Magnetic resonance imaging (mri)

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Magnetic resonance imaging (mri)

  1. 1. Looking at the Interior of Human Body and Understanding its Physiology and Function: Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) utkARSh veRMA KVJNU
  2. 2. Medical Imaging Techniques
  3. 3. X-Ray Imaging Contrast: Density, Atomic Number X-ray source December 22nd, 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen Detector Object “Builder survives nailgun accident”
  4. 4. X-Ray - Digital X ray tube
  5. 5. Computerized Tomography Comparison of CT with the Anatomy
  6. 6. Computerized Tomography Pyogenic liver abscess Focal fatty degeneration of liver
  7. 7. Calcaneus fracture following CT Guided surgery Before After
  8. 8. Atom Molecu Atomic le Nucleus our magnetic spy ! Courtesy: Prof. Richard R Ernst
  9. 9. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Magnetic Resonance Imaging • High-resolution morphological picture(anatomical structures) • Superior soft tissue contrast • Multi-planar imaging capability • MR images from protons present water and fat of human tissues • Noninvasive – NO ionizing radiation
  10. 10. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR T1 - weighted Axial View T1 - weighted Coronal View T1 - weighted Sagittal View
  11. 11. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Effect of T2 relaxation on Contrast in MRI Mineral water Municipal water
  12. 12. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR T1 - weighted - Axial Tissues Fat WM GM CSF T2 - weighted - Axial PD Light Gray Gray Light Gray Gray T1W White Light Gray Gray Black Proton Density - Axial T2W Gray Dark Gray Gary White
  13. 13. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR High-Resolution - Image Details Sella Sagittal
  14. 14. Diagnostic MR 15
  15. 15. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Anaplastic astrocytoma Metastatic brain Glioblastoma Low grade astroglia Mixed Glioma Low grade astrocytoma
  16. 16. MRI in the Diagnosis of Breast & Prostate Cancer Breast -T1 - weighted Breast - T2 - weighted Prostate T2 – weighted – Normal Prostate T2 – weighted - Tumor
  17. 17. Functional Studies 3D dynamic CE MRI of Breast Time Signal-Time Curves (contrast enhancement)
  18. 18. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR DTI- Diffusion Tractography Diffusion – weighted MRI Volunteer Patient
  19. 19. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR CT T2 DWI Sensitivity of DWI for hyperacute stroke demonstrated in 57-year old patient. Unremarkable CT and T2 MRI. DWI demonstrates hyperintense signal in left postcentral gyrus.
  20. 20. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Whole spine MRI Cervical Spine Cord compression
  21. 21. MR Angiography 22
  22. 22. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR MR Angiography - MRA MRI of head and cervical MRA - aortic arch to circle of Willis
  23. 23. Monitoring Brain Functions 24
  24. 24. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR
  25. 25. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR
  26. 26. MRI vs. fMRI MRI studies brain anatomy. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies brain function.
  27. 27. Cerebral lateralization of function happen in a few abilities
  28. 28. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Motor cortex activation Both hands Visual cortex activation
  29. 29. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR fMRI during Sad and Happy moods Activation in Amygdla and Hippocampus
  30. 30. Liar versus Non-liar THE TRUTH BE TOLD? [left] When the author was asked whether he had ever feigned illness to escape an obligation, his prefrontal cortex showed no unusual activity. LIAR, LIAR? [right] When the author was asked whether he had ever padded an expense report, his prefrontal cortex became highly active [areas highlighted with hot colors].
  31. 31. Courtesy: Prof. Richard R Ernst
  32. 32. Diffusion MRI in Breast Cancer Responder Poor responder Pre therapy 1.07 x 10-3 mm2/s 0.98 x 10-3 mm2/s II NACT 1.26 x 10-3 mm2/s 1.05 x 10-3 mm2/s III NACT 1.60 x 10-3 mm2/s 1.20 x 10-3 mm2/s
  33. 33. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR An intraoperative image performed revealing residual tumor CE images show location of the tumor Magnet lowered tumor resection performed Intra Operative MRI-1 Magnet positioned and preoprative images obtained
  34. 34. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR MRI demonstrates complete resection of tumor Intra Operative MRI-2 Navigational method enables the surgeon to precisely locate the residual tumor Surgery continues using the guidance of intraoperative navigation
  35. 35. Matrix coil technology Peripheral Angio coil Head coil MRI Scanner Bilateral carotid coil Bilateral carotid coil Breast array coil for biopsy Whole body MRI/A
  36. 36. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NMR Can’t we NOT believe this? Science or Faith??? MRI Whole body MRI Spine

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