Helicobacter pylori (cancer)

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Helicobacter pylori (cancer)

  1. 1. The human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its impact on human health Utkarsh verma
  2. 2. Normal beliefs regarding gastritis Anxiety Stress Irregular food habits Exam phobia Temporary Relief Relapse Gastritis Acid secretion Acid blocker; Antacid
  3. 3. Warren and Marshall revolutionised the concept of gastroduodenal diseases The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2005 Robin observed the presence of small Curved bacteria Colonizing lower part Of the stomach R. Warren B. Marshall Marshall later Initiated a study With 100 patients & Confirmed the Presence of the Bacteria in the stomach Marshall succeeded in cultivating the bacteria from the biopsies. Together, they found that the organism was present in almost all patients with gastric inflammation, duodenal and gastric ulcer (1982).
  4. 4. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism 1843-1910 Barry Marshal had to inoculate himself with H. pylori to show that it causes infection
  5. 5. The Bacterium Flagella H. pylori Adhesin
  6. 6. Places of Infection in the stomach Corpus Low pH H. pylori Duodenum Pylorus Antrum H. pylori infects the lower part of the stomach, antrum
  7. 7. Inflammation Ammonia causes damage to the cells Inflammation initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of leucocytes from the blood into the injured tissues H. pylori causes inflammation of the gastric mucosa (gastritis)
  8. 8. Ulcer (schematic) Bleeding ulcer Duodenal ulcer Gastric ulcer Inflammation Gastric inflammation may lead to duodenal ulcer followed by bleeding ulcer
  9. 9. Ulcer (real)
  10. 10. Diagnosis Bacterial survival and urea breath test for detection CO2 detected 13 Noninvasive C Urea Solution Ingested 13 Lungs Urease CO2 + NH3 Invasive: Endoscopy Biopsy Culture CO2 absorbed in blood 13 Ammonia Neutralizes Acidic Surroundings
  11. 11. Treatment Antibiotics Amoxycillin, Clarithromycin, Tetracycline and metronidazole. Acid lowering drugs Ranitidine, Cimetidine, Famotidine, Omprazole, Pantoprazole and Lansoprazole Combination of the above two for two weeks is the best strategy However, there are incidences of drug resistant strains Vaccination: Not available yet
  12. 12. Malignancies associated with Helicobacter pylori infection H. pylori infection in the stomach Prolonged and widespread inflammation and gastritis CagA protein ?? Malignant change leads to stomach cancer Uncontrolled growth of cells Number two in cancer deaths
  13. 13. Key Questions How H. pylori cause cancer? What are the key determinants? Can we design new drugs? What will be the target? Can we design new vaccine? What will be the antigen?
  14. 14. Research In Progress Genomics and Proteomics Genome analysis, Gene expression Profiling, Functional genomics, Novel protein characterization Molecular Cell Biology DNA repair, DNA replication, Transcription, Cellular metabolism Immunization Vaccines, Recombinant Vaccines, DNA vaccines
  15. 15. Helicase and gyrase action Helicase Gyrase
  16. 16. Gyrase Relieves tension Helicase unwinds DNA Leading Strand Lagging Strand
  17. 17. We Study H. Pylori DnaB Helicase
  18. 18. ATP Hydrolysis: Release of Energy
  19. 19. Breaking Hydrogen bonds using ATP
  20. 20. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF HELICASES
  21. 21. 3-D structure of a protein X-RAY Diffraction of Protein Crystals yield 3-D Structure
  22. 22. Further reading and information Sharma A and Dhar SK. (2005) Helicobacter pylori infection: Diseases and Cure: A molecular approach in Microbes for Human Health. I. K. International Publication. Website: http://www.helico.com/
  23. 23. Never Hesitate to Ask a Question and follow a career in Science It is a wonderful journey………..

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