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MICROSCOPY.pptx
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Mukesh.pptx

  1. 1. Structure and function of proteins ● Rahul Sharma ● Mukesh Ramola
  2. 2. • PROTEIN = they are long chain of amino acid residues attach by peptide bond. • Protein synthesis or translation = it is biological process through which protein synthesis occurs in different organisms. • The process of protein synthesis occurs in cytoplasm, the end result of translation is a long amino acid chain which is the primary structure of protein. • This is chain is need to be folded to make it functionally active.
  3. 3. Protein molecule • Primary structure- 10 – 20 long chain of amino acid. • Have N and C terminal. This structure is simple to understand. • In secondary structure alpha helix – the hydrogen bond interaction between oxygen and hydrogen of nitrogen and carboxylic acid, right handed coiled. • In beta pleated the hydrogen bond occurs as the same as in alpha helix but the interaction between two polypeptides chain, parallel and anti parallel.
  4. 4. Tertiary structure • Tertiary structure • In tertiary structures – the arrangement of primary and secondary structures to formed a closely pack structures. • It is 3- dimensional structure of protein.
  5. 5. Quaternary structure • It is very basic structure and simple to understand. • Different polypeptide chains arranged in manner to perform function. • Like Hemoglobin has two different polypeptide chain in its structures.
  6. 6. India’s protein consumption is much lower than the 48 gms/day that is recommended by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Sample Survey 2011-12 indicates a decline in the per capita protein consumption in both urban (4 percent) and rural (11 percent) areas. India is also facing the double burden of malnutrition, with 38 percent undernutrition (46.6 million) in children under the age of five and about 15 percent obesity and overweight (14.4 million). The solution to tackling protein deficiency in india starts with awareness about malnutrition and by clarifying some myths about protein. Myth like Protein is difficult to digest . Leads to wt gain and only for body builders. Protein is required for several reasons as well.
  7. 7. Growth and maintenance ● Protein is required for growth and maintenance of tissues. ● Your body’s protein needs are dependend upon your health and activity level ● Under normal circumstances ,your body breaks down more protein than it can create ,thus increasing your body needs
  8. 8. Causes biochemical reactions ● Enzymes are proteins that allow key chemical reactions to take place within your body ● Bodily functions that depend on enzymes include -Digestion ,Energy production ,Blood clotting, Muscle contraction
  9. 9. • Acts as messanger Amino acid chains of various lengths form protein and peptides, which make up several of your body’s hormones and transmit information between your cells, tissues and organs Hormones are grouped into 3 main categories-; Proteins and peptides (made innsulin, glucagon, hGH ,ADH, ACTH) Steroids Amines
  10. 10. Provides structure A class of proteins known as fibrous proteins provide various parts of your body with structure, strength and elasticity. Eg. Keratin, collagen, elastin
  11. 11. Maintains proper pH ● act as a buffer system, helping your body maintain proper pH values of the blood and other bodily fluids . ● pH 2 stomach acid ; pH7.4 human blood ● Eg. Hemoglobin
  12. 12. Balances fluids Proteins in your blood maintain the fluid balance between your blood and the surrounding tissues. Eg. Albumin and globulin Deficiency causes kwashiorkor
  13. 13. Bolsters immune health Proteins form antibodies to protect your body from foreign invaders, such as disease- causing bacteria and viruses
  14. 14. Transport and stroes nutrients ● Some proteins transport nutrients throughout your entire body, while others store them. ● Protein transporters are specific ● Substances could be vitamins minerals blood sugar cholesterol oxygen ● Hemoglobin transports oxygen ● Ferritin stores iron
  15. 15. provides energy Protein can serve as a valuable energy source but only in situations of fasting, exhaustive exercise or inadequate calorie intake.
  16. 16. ● India’s nutrition programmes, through the Public Distribution System (PDS), have targeted the poor by providing for subsidised food grains to be given to beneficiaries under the National Food Security Act, which includes rice, wheat and millets. The protein supplementation through PDS averages to 7.2 gms/day and 3.8 gms/day in rural and urban areas.
  17. 17. ● The school meal scheme provides for 300 kilocalorie and 8-12 gms of protein per day.
  18. 18. ● In 2020, to protect the community from the impact of the pandemic, the government had announced an additional Rs. 22.6 billion relief package under the Garib Kalyan Yojana, which allows for an additional supply of 5 kg rice/wheat and 1 kg of preferred pulses per month. ● There is an urgent need to create awareness on what to eat, how much to eat. ● This can be done at the community level through community health workers (AWW & ASHA) who counsel mothers on nutrition and health and through demonstrations during the Village Health and Nutrition Day on how to enrich food with macro and micronutrients.

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