Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Basic Surgical Skills
Sutures & Needles
- Dr. Utham Murali. M.S ; M.B.A.
Prof. of Surgery
Definition
 The term “Suture” describes any strand of material utilized to
approximate tissues.
 Suturing refers to sewi...
History
 The origins of surgery can be traced back many centuries. Through the ages,
practitioners have used a wide range...
Suturing – Goals
 Provide adequate tension for wound closure but loose enough to prevent tissue
ischaemia & necrosis.
 P...
Ideal Suture – Qualities
 Minimal tissue reaction
 Smoothness - minimum tissue drag
 Easily Sterilisable
 Adequate ten...
Basic Definitions
 Suture is a material used to approximate living tissues or sutures together.
 Ligature is a suture us...
Suture material – Types
Behavior – Tissue : Absorbable / Non-absorbable
Structure : Monofilament / Multifilament
Origin...
Suture material
Absorbable
 Catgut
 Chromic Catgut
 Dexon (Polyglycolic acid)
 Vicryl (Polyglacitin)
 PDS (Polydioxan...
Absorbable – Natural
 Plain catgut : Light. Derived from submucosa of sheep intestine or
serosa of beef intestine.
* Used...
Absorbable – Synthetic
 Polyglactin (Vicryl) : purple, copolymer of Lactide & Glycolide.
* Minimal tissue reaction. Used ...
Non – Absorbable – Natural
 Surgical silk: Black. Derived from the cocoon of the silk worm larvae, trigger
inflammatory r...
Non – Absorbable – Synthetic
 Nylon : Is a polyamide polymer, Blue / White
* 81% tensile strength at 1yr & 66% at 11yrs
*...
Monofilament
 Grossly appears as single strand of suture material; all fibers run parallel
Minimal tissue trauma. Resists...
Multifilament
 Fibers are twisted or braided together
 Greater resistance in tissue
 Provides good handling and ease of...
Suture Degradation
Suture Material Method of Absorption Time to Absorb
Catgut Proteolytic enzymatic
digestive process.
Day...
Suture Size
Sized according to diameter with “0” as reference size
Numbers alone indicate progressively larger sutures
(“...
Needle – Anatomy
Needle point - Geometry
Taper-Point
(Round)
•Suited to soft tissue
•Dilates rather than cuts
Reverse cutting
•Very sharp
•...
Needle Shapes
Eye
Microsurgery
Dura
Eye
Fascia
Nerve
Muscle
Eye
Skin
Peritoneum
Cardiovascular
Oral
Pelvis
Urogenital trac...
Ideal Suture – Needle
 High quality stainless steel
 Smallest diameter possible
 Stable in the grasp of needle holder
...
Use of Needle Holders
Loading
Needle
Needle
passing
through skin
Technique
 Needle should be grasped with the needle holder approx. 1/3 distance from the
eye & 2/3 from the point.
 Need...
The Suture Packaging
STRAND
SIZE
MATERIAL
STRAND
LENGTH
PRODUCT
CODE
NEEDLE CODE
WITH LIFE
SIZE PICTURE
OF NEEDLE
NEEDLE
L...
Suture Techniques
 Simple sutures
 Mattress sutures
 Subcuticular sutures
Simple – Interrupted
 Suturing is passed through both edges
at an equal depth & distance from the
incision & knot is tied...
Simple – Continuous
 Useful in pediatrics
 Rapid
 Easy removal
 Provides effective hemostasis
 Distributed tension ev...
Mattress – Vertical
 It has a far – far- near – near order of
bites.
 The knot is perpendicular to the wound
edge.
 Use...
Mattress – Horizontal
 Used for high – tension wounds or
wounds with fragile skin.
 The knot is parallel adjacent to the...
Suture removal
 Face: 2- 3 days
 Scalp: 5 days
 Trunk: 7 days
 Arm or leg: 7-10 days
 Foot: 10-14 days
Recent Advances
Staples Adhesives Tapes - Steristrips
 Formed from high quality A sterile, liquid topical skin adhesive U...
Surgical Knots
Square or Reef knot
 Square knot formed by wrapping the suture
around the needle holder once in opposite
directions b/w t...
Surgeon’s or Friction knot
 It is formed by 2 throws of suture around the
needle holder on the first tie & one throw in
t...
Granny’s or Slip knot
 Granny’s knot involve a tie in one direction
followed by a tie in the same direction & third
tie i...
References
Bailey & Love’s - Short Practice of Surgery, 26th edition.
Internet websites.
Sutures / Needles & Knots
Sutures / Needles & Knots
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sutures / Needles & Knots

16,320 views

Published on

This PPT is oriented mainly towards sutures / needles & knots. Their types, uses and techniques of using it. Mainly for MBBS students as well as other medically oriented people.

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Login to see the comments

Sutures / Needles & Knots

  1. 1. Basic Surgical Skills Sutures & Needles - Dr. Utham Murali. M.S ; M.B.A. Prof. of Surgery
  2. 2. Definition  The term “Suture” describes any strand of material utilized to approximate tissues.  Suturing refers to sewing together two structure using suture threaded on a needle.  Ligating or ligaturing refers to tying a ductal structure such as blood vessel simply by means of a suture thread.
  3. 3. History  The origins of surgery can be traced back many centuries. Through the ages, practitioners have used a wide range of materials and techniques for closing tissue……..  They also used adhesive linen strips, similar to modern-day Steristrips.  By 1000 BC, Indian surgeons were using horsehair, cotton and leather sutures.  In Roman times, linen and silk and metal clips called “fibulae” were commonly used to close gladiatorial wounds.  By the end of the nineteenth century, developments in the textile industry led to major advances, and both silk and catgut became popular as suture materials.
  4. 4. Suturing – Goals  Provide adequate tension for wound closure but loose enough to prevent tissue ischaemia & necrosis.  Protecting underlying tissues from infection or other irritating factors.  Preventing post-operative haemorrhage.  Permitting healing by primary intention.  Preventing bone exposure resulting in delayed healing & bone resorbption.  Permit proper flap position.
  5. 5. Ideal Suture – Qualities  Minimal tissue reaction  Smoothness - minimum tissue drag  Easily Sterilisable  Adequate tensile strength  Ease of handling - Minimum memory  Knot security  Cost effectiveness  Favourable absorption profile  Resistance to infection
  6. 6. Basic Definitions  Suture is a material used to approximate living tissues or sutures together.  Ligature is a suture used to encircle a blood vessel to arrest or control bleeding.  Tensile strength is the ability of the material or tissues to resist deformation or breakage.  Elasticity is the ability of the material to regain its original form or length after deformation.  Pliability is the ability to adjust knot tension & to secure knot.  Memory is the inherent capability of suture to return or maintain its original gross shape.
  7. 7. Suture material – Types Behavior – Tissue : Absorbable / Non-absorbable Structure : Monofilament / Multifilament Origin : Natural / Synthetic
  8. 8. Suture material Absorbable  Catgut  Chromic Catgut  Dexon (Polyglycolic acid)  Vicryl (Polyglacitin)  PDS (Polydioxanone)  Collagen  Maxon (Polyglyconate)  Monocryl (Polyglycaprone) Non - Absorbable  Silk, Linen. Cotton  Horse / Human hair  Nylon or Ethilon  Polyester (Mersilene / Ethibond)  Polypropylene (Prolene)  Stainless steel, Aluminium Wire  Clips  Staples, Skin tapes, adhesives
  9. 9. Absorbable – Natural  Plain catgut : Light. Derived from submucosa of sheep intestine or serosa of beef intestine. * Used for ligating superficial blood vessels & subcutaneous fatty tissues.  Chromic catgut : Yellow. Treated with chromium salt. * It may be used in the presence of infection & in cancer cases.
  10. 10. Absorbable – Synthetic  Polyglactin (Vicryl) : purple, copolymer of Lactide & Glycolide. * Minimal tissue reaction. Used in general soft tissue approx ; Intestinal anastomosis, Vessels ligation in all surgical specialties.  Dexon (Polyglyconic acid) : purple/cream, homo polymers of glycolide. * Avoid in adipose tissue & losses tensile strength more rapidly than vicryl.  Others:e.g; Polyglyconate(maxon), Polydiaxone(PDS), Polyglecaprone(monocryl)
  11. 11. Non – Absorbable – Natural  Surgical silk: Black. Derived from the cocoon of the silk worm larvae, trigger inflammatory reactions, undergo proteolysis & undetected by 2yrs. * Used in ligating major blood vessels, tendon repair etc.  Surgical steel & wires : High tensile strength & Hold knots very well * Used in orthopaedic, Neurosurg & Thoracic surgery  Others: e.g; Virgin silk, cotton, linen
  12. 12. Non – Absorbable – Synthetic  Nylon : Is a polyamide polymer, Blue / White * 81% tensile strength at 1yr & 66% at 11yrs * Elicits minimal tissue reaction * Has good memory * Pliable when moist * Premoistened form is used in cosmetic plastic surgery * Its elasticity makes it useful for skin closure & Herniorrhapy  Others : e.g; Polypropylene (Prolene), Polyester fiber (Mersilene/Dacron/Ethibond)
  13. 13. Monofilament  Grossly appears as single strand of suture material; all fibers run parallel Minimal tissue trauma. Resists harboring microorganisms  Ties smoothly  Requires more knots than multifilament suture  Possesses memory  Examples: * Monocryl * PDS, Prolene * Nylon
  14. 14. Multifilament  Fibers are twisted or braided together  Greater resistance in tissue  Provides good handling and ease off tying  Fewer knots required  Examples: * Vicryl (braided) * Chromic (twisted) * Silk (braided)
  15. 15. Suture Degradation Suture Material Method of Absorption Time to Absorb Catgut Proteolytic enzymatic digestive process. Days Vicryl Hydrolysis. Weeks PDS Slow Hydrolysis. Months Silk / Nylon Gradual encapsulation by fibrous connective tissue. Years
  16. 16. Suture Size Sized according to diameter with “0” as reference size Numbers alone indicate progressively larger sutures (“1”,“2”, etc.)  Numbers followed by a “0” indicate progressively smaller sutures (“2-0”, “4-0”, etc.) Smaller < --------------------------> Larger .....”3-0”...”2-0”...”1-0”...”0”...”1”...”2”...”3”..... [Thick] [Thin]
  17. 17. Needle – Anatomy
  18. 18. Needle point - Geometry Taper-Point (Round) •Suited to soft tissue •Dilates rather than cuts Reverse cutting •Very sharp •Ideal for skin •Cuts rather than dilates Conventional Cutting •Very sharp •Cuts rather than dilates •Creates weakness allowing suture tearout Taper-cutting •Ideal in tough or calcified tissues •Mainly used in Cardiac & Vascular procedures.
  19. 19. Needle Shapes Eye Microsurgery Dura Eye Fascia Nerve Muscle Eye Skin Peritoneum Cardiovascular Oral Pelvis Urogenital tract Nasal cavity Nerve Skin Tendon Eye (Anterior segment) Laparoscopy
  20. 20. Ideal Suture – Needle  High quality stainless steel  Smallest diameter possible  Stable in the grasp of needle holder  Sharp enough to penetrate tissues with minimal resistance & trauma  Sterile & corrosive resistant
  21. 21. Use of Needle Holders Loading Needle Needle passing through skin
  22. 22. Technique  Needle should be grasped with the needle holder approx. 1/3 distance from the eye & 2/3 from the point.  Needle should be placed perpendicular to surface being entered & pushed through tissues following curvature of the needle & rotating the wrist.  Needle enters 2-3mm away from the margin of the flap & exists at the same distance on the opposite side.  The two ends of the suture are then tied in a knot & cut 0.8cm above the knot.  Knot should never lie on incision line.  Never close under tension.
  23. 23. The Suture Packaging STRAND SIZE MATERIAL STRAND LENGTH PRODUCT CODE NEEDLE CODE WITH LIFE SIZE PICTURE OF NEEDLE NEEDLE LENGTHCOLOUR POINT TYPENEEDLE CIRCLE
  24. 24. Suture Techniques  Simple sutures  Mattress sutures  Subcuticular sutures
  25. 25. Simple – Interrupted  Suturing is passed through both edges at an equal depth & distance from the incision & knot is tied.  Common & Stronger.  Each suture is independent & loosening of one suture will not produce loosening of other.
  26. 26. Simple – Continuous  Useful in pediatrics  Rapid  Easy removal  Provides effective hemostasis  Distributed tension evenly along length  Can also be locked with each stitch
  27. 27. Mattress – Vertical  It has a far – far- near – near order of bites.  The knot is perpendicular to the wound edge.  Useful in maximising wound eversion , reducing dead space and minimising the tension across the wound.
  28. 28. Mattress – Horizontal  Used for high – tension wounds or wounds with fragile skin.  The knot is parallel adjacent to the wound edge.  Useful in maximising wound eversion , reducing dead space and minimising the tension across the wound.
  29. 29. Suture removal  Face: 2- 3 days  Scalp: 5 days  Trunk: 7 days  Arm or leg: 7-10 days  Foot: 10-14 days
  30. 30. Recent Advances Staples Adhesives Tapes - Steristrips  Formed from high quality A sterile, liquid topical skin adhesive Use of tissue adhesive adjunct stainless steel Reacts with moisture on skin surface (benzoin) to form a strong, flexible bond  Suitable for skin closure Only for approx. skin edges of wounds Rarely used for primary closure
  31. 31. Surgical Knots
  32. 32. Square or Reef knot  Square knot formed by wrapping the suture around the needle holder once in opposite directions b/w ties.  3 ties are recommended.  The two-hand square knot is the easiest and most reliable for tying most suture materials.  It may be used to tie surgical gut, virgin silk, surgical cotton and surgical stainless steel.
  33. 33. Surgeon’s or Friction knot  It is formed by 2 throws of suture around the needle holder on the first tie & one throw in the opposite direction on the 2nd tie.  The surgeon's or friction knot is recommended for tying braided synthetic absorbable suture, VICRYL*/ ETHIBOND* polyester suture, ETHILON* nylon suture, MERSILENE* polyester fiber suture, NUROLON* nylon.
  34. 34. Granny’s or Slip knot  Granny’s knot involve a tie in one direction followed by a tie in the same direction & third tie in the opposite direction to square the knot & hold it permanently.  It has the tendency to slip when subjected to increasing pressure.  It is not recommended.
  35. 35. References Bailey & Love’s - Short Practice of Surgery, 26th edition. Internet websites.

×