...
4. Designing a manuscriptü (Only) introduction and end/conclusion word-for-wordü Use only keywords   n Well-trained speake...
DIN A4 paper size only if you can hide it!                      Subject1st main keyword                 2 – 4 minor keywor...
Use DIN A6 / DIN A 7 paper size!Ø Maximum 5 words per cardØ Write with felt-penØ Write on cards only on one sideØ Number t...
5. What to do against stage fright?Permanent strong stage fright  Ø   Physical relaxation (e.g. autogenic training)  Ø   T...
Normal stage frightn Respectable preparation               Ø Take your time for                                          p...
Listeners opinion: Who shows self-assurance has strong arguments                 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   60
6. Feedback rulesRules for the person giving feedback1. Describe facts (I see, ...)2. Describe things from your point of v...
What to consider?                                   PointsChecklist for giving presentations                              ...
Exercisen Please prepare a short presentation (max.  3 min.) about one of the following subjects:  Ø   Industry needs more...
Preparing presentations     Rules and ideas
In general ...                 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   65
Combination of audio-visual mediaand aids Success of learning (to remember after 6 weeks)                                 ...
How to prepare a speechn Who am I talking to?n Who am I?n What do I want?n What do they want from me?                    P...
Criteria for choosing the contents andthe detail of contentsn How often do I need it?n How complex is the topic?n What is ...
Pedagogical structureØ From the known to the unknownØ From easy to difficultØ From simple to complexØ From an example to f...
Examples1.   From the known to the unknown     Ø   Our University ? Our partner University in Finland2. From easy to diffi...
Pedagogical structurePlease, work out an example for every rule!                   Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   71
Pedagogical structuren Try to follow this structure in your  presentationn It makes it easier for the audience to  underst...
To remembern Use examplesn Illustrate your statementsn Activate listeners (ask (rhetorical) questions)n Give the feeling o...
If you are off the trackn Let‘s put together ...n Repeat the statements and factsn Discus pros and consn Bring out further...
PreparationContent                 Detail                                  Key points1. Define specific      What the audi...
PresentationContent           Detail                                  Key points1. Introduction   Setting the scene       ...
The duration of speechesSpeak for 20 – 45 minutesmaximum –this is thelengths of the averageperson‘s attention span!       ...
Aids for your presentationStructure         Time      How to                       Comment                            reme...
(Visual) aidsn PowerPoint Chartsn (Overhead) transparenciesn Slidesn Video films/DVD‘sn Modelsn Samples (like fabrics)n .....
Make use of ...Oral speech    Not time consuming, good for instructions, many               listeners possibleBlack board/...
Don‘t forgetn Don‘t always use just one successful mediumn If the contents change, change the media as  welln Structure yo...
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   82
The presentation indetails   Structure and language
Flow-chart: structure presentation        Introduction         I‘d like today to talk about ...           Outline         ...
Introducting yourself and your talkChecklistn Your name and positionn The title/subject of your presentationn The purpose ...
Greeting, name, positionn Good morning, my name‘s.... I‘m the new Finance  Manager.n Ladies and gentlemen. It‘s an honour ...
Title/subjectn I‘d like to talk (to you) today about ...n I‘m going to present the recent ...     explain our position on ...
Purpose/objectiven We are here today to decide ...                                agree ...                               ...
Lengthn I shall only take (...) minutes of your time.n I plan to be brief.n This should only last (...) minutes.          ...
Outline/main partsn I‘ve divided my presentation into four parts. They  are ...n The subject can be looked at under the fo...
Questionsn I‘d be glad to answer any questions at the  end of my talk.n If you have any question, please, feel free to  in...
Reference to the audiencen I can see many of you are ...n I know you‘ve travelled a long way ...n You all look as though y...
LanguageWritten language                    Spoken languagenlong sentences                     nshorter sentencesncomplex ...
Examples languagen An individualistic style appears to be closely  associated with rapid career path progression,  whereas...
Example languagen Although lip service is paid to the concept of  participative management, their real perception of  lead...
The design of charts      Some advices
Two different ways to express yourselfon charts1. Statement expresses a message   Ø   (What can we see on the chart?   Ø  ...
In the last 6 month we reduced thequality costs for 30 %.     6 Mio. €           ? = 30 %                                 ...
Reduction of quality costs     6 Mio. €           ? = 30 %                                 4,2 Mio. €     01/2003         ...
How many charts do you need?Ø Calculate 2 – 3 min per chartØ Better fewer charts than one too muchØ Concentrate on the mos...
See example in lecture!         Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   101
Charts should ben reduced as much as possiblen clearly structuredn variedn full of surprisesn a pleasure to look at.      ...
Template for a presentation               Example 1Presentation of concept „Open Day 2003“           (Thanks to Mrs. Iserm...
Template 1                   Topic             What, when, where                Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   104
Template 2         Situation analysis         Lessons learned               What was good?               What was bad?    ...
Template 3             Objectives             • First             • Second             • Third             • Fourth       ...
Template 4             Target groups             •             •             •             •                 Prof. Dr.-Ing...
Template 5              Strategy       In this example, it is of course,       The event „Open Day“       Explain why.    ...
Template 6                 Messages     e.g.     The Department of Textile and Clothing Technology     of the Niederrhein ...
Template 7                Idea: Slogan     The slogan is the platform for the message                    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wa...
Template 8         Measures for             1st message             2nd message             3rd message                Pro...
Template 9       Additional activities         E.g.         •   Invitations         •   Advertising         •   Info.Laung...
Template 10         Media relations         • Who should be in contact?         • How (which products)?                Pro...
Template 11           Timing and team      • Gantt-chart        (only title of activities, e.g. Press tour)      • Who is ...
Template 12       Budget (Costs)         E.g.         • Advertising         • Give-away         Rounded off sums          ...
Structure of aproposition/plan you make       Example 2
Template 1        Set out the proposal             Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   117
Template 2         Explain why it is        needed and what it           contributes             Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Har...
Template 3       Estimate the resources        required, and show          how the proposal       meets financial criteria...
Template 4        Specify who will be         responsible and          the proposal‘s            timescale             Pro...
Template 5         Conclude with a          plan of action             Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch   121
Project communicationplan   For Project Managers
Project communication plann The project manager should develop a  project communication plan for each projectn It describe...
Communication matrix Method       Client    Customer     Team        Team                                    member A    m...
Listening skills  Important to be understood
Listening (1)  1.Listening is a critical part of  communication  - purpose is understand message from the  point of view o...
Listening (2)3. Listening is not problem solving   - Listen to understand, not to propose   solutions   - Finding solution...
How to improve your listening skills (1)1.   Listen intently, concentrating on the individual and     what is being said  ...
How to improve your listening skills (2)3.   Resist the urge to correct errors made by the     speaker     n When people e...
Listening: verbal skillsBehaviour         Examples                              Comment1. Clarifying     „Could you repeat...
Listening: non-verbal skillsBehaviour              Examples                               Comment1. Maintaining eye     n ...
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Giving presentations200809

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Communication is the key,
Giving Presentations
Best Regards to Prof. Ing. Walter Harsch

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Giving presentations200809

  1. 1. Communication Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch
  2. 2. Structure Ø Nonverbal Communication 1. Communication Ø Verbal Communication and Presentation Ø Design of charts 2. Meetings Ø Proceeding Ø Working methods Ø Definitions, structure, tasks3. Project Management Ø Proceeding Ø Working methods Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 2
  3. 3. Table of contents (part 1):Communication n The communication process 7 n Giving presentations 23 n Preparing presentations 62 n Presentations in details 81 n The design of charts 95 n Templates for presentations 101 n The project communication plan 120 n Listening skills 123 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 3
  4. 4. Table of contents (part 2):Effective meetings n In general 130 n Moderation 138 n Steps for preparing a meeting 142 n Having a meeting 152 n How to use flipcharts 181 n Methods for doing effective meetings 197 n Reports and minutes 219 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 4
  5. 5. Important informationn The following charts are not made for “presentations”!!!n They are much too monotonous, much too crowded, not well structured …n But … Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 5
  6. 6. Two functions Support Manuscript in lectures Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 6
  7. 7. Never show such chartsin your presentations!!! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 7
  8. 8. Communication process Some basics
  9. 9. Communicationn One of most important skills for managersn Often source of problems, conflicts or dissatisfactionn Communication is a function of trust. Trust high > communication effective. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 9
  10. 10. There are different forms ofcommunicationn Verbaln Nonverbaln Writingn Listening Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 10
  11. 11. Communication process n Sender determines information to share Message and encodes message n Receiver decodesSender Receiver message to determine its meaning and then responds accordingly Feedback Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 11
  12. 12. Example 1Father to children:n „We will eat in 10 minutes!“Children may understand:n „He wants us to be there in 10 minutes!“n „He wants us to wash our hands!“n „He wants us to dress the table!“n ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 12
  13. 13. Example 2French manager to German manager: „We will meet tomorrow at 10.00 o‘clock!“What does he/she expect?Ø It would be very impolite to arrive exactly at 10.00 o‘clock!Ø Better: 15 – 30 minutes later! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 13
  14. 14. Encoding and decoding may beaffected ...n ... by values, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, education, language, culture, and emotionsØ Communication is successful if the decoded message is the same as the sender intended. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 14
  15. 15. Communication Sender Receiver„Problematic“ communication:Ø Little understanding„Good“ communication:Ø Good understanding Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 15
  16. 16. Barriers to communication (1)May disrupt communication or stop it altogether Sender Receiver Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 16
  17. 17. Barriers to communication (2)People n Background (division, department) n Education n Values n Attitudes n Social status 17
  18. 18. Barriers to communication (3)Organization nOrganizational culture nRumours nConflicting priorities nDepartmental relationships nTerritorial issues (Streitfall) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 18
  19. 19. Barriers to communication (4)Language n Terminology (jargon) n Nonverbal n Mother tongue vs. learned language n Mistranslations 19
  20. 20. Barriers to communication (5)Logistics n Geography n Time zones n Method (face-to-face, telephone, e-mail) n Culture (from country to country or within the same country) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 20
  21. 21. Communication may also be complicatedby the number of people involved 3 individuals 3 potential interactions 5 individuals 10 possible interactions 10 individuals 45 potential interactions Individuals x (Individuals – 1) Interactions = ----------------------------------------- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 2 21
  22. 22. Improve communication by taking thefollowing actions (1)1. Choose most appropriate method of transmission for your communication: - face-to-face, telephone, conversation, e-mail, video conference, memo, letter, etc. - considering urgency and importance of the message or need to discuss the issue, make a decision, or negotiate.2. Prepare your message in advance: - Determine how and when to deliver the message - Identify the problem that needs action - Gather relevant information - Focus on most important issues Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 22
  23. 23. Improve communication by taking the following actions (2)3. Deliver the message in a clear and constructive way: - Use appropriate nonverbal communication - Be aware of the other person‘s feelings and show genuine concern4. Listen to the receiver‘s message: - Really listen - Ask questions until you are sure to understand the response - Accept the fact that the other person may see things differently from how you see them5. Verify understanding - By summarizing or paraphrasing (umschreiben) the 23 response to be sure you understand correctly
  24. 24. Giving presentations Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 24
  25. 25. Imagine, you are doing a presentationn Student‘s projectn Bachelor thesis in companyn Seminarn Conferencen Meeting in the companyn Partyn ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 25
  26. 26. What impresses the audience?The sympathy/antipathy is decidedn 50 - 60 % by non verbal impression n (body language, i.e. posture, gestures, facial expression, visual contact, outfit)n 30 – 40 % by verbal impressionn 10 % by content of speech Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 26
  27. 27. The reason for that:n The pace of speaking of a German-speaking person: n 100 words/minn The capacity of human brains: n 400 words/minØ Our brain is only strained to a fourth part, so ¾ of our brain capacity is able to do other observations! 27
  28. 28. Because of that ...n ... we have to take special care of our body language!n ... let‘s have a close look to some rules! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 28
  29. 29. Non verbal impression1. Posture2. Gestures3. Facial expression4. Eye contact5. Outfit6. Distance areas7. Gestures Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 29
  30. 30. 1. Posturen The posture of a person is the first signal that impresses other people!n The posture decides the impression of n professional firmness n personal assurance n attitude of the speaker towards listeners (arrogant, fearful) n view of the speaker to life (positive, negative) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 30
  31. 31. For that reason ...do not butn change standing and ü stand firm on both legs free leg ü put your feet a bit apartn take a teenage girl ü feet in front opened a posture little bitn bend your body in the ü stand upright hip Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 31
  32. 32. 2. People look the way they are Whom would you believe? 32
  33. 33. Facial expressionn Permanent signal between our fellow human beings and ourselves.n Shows our view of life.n Influences impression of the others for what we are saying! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 33
  34. 34. If we go through life with ...n dissatisfactionn a grumpy face (mürrisch)n pessimistic prejudicesn doubt against everything and everybodyØ then we must not be surprised if others show us exactly what we expect of them! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 34
  35. 35. 4. The first meeting Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 35
  36. 36. Eye contact At the first meeting people look into the eyes of each other and find out – often unconsciously - aboutn sympathy and antipathyn interest and disinterestn power (who looks away first?)Ø Maybe wrong - but of long duration! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 36
  37. 37. We incline to neglect the eye contact if weü are unsureü feel embarrassed (verlegen, peinlich berührt)ü feel disturbedü criticise or if we are criticisedü express orders and wishesü tell lies.Ø In such situations we need particularly the visual contact! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 37
  38. 38. 5. The Outfit Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 38
  39. 39. Pay attention!n You should look well- n Take special care on groomed and fitting Ø your shoes Ø your personal type Ø your finger nails Ø occasion Ø your hair Ø your teethn Not too loud Ø takes listeners mind n and on accesoirs like from your presentation Ø glasses Ø watch Ø handkerchief Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 39
  40. 40. 6. Distance areas Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 40
  41. 41. We distinguish between three distanceareas1. General distance: 1,2 – 1,5 m Ø You don‘t feel disturbed!2. Distance of communication: 0,6/0,8 – 1,2 m Ø The distance of the heads during conversation!3. Distance of intimacy: 0,6 – 0,8 m Ø This area is reserved for people you like! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 41
  42. 42. 7. Gesturesn Gestures are a very powerful signal!n Mind cross cultural differences! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 42
  43. 43. Gestures are allowed in this area!Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 43
  44. 44. Examples Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 44
  45. 45. Exercise: Holding a speechn My hobbyn Why do I study Textile and Clothing Managementn What do I intend to do in my job!n Why I like Mönchengladbachn Do a presentation of about 2 – 3 min! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 45
  46. 46. Verbal impression1. Articulation2. Short breaks during speaking3. Rhetoric4. Rules for designing a manuscript5. Stage fright6. Feedback rules Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 46
  47. 47. 1. ArticulationTry to vary your articulationn High – deepn Loud – lown Fast – slowØ The tension of your speech is decided by the variations! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 47
  48. 48. 2. Short breaks during speakingn Advantages for you as n Advantages for listeners speakerØ You win time to prepare Ø They can think about what next idea you have saidØ You can renew eye Ø They can reflect your contact informationØ You can have a look at Ø They are not overstressed your notes in their concentrationØ You can breathe quietly Ø They are able to followØ You can think in advance you in an easier wayØ Listeners concentrate on you again Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 48
  49. 49. 3. Rhetoricn Some rules for doing presentations Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 49
  50. 50. I. The beginning of a presentationn Active greetingn No empty phrases, no platitudesn No excusesn Start only when you are standing in front of the audiencen Introduce yourself, if you are a stranger to group Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 50
  51. 51. II. The main part of a presentationn No speech before the speechn Objectives, list of content if necessaryn Clear structure with breaks between main chaptersn Duration of presentation in dependence of occasionn Choice of style/expressions in dependence of audiencen Talk only about the essentials 51
  52. 52. III. The end / the conclusionn No never ending endn No „I hope“n Appeal to listeners better than „thank you“ Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 52
  53. 53. Examplesn I am pleased that I had the opportunity to present the new data management system of my company. Be politen Probably you see new possibilities in designing similar solutions for your firms. Appealn If you are interested in more details don‘t hesitate to contact me, my e-mail address is listed in the handout. Moreover there will be a break in a few Appeal minutes and we can discuss further points if you are interested. 53
  54. 54. Short exercisePlease work outthe end of a presentationat the University of Valencia (Spain) about yourstudies! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 54
  55. 55. 4. Designing a manuscriptü (Only) introduction and end/conclusion word-for-wordü Use only keywords n Well-trained speaker: 1 keyword/minute n Untrained speakers: 3 – 4 keywords/minute Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 55
  56. 56. DIN A4 paper size only if you can hide it! Subject1st main keyword 2 – 4 minor keywords2nd main keyword 2 – 4 minor keywords3rd main keyword ...... ...... ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 56
  57. 57. Use DIN A6 / DIN A 7 paper size!Ø Maximum 5 words per cardØ Write with felt-penØ Write on cards only on one sideØ Number the cards Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 57
  58. 58. 5. What to do against stage fright?Permanent strong stage fright Ø Physical relaxation (e.g. autogenic training) Ø Train doing presentations! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 58
  59. 59. Normal stage frightn Respectable preparation Ø Take your time for preparation Ø Headword manuscript Ø Ability of forming different sentences out of the same keywordsn The night before Ø Little alcohol Ø Duration of sleep is of no influencen Just before the presentation Ø 3x take a deep breathn And then Ø Show self assurance Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 59
  60. 60. Listeners opinion: Who shows self-assurance has strong arguments Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 60
  61. 61. 6. Feedback rulesRules for the person giving feedback1. Describe facts (I see, ...)2. Describe things from your point of view n This means: The way I see it is ...! n Or: You make this or that impression on me! n Not: You are ...Rules for the receiver of feedback1. Think „thank you“!2. Accept the criticism without resignation!3. No justification! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 61
  62. 62. What to consider? PointsChecklist for giving presentations Content of presentation? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Adaptation to the listener? No = 0 Yes = 1 Is a clear aim expressed? No = 0 Yes = 1 Is there eye contact? No = 0 Yes = 1 Is there direct speech towards the listener (you)? No = 0 Yes = 1 What about voice pressure and rhythm of speech? No = 0 Yes = 1 Easy language in short sentences? No = 0 Yes = 1 Clear pronunciation? No = 0 Yes = 1 Use of breaks? No = 0 Yes = 1 Examples and comparisons? No = 0 Yes = 1 Use of illustrations? No = 0 Yes = 1 Rhetorical questions? No = 0 Yes = 1 Too formal or too slangy language? No = 1 Yes = 0 Introduction (concise (exact), fluently, interesting)? 0 1 2 3 End/conclusion (concise, fluently, interesting)? 0 1 2 3 Expression of thanks? Yes = 0 No = 1 Media usage (beamer, overhead-projector, video, ...) 0 1 2 3 Explanation of motives? 0 1 2 3 Total (max. 34 points) 62
  63. 63. Exercisen Please prepare a short presentation (max. 3 min.) about one of the following subjects: Ø Industry needs more graduates in Bachelor of Textile and Clothing Management! Ø My hobbies! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 63
  64. 64. Preparing presentations Rules and ideas
  65. 65. In general ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 65
  66. 66. Combination of audio-visual mediaand aids Success of learning (to remember after 6 weeks) 90 % 50 % 30 % 20 % Only Only Hearing and Additional hearing seeing visual media use of one‘s own Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch (exercises etc.) 66
  67. 67. How to prepare a speechn Who am I talking to?n Who am I?n What do I want?n What do they want from me? Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 67
  68. 68. Criteria for choosing the contents andthe detail of contentsn How often do I need it?n How complex is the topic?n What is the knowledge of the persons listening?n What is a necessity (i.e. for exams)?n What can be transferred to a similar problem?n What is important?Ø Make it interesting for the listeners! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 68
  69. 69. Pedagogical structureØ From the known to the unknownØ From easy to difficultØ From simple to complexØ From an example to find the ruleØ From the rule to the exception Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 69
  70. 70. Examples1. From the known to the unknown Ø Our University ? Our partner University in Finland2. From easy to difficult Ø Sewing of a T-shirt ? Sewing of a man‘s shirt3. From simple to complex Ø Gear with 2 gearwheels ? Gear with 5 gearwheels and drive shaft (Antriebswelle)4. From an example to find the rule Ø Noise level looms 100 dB(A) ? All looms have such a noise level5. From the rule to the exception Ø Noise level prototype loom ? only 80 dB(A) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 70
  71. 71. Pedagogical structurePlease, work out an example for every rule! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 71
  72. 72. Pedagogical structuren Try to follow this structure in your presentationn It makes it easier for the audience to understand what you want to sayn The listener‘s feeling of satisfaction increasesØ Your success increases as well! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 72
  73. 73. To remembern Use examplesn Illustrate your statementsn Activate listeners (ask (rhetorical) questions)n Give the feeling of success (listener must be able to answer rhetorical questions)n Go ahead step by stepn Use clear and easy understandable language Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 73
  74. 74. If you are off the trackn Let‘s put together ...n Repeat the statements and factsn Discus pros and consn Bring out further claims and assertionsØ You need to talk in the front and think in the back of your mind, to find back to what you wanted to express! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 74
  75. 75. PreparationContent Detail Key points1. Define specific What the audience needs to 1. Helps to devise a objectives understand presentation structure 2. Provides a yardstick (Maßstab ) for success2. Develop and select - What must be included? Helps to prioritise the ideas - What should be included? presentation - What could be included?3. Design the 1. Introduction Notes, visuals, aids, etc. structure 2. Main body 3. Summary Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 75
  76. 76. PresentationContent Detail Key points1. Introduction Setting the scene Who, what, why and how2. Main body Logical sequence: Include: n Facts n Variety n Examples n Contrast n Conclusions n Humour3. Summary 1. Draw together People tend to remember 2. Summarize what they hear last 3. Seek acceptance 4. Propose action Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 76
  77. 77. The duration of speechesSpeak for 20 – 45 minutesmaximum –this is thelengths of the averageperson‘s attention span! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 77
  78. 78. Aids for your presentationStructure Time How to Comment remember1. Introduction 3–5 Written down n Just in case min word for word n Gives you security2. Main body 20 min n Key words Additional only information that is n Use your not mentioned on the charts chart3. Summary 1. 3 – 5 Written down n Just in case min word for word n Gives you security Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 78
  79. 79. (Visual) aidsn PowerPoint Chartsn (Overhead) transparenciesn Slidesn Video films/DVD‘sn Modelsn Samples (like fabrics)n ...Ø Are helpful for the understanding Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 79
  80. 80. Make use of ...Oral speech Not time consuming, good for instructions, many listeners possibleBlack board/ For writing down ideas, notes, structuresWhite boardPowerPoint + „Prefabricated“ presentations, numerousBeamer possibilities, no additional notes, little overviewOverhead Permits use of prepared transparencies,projector for writing down ideas, notes, structuresFlip Chart You can take them away, pin them to the wall, take them home, bring them back, etc.Pin wall For working out structures, ideas, propositionsVideos Show complex issues, motions, behaviour 80
  81. 81. Don‘t forgetn Don‘t always use just one successful mediumn If the contents change, change the media as welln Structure your subjects in different main partsn Don‘t focus on the reason alone but also on feelingsn Use well known and obvious examples Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 81
  82. 82. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 82
  83. 83. The presentation indetails Structure and language
  84. 84. Flow-chart: structure presentation Introduction I‘d like today to talk about ... Outline I‘ve divided my talk into ... Questions If you have any question, please Main part 1 Let‘s start with ... Main part 2 That brings me to ... Main parts 3, 4, etc. ... and turn to ... Summary To sum up ... 84 Conclusion In conclusion
  85. 85. Introducting yourself and your talkChecklistn Your name and positionn The title/subject of your presentationn The purpose of your presentationn The lengths of time you will taken The main parts or points you will covern Any visual aids you will usen When the audience may ask questionsn A reference to the audience: a human touch Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 85
  86. 86. Greeting, name, positionn Good morning, my name‘s.... I‘m the new Finance Manager.n Ladies and gentlemen. It‘s an honour to have the opportunity to address such a distinguished audience.n Good morning. Let me start by saying just a few words about my own background. I started in ...n Welcome to DaimlerChrysler. I know I‘ve met some of you, but just for the benefit of those I haven‘t, my name‘s ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 86
  87. 87. Title/subjectn I‘d like to talk (to you) today about ...n I‘m going to present the recent ... explain our position on ... inform you about ... describe ...n The subject of my talk focus presentation topic paper (academic) speech (usually to public audience) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 87
  88. 88. Purpose/objectiven We are here today to decide ... agree ... learn about ...The purpose of this talk is to update you on ... give you the background to ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 88
  89. 89. Lengthn I shall only take (...) minutes of your time.n I plan to be brief.n This should only last (...) minutes. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 89
  90. 90. Outline/main partsn I‘ve divided my presentation into four parts. They are ...n The subject can be looked at under the following headings: ...n We can break this area down into the following fields: Firstly/first of all ... Secondly/then/next ... Thirdly/ and then we come to ... Finally/lastly/last of all ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 90
  91. 91. Questionsn I‘d be glad to answer any questions at the end of my talk.n If you have any question, please, feel free to interrupt.n Please interrupt me if there is something which needs clarifying. Otherwise, there‘ll be time for discussion at the end. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 91
  92. 92. Reference to the audiencen I can see many of you are ...n I know you‘ve travelled a long way ...n You all look as though you‘ve heard this before ... Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 92
  93. 93. LanguageWritten language Spoken languagenlong sentences nshorter sentencesncomplex vocabulary nsimpler vocabularyncomplex arguments nsimpler argumentsnimpersonal style npersonal style Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 93
  94. 94. Examples languagen An individualistic style appears to be closely associated with rapid career path progression, whereas a group or participative style, despite its evident attractiveness to all members of staff, is correlated with a relatively slow career progression.n You can see here, 35 % of the group of managers classified as participative reached senior management positions. On the other hand, 74 % of the more individualistic managers achieved senior management status. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 94
  95. 95. Example languagen Although lip service is paid to the concept of participative management, their real perception of leadership qualities completely contradict this view. It can be further seen that such surveys ...n So, we find it a massive contradiction. Good managers are supposed to be participative – to make sure they consult and discuss. Good leaders are supposed to be strong individuals – able to make decisions on their own. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 95
  96. 96. The design of charts Some advices
  97. 97. Two different ways to express yourselfon charts1. Statement expresses a message Ø (What can we see on the chart? Ø What is the most important?2. Just a title Ø What is it the chart deals with? Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 97
  98. 98. In the last 6 month we reduced thequality costs for 30 %. 6 Mio. € ? = 30 % 4,2 Mio. € 01/2003 06/2003 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 98
  99. 99. Reduction of quality costs 6 Mio. € ? = 30 % 4,2 Mio. € 01/2003 06/2003 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 99
  100. 100. How many charts do you need?Ø Calculate 2 – 3 min per chartØ Better fewer charts than one too muchØ Concentrate on the most interesting facts and messages Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 100
  101. 101. See example in lecture! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 101
  102. 102. Charts should ben reduced as much as possiblen clearly structuredn variedn full of surprisesn a pleasure to look at. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 102
  103. 103. Template for a presentation Example 1Presentation of concept „Open Day 2003“ (Thanks to Mrs. Isermann)
  104. 104. Template 1 Topic What, when, where Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 104
  105. 105. Template 2 Situation analysis Lessons learned What was good? What was bad? Things to be improved Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 105
  106. 106. Template 3 Objectives • First • Second • Third • Fourth (less is more!) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 106
  107. 107. Template 4 Target groups • • • • Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 107
  108. 108. Template 5 Strategy In this example, it is of course, The event „Open Day“ Explain why. This chart can miss. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 108
  109. 109. Template 6 Messages e.g. The Department of Textile and Clothing Technology of the Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences • offers job perspectives • • Messages should be simple, saying in one sentence what the client wants to achieve. Ideally, messages should support the objectives. 109
  110. 110. Template 7 Idea: Slogan The slogan is the platform for the message Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 110
  111. 111. Template 8 Measures for 1st message 2nd message 3rd message Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 111
  112. 112. Template 9 Additional activities E.g. • Invitations • Advertising • Info.Launge • Background information • Give-aways Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 112
  113. 113. Template 10 Media relations • Who should be in contact? • How (which products)? Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 113
  114. 114. Template 11 Timing and team • Gantt-chart (only title of activities, e.g. Press tour) • Who is responsible for which measure? Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 114
  115. 115. Template 12 Budget (Costs) E.g. • Advertising • Give-away Rounded off sums Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 115
  116. 116. Structure of aproposition/plan you make Example 2
  117. 117. Template 1 Set out the proposal Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 117
  118. 118. Template 2 Explain why it is needed and what it contributes Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 118
  119. 119. Template 3 Estimate the resources required, and show how the proposal meets financial criteria Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 119
  120. 120. Template 4 Specify who will be responsible and the proposal‘s timescale Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 120
  121. 121. Template 5 Conclude with a plan of action Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 121
  122. 122. Project communicationplan For Project Managers
  123. 123. Project communication plann The project manager should develop a project communication plan for each projectn It describes what information is communicated, to whom, how, and how oftenØ Use a communication matrix! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 123
  124. 124. Communication matrix Method Client Customer Team Team member A member BFormal Monthly Quarterly Weekly WeeklystatusreportsPhone As needed As needed As needed As neededcalls &e-mailsTeam Minutes As needed Attends Attendsmeetings weekly weekly weeklyStatus Daily Daily Daily Dailyreport onproject 124web site
  125. 125. Listening skills Important to be understood
  126. 126. Listening (1) 1.Listening is a critical part of communication - purpose is understand message from the point of view of the other person - take time and effort to carefully listen to others 2.Listening is not discussion - Listening is a one-way process that involves hearing and understanding the message - Listening requires full attention - Discussing is a two-way interchange of ideas 126
  127. 127. Listening (2)3. Listening is not problem solving - Listen to understand, not to propose solutions - Finding solutions might be a next step - Moving too quickly from listening to proposing solutions may interfere with the communication process - If you impose your solution without giving others a chance to be heard, they may stop coming to you with problems and questions Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 127
  128. 128. How to improve your listening skills (1)1. Listen intently, concentrating on the individual and what is being said n Listen for content, not just verbiage. n Listen to the emotions and needs being expressed.2. Seek clarification and confirmation n If a person makes a request or provides information, clarify what was said so that you both are sure the message has been conveyed correctly Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Harsch 128
  129. 129. How to improve your listening skills (2)3. Resist the urge to correct errors made by the speaker n When people express strong feelings, they often exaggerate or overstate the facts, sometimes in anger with accusations n As you listen, concentrate on hearing the message rather than correcting the facts4. Don‘t allow blases (Voreingenommene) to interfere n If you assume that the information you get is important, regardless of who delivers it, you are more likely to remember it 129
  130. 130. Listening: verbal skillsBehaviour Examples Comment1. Clarifying „Could you repeat that question Clarification of what has been please?“ said2. Confirming „Is this what you mean?“ Confirmation of understanding3. Facilitating „Perhaps if I explain that part Offering help/support more clearly.“4. Conceding „Would it help if I would change Acknowledgement of criticism this paragraph, it is misleading?“(nachgeben)5. Maintaining „I follow you so far, please go on“ Confirmation of understanding and encouragement to continue6. Summarizing „As I understood this is what you Periodic verification of what is are saying.“ being said 130
  131. 131. Listening: non-verbal skillsBehaviour Examples Comment1. Maintaining eye n Focus on speaker Ø Don‘t stare contact n Do not look away for long periods Ø May be interpreted as lack of interest2. Head movement n Affirmative head nodding indicates Ø Use occasionally understanding3. Facial expression To reflect the speakers mood: Ø A frown is appropriate as a signal i.e. humorous, friendly, ... of disagreement or lack of understanding4. Patience Listen in silence Ø Don‘t interrupt unless asked to do so5. Posture n Face the speaker Ø Shows openness and receptivity n Uncross your arms and legs Ø Crossed arms can communicate superiority or defensiveness n Lean forward slightly Ø To communicate interest n Don‘t slouch (krumme Haltung) Ø Slouching indicates boredom or fatigue 131

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