Nationalism in india

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Nationalism in india

  1. 1. Nationalism in India PPT by Vinod.pccp@resonance.ac.in
  2. 2. Nationalism In IndiaIn India, the growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonialmovement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle withcolonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bondthat tied many different groups together. But each class and group felt the effects ofcolonialism differently, their experiences were varied and their notions of freedom werenot always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groupstogether within one movement. But the unity did not emerge without conflict.In this presentation we will explore how the Congress sought to develop the nationalmovement, how different social groups participated in the movement, and hownationalism captured the imagination of people.
  3. 3. Nationalism in IndiaFirst World War, Khilafat & Non-CooperationImpact of war on the Nationalist Movementa) Increase in Taxes, Price riseb) Forced Recruitmentc) Crop failured) Influenza epidemice) Emergence of a New leader
  4. 4. The idea of Satyagraha - meaning, Satyagraha before 1919a) People had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. Mahatma Gandhi believed that the Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indiansb) Champaran Satyagraha – 1916c) Kheda Satyagraha – 1917d) Ahmedabad mill workers strike – 1918
  5. 5. The Rowlatt Act - Meaning, its oppositiona) This Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities,and allowed detention of Political prisoners without trial for two years.b) Gandhi asked for a hartal on 6 April. Rallies were organised, workers went onstrike.c) Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, Mahatma Gandhi was barredfrom entering Delhi, Martial Law was imposed and General Dyer took commandof Amritsar.
  6. 6. Jallianwalla Bagh Incident – Its oppositiona) On 13 April villagers unaware of martial law, gathered at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to attenda fair.b) Dyer blocked the exit points and opened fire, Killing hundreds.c) People opposed the killings, by attackinggovernment offices, police stations etc.d) Government responded with brutal repression,People were flogged and villages were bombed.
  7. 7. Khilafat Movementa) Mahatma Gandhi wanted a broad based movement by bringing the Hindus andMuslims close together.b) After the First World War a harsh peace treaty was imposed on the Ottomonemperor. To defend the Khalifa’s Temporal powers. A Khilafat committee was formed.c) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali discussed with Mahatma Gandhi about a unitedmass action. Gandhi convinced Congress for the need to start a non –cooperationmovement in support of Khilafat.
  8. 8. Non-Cooperation- Why, its coursea) Gandhi in his book Hind Swaraj declared that British rule in India was only possible due to the cooperation of Indians. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule would collapse.b) Non-cooperation was to unfold in stages – surrender of titles, Boycott of government, finally a full civil disobedience Movement to be launched.c) Leaders in Congress were reluctant to boycott the Council elections and feared that the movement might lead to Popular violence.d) At Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non- cooperation programme was adopted.
  9. 9. Differing strands within the movement(i) The movements in the Towns(ii) Rebellion in the countrysidea) Awadh Peasants movementb) b) Tribal movement in the Gudam hills of Andhra Pradeshc) Swaraj in the Plantations
  10. 10. The movement in the TownsHow the people reacteda) Middle class participationb) Students lefts govt. schools, govt. officials resigned, lawyers gave up theirpracticesc) Council elections were boycottedd) Foreign goods boycotted, liquor shops picketed, foreign clothes burnte) Traders & Merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreigntrade.Why the movement faileda) Khadi cloth was too expensive, poor people could not afford itb) Lack of alternative Indian Institutions
  11. 11. Rebellion in the Countryside Awadh Peasant Movement1. Participation of the Peasantsa) Led by Baba Ramchandrab) Was against landlords who demanded high rents and other cesses .c) Peasants demanded – reduction of revenue, abolition of Begar, social boycott of landlords2. Support by CongressParticipation of Jawaharlal Nehrub) Formation of Awadh Kisan Sabhac) Over 300 branches had been set upd) Efforts to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle3. Why the movement faileda) Developed in forms that the congress leadership was unhappy withb) Violence erupted (house of talukdars/merchants were attacked, bazaars looted, grain hoards taken over)c) Message of Mahatma Gandhi wrongly interpreted
  12. 12. Tribal movement in Gudam hills of Andhra PradeshWhy tribals revolteda) Govt. forest policy affected the livelihoods of tribals, denied their traditional rightsb) When the government began forcing them to contribute begar for rood building, tribals revolted.2. Alluri Sitaram Rajua) Rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.b) Talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi & persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking.3. Outcomes of the Revolta) Raju believed that India could be liberated only by the use of forceb) Raju was captured and executed in 1924
  13. 13. Swaraj in the Plantationsa) The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 restricted the plantation workersto leave the tea gardens without permission.b) Workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed homec) Stranded or the way by a railway and steamer strike, were caughtby the police and brutally beaten up.Towards Civil DisobedienceThe Salt March and the Civil Disobedience MovementHow Participants saw the MovementThe Limits of Civil Disobedience
  14. 14. Why Non Cooperation Movement waswithdrawn ?In February 1922, Gandhi decided towithdraw the Non-Cooperation MovementHe felt the movement was turning violent inmany places. With in congress someleaders were by now tired of massstruggles and wanted to participate inelection of the provincial councils. C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru formed the SwarajParty within the congress to argue for areturn to council politics.
  15. 15. Two factors that shaped Indian Politics towards the late 1920sThe worldwide economic depressioni) Agricultural prices began to fallii) Peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenueb) Arrival of Simon Commissioni) Setup in response to the nationalist movementii) To suggest change in the functioning of the constitutional system in Indiaiii) Did not had a single Indian memberiv) When arrived in India was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
  16. 16. Congress Changed its goal from Swaraj to Purna Swaraja) Dominion status offered but in an unspecified future.b) Radicals within the congress become more assertive.c) Liberals & moderates gradually lost their influence. Thus Congress declared complete independence as its goal & declared that 26 January 1930 to be celebrated as the Independence Day
  17. 17. The Salt MarchMahatma Gandhi, on 31 January 1930, sent a letter to the Viceroy Lord Irwin, statingeleven demands. Some of these were of general interest, some were specific demandsof different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The most stirring of all was thedemand to abolish the salt tax. He made the “Salt tax” his target and called it the mostrepressive Act of the British government. Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was, in a way, anultimatum but Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhi started his famous “SaltMarch” on March 12, 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a small coastal village inGujarat. He started with 78 followers and thousands joined him on his 240 miles route.On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt byboiling sea water.
  18. 18. The Civil Disobedience MovementPeople’s Participationa) People were asked to refuse cooperation to British and to break colonial lawsb) People broke salt law, foreign cloths boycotted and liquor shops were picketed .c) People refused to pay revenue and taxes, officials resigned, forest people violated forest laws. 2. Government’s reaction a) Congress leader were arrested. b) Violence erupted in Peshawar when Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested c) In Sholapur workers attacked British Offices when Gandhi was arrested d) Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested.
  19. 19. 3. Gandhi-Irwin Pacta) Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference, Government agreed to release the political prisoners.b) The negotiations broke down and Gandhi returned disappointed.c) Gandhi re-launched the Civil Disobedience Movement, but by 1934 it lost its momentum.
  20. 20. How Participants saw the MovementRich Peasant Communitiesa) were hard hit by the trade depression and falling pricesb) Refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespreadresentment and they actively participated in the movement.c) were deeply disappointed with the Gandhi-Irwin pactd) When movement was restarted, many of them refused to participate.Poorer PeasantryBecause of the economic depression, small tenants found ita) Difficult to pay their rent, wanted the unpaid rent to the Landlord to be remitted.b) Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places.
  21. 21. The Business Classa) Reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activitiesb) Wanted protection against imparts of foreign goods, and a Rupee-Sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.c) Formed their organisations, attacked colonial control over the Indian economy & supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.d) Worried of the militant activities, prolonged disruption business & the growing influence of socialism in the congress, the business group withdrew their support from the movement.Industrial working classOther than the workers of Nagpur region, workers were not much interested in the movementb) The workers started their own movements against law wages and Poor working conditions.c) Congress felt that if it supported workers than it would alienate Industrialists and that would divide the anti-imperial forces
  22. 22. Participation of womena) Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, picketed foreign cloth & liquor shops, they began to see service to the nation as a scared duty.b) Never got good response from the congress as, Gandhi ji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home & Congress was keen only on their symbolic presence.
  23. 23. The Limits of the CDMDemands of the Untouchables/Dalits(i) Congress had ignored dalits, for fear of offending the Sanatanis.(ii) Mahatma Gandhi called the untouchables, harijans and declared that India would notachieve ‘Swaraj’ for hundred years, if untouchability was not totally eliminated. (iii) TheDalits - Wanted a political solution for their problems. They demanded reservation ofseats, in educational institutes, separate electorate to choose their own candidates to thelegislative councils.(iv) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the Dalits, formed an association in 1930, called theDepressed Classes Association. He clashed with Gandhiji at the Second Round TableConference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. The British Governmentaccepted Dr. Ambedkars demand.(v) Gandhiji began a fast unto death against this. Dr. Ambedkar finally signed a pact withGandhiji in September 1932, called the Poona Pact. It gave reserved seats in provincialand Central Legislative Councils to the Depressed Classes. They were to be voted in bythe general electorate.
  24. 24. Muslim political organisations also kept away from Civil Disobedience Movement.(i) Muslims felt alienated from Congress after the decline of Non-Cooperation - KhilafatMovement.(ii) From mid-1920s the Congress seemed to be more visibly associated with Hindureligions nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.(iii) There were Hindu-Muslim Clashes and riots in many cities, which further worsenedthe relations between the two communities.Attempt was made in 1927 by the Congress and Muslim League to form an alliance. Itseemed possible as M.A. Jinnah, one of the leaders of Muslim League, agreed to give upthe demand for separate electorates if:(A) Muslims were assured reserved seats in Central Assembly.(B) Representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated provinces,(Bengal and Punjab).Negotiations failed in 1928 when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposedefforts at compromise.
  25. 25. Sense of Collective BelongingIdentity of a Nation Symbolised infigure or imageMovement to revive IndianFolkloreUse of Icons & SymbolsReinterpretation of HistoryProblemsImage of Bharat Mata :The identity of India came tovisually associated with the imageof Bharat Mata. The image wasfirst created by Bankim ChandraChatatopadhyay. Through hispoem ‘Vande Materam’, as ahymn to the motherland.Moved by the Swadeshimovement, Abanindranath Tagorepainted his famous image ofBharat Mata. In this paintingBharat Mata is portrayed as aascetic figure: she is calm,composed, divine and spiritual.
  26. 26. Revival of Indian Folklore :In late-nineteenth century India, nationalist began recording folk tales sung by bards andthey toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. This was done to promote thetraditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by western forces. It wasessential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity andrestore a sense of pride in one’s past. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore and in MadrasNatesa Sastri made important contributions.Icons and Symbols :In Bengal, a tricolour flag was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provincesof British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag , it has a spinning wheel representingthe Gandhian ideal of self-help.
  27. 27. Reinterpretation of History :Modern education, in course of time, evoked interestin the correct understanding of India’s past.Attempts were made to rediscover and re-study thepast India to enhance the understanding of thepresent.Much of the new knowledge about India’s past gave asense of pride to the Indian people and helped in theirawakening.Many Indian scholars took up the study of Indianhistory and culture in a systematic way and theappreciation of India from a specifically Indian point ofview began.This urges the readers to take pride in India’s greatachievements in the past and struggle to change themiserable conditions of life under British rule.When the past being glorified was Hindu, imageswere drawn from Hindu iconography, then people ofother communities felt left out.

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