4. Brief History
• 1950's - Integrated systems in teaching - USA - Medical School.
• 1960's - PBL introduced in Canadian Medical School.
• 1970's - Most of US and European Medical Schools adopted PBL.
• 1990's - PBL introduced in Medical Schools in UK by Manchester,
Glasgow, Liverpool Universities & also other disciplines.
• 2000 - Introduced into many other professional Schools & Colleges
throughout the world.
5. Pioneers - PBL
• PBL was pioneered in the
Medical School program at
McMaster University in
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in
the late 1960's by Howard
Barrows and his colleagues.
Barrows - Objectives - PBL
> Acquire an essential body of knowledge
that is retrievable and usable in all domains.
> Develop the ability to use this knowledge
effectively in the evaluation and care of
patients' health problems. (cognitive skills)
> Ability to extend and improve knowledge to
keep up to date and cope with new problems
that may arise in their professional lives.
(self-directed learning skills).
7. Definition - PBL
" A learning method based on the principles of using
problems as a starting point for the acquisition &
integration of new knowledge " - H. Barrows.
" ... a process of acquiring understanding,
knowledge, skills and attitudes in the context of an
unfamiliar situation and applying such learning to
that situation. " - C. E. Engel.
8. Characteristics - PBL
• Learning - Student centered
• Learning - Small groups
• Teachers - Facilitators
• Problems - Stimulus - Learning
• Problems - vehicle - Clinical kills
• New information - SDL