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Event Management
Dr. Abdul Waheed Mughal
Dean, Social Sciences, Arts & Education
Email: dean.ss@suit.edu.pk
Introduction
The organization of events is perhaps the primary activity of sport
and recreation organizations. Workers in the sport and
recreation industry, salaried and voluntary, are essentially organizers of
people whether they be event directors, coaches, referees, instructors or
facility supervisors. This organization of people is manifest by what we
see and call an "event". The term "event" in the sport and recreation
industry usually refers to a situation where participants, facilities,
equipment and other resources are coordinated to enable a form of sport
or recreation to occur.
Types of Event:
The events conducted by Sport/Recreation organizations include:
• Competitive or non-competitive sport and recreation events
• Courses
• Promotional events
• Conferences
• Fundraising events
Competitive or non-competitive sport and
recreation events
Competitive events may range from the Olympic Games to a
small local Football Tournament and anything in between. The scope of
the events therefore depends upon the purpose of the event, the extent of
participation, the facilities and equipment required, and the importance
of the event in terms of community interest.
Courses
The organization of courses to assist participants learn more about
playing, coaching and officiating are a fundamental part of the work
carried out by recreation organizations.
Promotional events
Promotional events are not primarily organized for the benefit of
the player or participant. They are organized to promote the sport or
form of recreation activity to a target market with the underlying
objective to increase participation. They may also have a second
objective to promote the sponsor to the target market as well.
Conferences
Conferences have many objectives. They may be organized
gatherings of participants and/or members to carry out planning, to
review progress, discuss important issues, circulate new information,
select committee personnel, examine the position of the organization
and to impart new knowledge about the sport or recreation activity.
Fundraising events
Fundraising events include dinner functions, special
entertainment functions, bingo or card nights, charity auctions and
awards evenings.
Event Director
Irrespective of the type of event, the skills required to manage an
event are much the same and only the magnitude and complexity differs.
Persons who are called upon to manage an event may acquire many
titles but in this text for the sake of simplicity they will be called
the Event Director.
Bidding for events
• Why it is necessary to bid for an event?
cont (a)
The sport and recreation industry abounds with events at local,
regional, national and sometimes international level. It is important to
consider that except for intra-club competitions, events are not "owned"
by any one organization. While the responsibility for organizing a
provincial event may fall to one association club, all clubs in the region
have a stake in ensuring a successful outcome. Similarly all clubs in all
provinces of a nation have a vested interest in ensuring that a national
championship is conducted successfully.
cont (b)
It is often the case that more than one club or association will
desire to stage an event. Such a situation is healthy and generally leads
to a striving by each bidding organization to show that they can put on
the best event. The decision as to which club will host what event is
usually taken at meetings of the organization that governs the event (the
sport governing body).
cont (c)
For example, the decision as to which club will host a provincial
championship will be taken by the provincial association. The provincial
association comprises delegates and elected officials drawn from all the
clubs in that provincial.
In the case of a world championship, the decision as to which
nation will host the event will be taken by the World Federation that is
comprised of elected officials drawn from the member nations.
The Bid Process
It is a normal practice for any representative body, at any level,
that has the responsibility to select which organization will stage an
event, to ask each and every rival organization to supply a proposal
detailing how they will organize and stage the event. This process of
supplying a proposal is often referred to as the "bid process". The main
purpose of the bid process is to:
Cont (a)
1. Demonstrate that the bidding organization has the capability and resources to
stage the event
2. Provide additional reasons why the bidding organization should be selected over
other rival bidders. For example, these additional reasons may include:
• Participants will have better facilities than other rival bidders
• The event has greater financial backing than rival bids
• Public support is more assured
• Spectators will have better facilities
• It's their turn
cont (b)
• When organizations are required to enter into a formal bid process in
order to win the right to stage an event, there are two tasks. The first
task is to develop a bid proposal and to submit the document to the
selecting authority by the required date. In addition, it is often
advantageous to attend a meeting of the selecting authority and make a
formal presentation that draws out the main points or highlights of
their proposal and to answer any questions that may arise. This is the
second task.
Preparing the Event Proposal
The amount of detail required in the event proposal will depend
on the scale and importance of the event. However event proposals
generally share many common components.
The information that event proposals should convey includes but
is not limited to the following:
cont (a)
1. The Event Team
The proposal should provide information about the event management team
in terms of the experience and qualifications of key team members. It is
important for the reader of the proposal to feel that the event team have the
capability to run the event and to be able to do what they say they will do.
If experience in staging events is limited then it is useful to mention any
managerial, project management or co-ordination experience in any other field.
Qualifications of persons in the event management team may also prove useful
to mention.
The proposal should also describe any training that will be given to event
volunteers.
cont (b)
2. Venue and Facilities
The reader of the proposal will want to know whether the venue is suitable for
the event. The proposal should outline all facilities available at the venue, everything
from toilets to car-parking. For indoor events, the type of surface, lighting, air-
conditioning, seating, electronic equipment should be well described. For outdoor
events, the level of maintenance on turf, seating and shading for spectators, fencing,
drainage and floodlighting is worthy of mention. The number of change rooms and
their condition for teams/participants is always important.
There needs to be a detailed description of what would be attractive to event
goers and how the venue will fully cater for the needs of the event, including
performers, officials and spectators.
Don't forget to include information about public transport to the venue,
and car parking for those who arrive by car.
If the venue has staged similar events in the past, you should make mention of
this.
cont (c)
3. The Program
It is often the case that the host club or organization has little or no
say in setting the competition program when the date, or dates have been
set by the sport governing body.
However, at the initial stage of bidding, the event proposal may
suggest a competition program in terms of the number of days, and the start
and finish times each day. It is important for decision makers to know how
many hours a day the venue is available.
It is worthwhile to consider that the program should also include
ceremonial events with visiting dignitaries who may make speeches or
present awards, and also possibly entertainment events that may start or
finish the program or fill any gaps.
cont (d)
4. The Budget
The club or organization bidding for the event should draft a
budget of probable income and expenditure. It is important that such a
budget is realistic, and does not show a loss.
The club or organization that wins the bid may be entitled to an
amount of funding from the sport governing body to alleviate certain
costs that will likely be incurred. However, there is also an expectancy
that the host club or organization will have an opportunity to
make money through the canteen, bar, fundraising raffles
and merchandising. These forms of income should be reflected in the
budget in the event proposal.
The Purpose of an Event Proposal
The document may be viewed by many different potential
stakeholders in the event. The table below provides examples of how
an event proposal may be used by such stakeholders.
The Purpose of an Event Proposal
Stakeholder Need for the proposal
A National Sports Organization (NSO)
Example: Athletics Australia Inc.
A NSO may receive requests from more than one organization wishing to organize a National Championship. The NSO must
therefore decide which organization has the right to organize the event. Each state may be asked to submit a proposal to the
NSO outlining how they will organize the event and how much it will cost. Based upon submitted proposals the NSO will make
a choice of which organization will host the event.
A Sponsor
Example: Telstra Corporation
Sponsors will view the proposal to gain an understanding of the scale and importance of the event, the potential exposure to
their target markets to be gained and the relative strengths and weaknesses of forming a partnership with the event
organizers. Sponsors will use this information to make decisions about whether to sponsor the event or not, and if so to put a
value on the event as a form of promotion.
Government
Example: A city council
The event proposal may be used as the basis of an application for funding to government agencies. They are often interested
in supplying public funds to assist organizations to bid and stage major events. Governments are keen to attract events as they
are viewed as a mechanism for attracting "sport tourists" who will provide increased revenues to local businesses, prestige to
a city or region and have an impact on the development of a sport or recreation in their area of jurisdiction.
Selecting the event
Cont (a)
Step 1: Analyse the event's need for a venue
It is necessary to ask many questions about what sort of venue is
needed. Here are just a few of the questions that should be considered.
• Do we need an indoor or outdoor venue?
• What audience capacity does the event require?
• How long do we need the venue for, including setup and takedown?
• Is it necessary to select a venue with good public transport access?
Cont (b)
Step 2: Investigate possible venue
In a large metropolitan area there may be a great variety of
venues from which to choose. However, outside of the metropolitan
areas choice may be extremely limited.
On the assumption that your organization does not own and
operate a perfect venue for their event, event organizers
should research possible venues by:
Cont (c)
Step 2: Investigate possible venue (cont a)
• Contacting government agencies who may maintain and publish a database of sporting, cultural and
educational venues
• Consulting industry peak bodies that represent organizations in the sport and recreation industry and/or the
entertainment industry
• Searching the "Yellow Pages" Directory or the "Yellow Pages" Internet web site
• Utilizing one of the CD ROM products on the market to search an electronic database of telephone numbers
by name field or business category field
• Contacting schools, colleges and universities individually
• Telephoning avenue and asking for assistance, if they cannot help they will more than likely refer you to
someone who can
• Telephoning experience event managers and/or sports administrators.
All information, even subjective comments, found as a result of researching
venues should be retained for future use. Event managers should create their own
database.
Cont (d)
Step 3: Make site visits
Once some possible venues have been identified, it is important
to make a site visit.
Venue staff are usually only too pleased to show prospective
customer's around. The purpose a site visit is to determine the
suitability of the venue. The table below identifies and explains five
facets of suitability.
Cont (e)
Step 3: Make site visits (cont b)
Venue suitability
Dimensions  Area must be appropriate to cater for the event i.e. abide by rules (if a sport). For indoor venues, ceiling height must be sufficient.
Environment  The venue needs to be appealing to all participants. The venue should appear to be well maintained and clean.
 Indoor venues - consideration needs to be given to lighting and air temperature control. Seating needs to be comfortable and in good view of the
performance area. Places to relax away from the performance area also a beneficial feature.
 Outdoor venues - advantageous elements include sufficient drainage, lighting, shading and protection from wind.
Facilities  Sufficient changing areas, showers, sauna, etc
 Kitchens, canteens and food serving areas
 Offices or meeting rooms for Media and the Event Staff
 Telecommunication facilities - telephone, fax, Internet
 Public address system is available
Position  Can be accessed by public transport
 Nearness to majority of participants
 Sufficient accommodation within reasonable distance
 Shops in close proximity
Cost  The cost of the venue need to be within the realistic limitations of the event budget.
Cont (f)
Step 3: Make site visits (cont c)
Equipment has been left out of the above list.
Organizations booking venues can be reasonably expected to supply
and transport to the venue the equipment that their event needs.
Some exceptions to this rule may be items related to popular indoor
sports such as basketball hoops and backboards, indoor soccer goals,
volleyball nets, etc. However this may only apply if the venue being
sought is an indoor sports center. Clearly if a cultural venue such as a
theater is being sought for a sport such as Olympic Weightlifting, venue
managers cannot be expected to provide equipment.
Cont (g)
Step 4: Agree on price and terms
Once you have identified some possibly suitable venues, your
next step is to enter into negotiations with venue managers to get the
best possible deal that you can. Although venue managers will have
standard prices you should not think there is no chance of bargaining
the price down, or alternatively, bargaining for extra services.
If it proves to be difficult to get a reduced hourly rate, you may
be able to get some free time, or use of an additional part of the facility
free, or obtain access to sound equipment at no cost, or even get some
additional personnel at a reduced price e.g. security.
Cont (h)
Step 5: Make a booking and confirm
When you have selected which venue is the best for your event,
it is time to make a booking. Although the venue will take a booking
over the phone, it is likely that you will be sent within a few days a
contract that states:
• Facilities booked
• Dates and times booked
• Payments required e.g. deposit and final payments
• Other contractual obligations e.g. cleaning
• Your contact details
Cont (i)
Step 5: Make a booking and confirm (cont a)
After you have signed and returned the contract together with a
cheque deposit, you should never assume that your booking is safe and
forget about it until the last week before the event. It is well worth your
while to keep lines of communication open with the venue manager
and to keep checking that you booking is safe (i.e. does not get double
booked).
Cont (j)
Step 6: Make further site visits
The purpose of making further site visits is to assure yourself
that nothing has changed, or at least that any changes that do occur
will not affect your event. Changes that could occur include lighting,
fixtures removed, equipment and decor.
The Event Director
Managing an event is like managing a business, and like all businesses there
needs to be someone who is the ultimate decision maker. In the case of an event,
the final executive authority is usually referred to as the "Event Director". The role
is complex and demanding even when events are small-scale. The primary role of
the Event Director is to organize and mobilize considerable human such as
participants, officials, administrators and helpers. They are a focal point for
communication, internally and externally, and need to be contactable in and out of
office hours, and over
Managing people can be a burdensome responsibility and it is important
that anyone undertaking the role of Event Director has the capability and
personality to deal effectively with people in often-difficult circumstances. The
ability to remain calm is perhaps a necessary prerequisite for an Event Director.
Cont (a)
The role of Event Director goes beyond human resource
management. The table below provides a general overview of all
responsibilities and tasks:
Major Tasks of the Event Director
Tasks Notes
Recruit and convene a bid committee. Developing a bid proposal is not always required.
Recruit and convene an organizing committee Covered by the section "Organizing Committee".
Plan and oversee the recruitment and training of all human
resources required to organize and conduct the event.
Human resources include volunteers as well as paid staff.
Develop an event management plan.
The event management plan is instrumental in coordinating and training
people to do organizing work.
Represent the event in dealings with outside parties. This includes dealings with sponsors, government and the media.
Develop policies.
Policies serve to assist in the process of managing the event as the Event
Director cannot be in all places at the same time.
Monitor the progress of the planning and organization of event
tasks.
The event manager needs to know about aspects of the event
organization that are NOT going to plan so that corrective action can be
taken.
Structure of an event management team
The work involved in planning, organizing and conducting a
major event can be sufficiently great to require the recruitment of a
large team of people. Members of the team may be involved on a full-
time, part-time, contractor, casual and voluntary basis. At the head of
the team is the Event Director whose job it is to keep everyone working
together for a considerable period of time.
Organization Chart
The organization chart below indicates the magnitude and
diversity of the team needed to run a major sporting event such as a
National or Provincial Championships.
Smaller events will obviously require a much smaller team, and
individuals in the team may be able to take on more than one role.
Cont (a)
The example organization chart above has "departments"
for Programme, Venue, Equipment, Promotions,
Officials, Hospitality and Merchandising.
Furthermore, with small modifications, the same organization
structure could be applicable to running a different type of event such
as a conference.
Cont (b)
Importance of Coordinators
An important aspect of the above model is that each department has
a coordinator. As exceptionally important people in the event management
team, they should be identified and recruited as early as possible.
Coordinators should be a part of the organizing committee and collectively
they will share in decision making processes with the Event Director.
The selection of coordinators is usually on the basis of knowledge or
expertise and sometimes because only one person volunteers for the task.
Whether coordinators have expertise or not, Event Directors need to
appreciate that sport and recreation depends very considerably on the input
of voluntary persons. Therefore systems should be put in place to recognize
the contribution of volunteers and to provide non-monetary rewards.
Cont (c)
Job Descriptions
In consultation and close co-operation with members of the
Event Team, the Event Director should develop and provide a job
description for each coordinator.
Financing the Event
The table below provides common sources of event revenue.
Some differences exist between organizations that run events for profit
motives and those that are not-for-profit oriented.
Cont (d)
Categories of Event Income
Government Grants Government grants to assist with the running of events are not easy to obtain. To be
successful, applicant organisations need to demonstrate that the event has strategic
regional importance. For example it may increase overseas tourists to the region.
Sponsorship Despite the prevalence of event sponsorship in the sport and recreationmarketplace is
increasing, many organisations have great difficulty in achieving a significant amount of
sponsorship. Competition between sport and recreation organisations for sponsorship is
intense. Organisations need to be very professional in their approach to sponsorship and
to be able to offer sponsoring companies outstanding value in promotional services. Event
Directors need to exercise some realism and caution in relying to heavily on sponsorship.
Merchandising
Sales
The term merchandising applies to the sale of a range of products that may be strongly
identified with the event or the organisation hosting the event. A common example of
merchandising is the production and sale of T-shirts, polo shirts, caps and other forms of
clothing that are screen printed or embroidered with a design or trademark of the event.
Participants tend to purchase such articles for their commemorative value. Other typical
forms of merchandise include glassware, pens, dishcloths, drink bottles and badges.
Merchandising may be a form of income suitable for events that have larger numbers of
either players or participants.
Cont (e)
Categories of Event Income
Participant Fees The charging of fees to participate in the event is perhaps the most common form of event
revenue.
Sport and recreation events are a service provided and it is reasonable to suggest therefore
that all basic costs of the event should be covered by participant fees. These "basics" include
the hire of the venue, provision of appropriate equipment and the administration of the event.
Sponsorship and government funding, if it can be achieved, allows the organisation of the
event to go beyond the basics. The event budget should be set so that if sponsorship and/or
government funding is not forthcoming the event does not have to be canceled.
Raffles It is common to find that recreation organisations employ "on-the-day"fundraising strategies.
The most common example is the raffle and a small amount of income can be achieved this
way. Whereas it is difficult to achieve cash sponsorships, it is easier to obtain goods from
sponsors which can be raffled.
Event Directors should identify and research legislation in their own state/nation that pertains
to raffles and other similar forms of fundraising. Raffles are often regulated by governments
because of the potential for fraud and misrepresentation.
Spectator Fees In some cases, events are sufficiently popular and entertaining to attract paying spectators.
However it can be difficult to obtain money from spectators in circumstances where there no
restriction of access(for example an outdoor event with no perimeter fence). If this is the case
it may be better to make off-street parking for a fee.
The Event Budget
Predicting the financial outcome of an event
The event budget is a projection (forecast) of the income and expenditure
that the event will incur based on plans made and information gathered.
The preparation of a budget is an essential part of event management. It is
fundamentally important that Event Directors are able to predict with reasonable
accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. This is
achieved by identifying and costing all probable expenditures and by totaling all
expected revenues (income). By comparing expenditures and revenues, it then
becomes possible to forecast the financial outcome of the event.
The prediction of financial outcomes of the event need to take place very
early in the planning stages. There is no use on setting dates, booking venues,
preparing plans until there has been some attempt to determine whether the
event is financially viable.
Cont (a)
Importance of financial control of an event
Once the Event Budget has been constructed, the Event Director
has a means to exercise control of the event finances. Many
organizations have run into severe financial difficulty and even
bankruptcy as a result of staging events. The budget therefore enables
the Event Director to make sound financial decisions about the choice
of venue, and expenditure on a whole range of things including
promotion, equipment and staffing. The process of budgeting also
enables the Event Director to calculate how much revenue is needed to
stage the event in accordance with the planned level of expenditure.
Cont (b)
Continual adjustment of the event budget
The preparation of an event budget is one of the earliest tasks to
be undertaken in the event management process. However, it should
be expected that there will be numerous adjustments and refinements
to the budget throughout the whole project life-cycle. It is not possible
to know every cost from the start, nor is it possible to know whether
efforts to secure sponsorship and government funding will be
successful. Event budgets by the event management team as better
information comes to hand.
Cont (c)
Basic event budgeting rules
Although the budget takes time to develop, there are some basic rules that
should be followed from the outset:
• Budget to avoid making a loss
If an event looks likely to make a loss, it calls into question whether the event should go
ahead according to the existing plan. If it is not too late, plans should be changed so that the
event will at least break-even.
• Be realistic about event incomes
Far too often, event plans are far too optimistic about the amount of sponsorship to get
gained, or the number of people who will attend as spectators or participants. Over optimistic
predictions are often a cause for financial loss as a result of staging an event.
• Have a contingency plan
In thinking through what could possibly go wrong with an event, it is a good idea to
determine what must be done if something does go wrong. For example, what happens if the
sponsorship pull out, or there is very bad weather?
Typical event expenditure
Events costs will depend on the scale and type of event. Not all
the categories stated in the table below will apply to every event.
Travel and
Accommodation
Costs associated with officials needed to run the event may have to be borne by
the event organizers. Event participants are generally responsible for their own
travel and accommodation costs. In minor or local events travel and
accommodation costs are unlikely.
Trophies, Awards The cost of medals, trophies and other awards requires detailed knowledge about
the number of competitors, the categories of divisions of the competition and the
format of the competition.
Salaries Applies only events are organized by professional staff.
Postage and
telephone
Events usually require considerable communications with participants and the
event management team.
Stationery and
Photocopying
Special event stationery may be printed but otherwise there is always a lot of
photocopying and usage of organization letterheads to write correspondence.
Medical Fees Events require persons with at least First Aid training to be in attendance. Larger
events may also warrant the employment of a doctor and physiotherapists.
Cont (a)
Venue Hire A critically important aspect of the budget. Information about the probable cost of the
venue needs to be obtained as early as possible. Beware that there some hidden costs
such as security and supervision costs, and heating and lighting costs.
Insurance Additional insurance can be taken out to cover risks of injury and/or financial losses
associated with events.
Printing Event programmes, posters, fliers and other promotional documents may need to be
printed - especially where quality and color is required.
Promotion Expenditure on promotion may be considerable where a significant proportion of the event
revenue is likely to be earned through spectators. Promotion covers items such
as advertising, giveaways, costs associated with promotional events and sponsors' signage.
Equipment Hire Includes equipment directly used by participants in the event and also any equipment used
by the event management staff including sound systems, computers, mobile phones, two
way radios, etc.
Transport Includes costs of transporting equipment and hire of buses.
Selling the Event
Strategies for promoting an event discussed on this page include:
• Using Social Media
• Paid advertising online
• Paid advertising offline
• Free publicity via television, radio or print media
• Promotional events leading up to the main event
• Signage and banners
Importance of promotion
For several reasons, promotion is a key factor in the success of a
special event. The main purpose that promotion serves is to attract
participants, spectators or both to the event. A football match without
a crowd is always disappointing and so is a local tennis tournament
with only half the expected number of players. It is essential therefore
that the efforts of many people over many months to organize a special
event.
Cont (b)
Promotion is also important to the sponsor, if one exists. The objective
of the sponsor is to achieve as much exposure of their name, logo and
other properties as possible. Sponsors therefore have a keen interest in
pre-event promotion and in the promotion that can be achieved on the
day through erecting signage and product displays in view of all
participants.
Cont (b)
Promotion is also important to the organization for reasons other than attracting a crowd
on the day. A well promoted event increases public awareness of the organization. This is a chief
reason why special events are important.
Achieving an attendance target is not only good for the atmosphere of the tournament but
also it is often a critical component that determines the event's financial success. Event organizers
require income earned from spectator attendance or participants fees to pay for costs
of the event. Any shortfall in expected revenues can have
a disastrous effect on organizations that stage special
events. There are numerous cases of sport and recreation
organizations that have suffered major financial loss and
even bankruptcy as a result of staging one event.
Cont (c)
The means of promotion should be considered from the outset
i.e. in the feasibility analysis. Organizers need to consider promotional
strategies in order to estimate the total costs of the event. They must
select strategies that are most reliable and cost effective in terms of
achieving the target participation or patronage.
Promotion is a key result area in event
management and as such is deserving of adequate
human and financial resources. Appointing a
manager or coordinator for promotion is a sensible
strategy.
Strategies for promoting events include:
• Using social media
• Paid advertising online
• Paid advertising offline
• Free publicity via television, radio or print media
• Promotional events leading up to the main event.
• Signage and banners
Cont (a)
Using social media
The use of social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.) is now
regarded as a "must do" strategy for promoting any event. However, there is
a lot to learn to make good use of the promotional power of social media.
Probably there are few sport administrators over the age of 40 that have any
inkling of how it works, and they rely on the skills and knowledge of
Generation Y who are intimate with social media.
Importantly, it is not just about having a Facebook page for your
event, you need to really get to grips with how to use the phenomenal
power of Facebook to create targeted adverts. For example, advertising can
be targeted towards people who have a particular interest and who live in a
particular geographic area.
Cont (b)
Paid advertising online
Most people will be familiar with the extent of advertising on the
World Wide Web but few really understand how it really works. It
would be a really difficult proposition, and far too time consuming, for
advertisers to deal with the millions of website managers around the
world. So, a very lucrative business niche (affiliate marketing) exists
that intermediates between people who want to advertise, and people
wanting to earn money by putting adverts on their websites.
Cont (c)
Paid advertising online (cont a)
There are a number of mechanisms by which a website earns money by
displaying advertising, they include:
• Cost per click (CPC) - the advertiser pays when the web page
visitor clicks on their add
• Pay per 1000 impressions (CPM) - the advertiser pays a fee based on how
many 1000's of times their add is seen by website visitors
• Cost per action (CPA) - the advertiser pays when a defined action occurs
e.g. often the action is a sale made
• Pay per lead generated (CPL) - the advertiser pays when a lead is generated
by the website as a visitor fills in a contact form giving their name, email
address and possibly other contact details
• Pay per sale (CPS) - the advertiser pays when a sale is made to the website
visitor
Cont (d)
Paid advertising online (cont b)
Events can be advertised easily promoted through paid online
advertising but the event manager needs to contact an
affiliate marketing company. There is also a necessity for the event
manager to provide the graphical components for the advertising that
the website manager needs.
Two main difficulties exist with paid online advertising. Most
events have a very local appeal whereas website often have a much
larger geographic focus. It is still possible however to select websites
who serve only a local audience. The second problem is that it is
necessary to set an upper limit to the cost for the advertiser. In both
these issue, advertising via Facebook solves the problem.
Cont (e)
Paid advertising offline
This category is really the traditional forms of advertising that include:
• Newspaper advertising
• Magazine advertising
• Radio advertising
• Television advertising
• Billboards
Events can also be advertised in newsletters, banners and
letterbox drops but these strategies usually have a very limited
geographic reach. Nevertheless, many events can benefit greatly by
employing local advertising strategies. For example, a banner can be
hung where it can be viewed by passing traffic.
Cont (f)
Free publicity
Everybody wants free publicity but it is quite hard to achieve.
Certainly, it's important to be able to generate press releases with
interesting stories to catch the interest of the media.
It is also a time consuming occupation to create a database of
media organizations with the names of editors, email addresses and fax
numbers. There are companies that specialized in this data but the
service can be expensive.
The key to free publicity is to avoid attempts to blatantly
promote your event. Media organizations will say if you want to
advertise your event, you should pay for the privilege. After all media
organizations depend on advertising to pay the wages of staff!!
Cont (g)
Promotional Events
This strategy involves setting up small community events, at
which sporting stars attend, to give away some free tickets or other
promotional goods such as caps and t-shirts, for a chance to address
the public with a loudspeaker. Events can be held in shopping centers,
sport clubs and schools.
Promotional are relatively short and easy to undertake but do
require event managers to make early contact with community
organizations.
Timeframes for Event Management Tasks
The table below includes the majority of tasks that must be
carried out in order to successfully stage an event. Some differences
may arise where venues are owned and operated by the event
organizers and where the scale of the event is very small e.g. an intra-
club event (in which case timeframes may be smaller) or very large e.g.
The Olympic Games (in which case timeframes will be greater).
Cont (a)
Priority Order of Event Management Tasks
Priority Tasks
Months
before
1 Examine feasibility of staging the event - The organization wishing to stage a special event
may need to consult stakeholders, examine the resources needed and develop a budget.
18 - 24
2 Bid for event - The organization wishing to stage a special event may be required to develop,
document and deliver a proposal to any person or organization that has the power to
determine which club, association or company will have responsibility for staging the event.
18 - 24
3 Appoint Event Director - The organization needs to recruit a person with suitable skills,
knowledge and personality to take responsibility for managing the event from start to finish.
They may be salaried or voluntary and their responsibilities may span a period of 2 years or
more.
18
4 Form organizing committee - not necessary to have a full organizing committee in place but
a small number of individuals with skills and knowledge to assist with early decision making
e.g. choice of venue
18
5 Secure venue - Check possible venues and book a venue that is most suitable for the date(s)
required. The venue chosen does not have to be the same as the one indicated in the event
bid but it should be equally as good. Otherwise there may be concerns on the part of major
stakeholders.
18
6 Seek government funding - If government funding is a possibility it should be sought early. Organizations applying for
government funding need to take note of deadlines for applications in the year before the event. From the time an
application is received by a government agency to the time when decisions are announced is often 3 months.
Furthermore if the application is successful there may be a delay before funds are received. The combination of these
factors mean that an application inside a 12 month period before the event start is probably too late.
12 - 18
7 Develop a detailed event management plan - The Event Director with the assistance of the organizing committee must
identify the resources and tasks needed to stage the event. Every aspect must be covered. The work involved
in planning the event (after a successful bid) may commence 18 months before the event but will continue to within a few
months of the event's start.
3 - 18
(b)8 Seek major sponsors - It is important to anticipate that commercial organizations may be involved in
preparing their budgets in a three month period before the end of the financial year on June 30. Sponsorship
proposals need to be received after budgets have been set may have less chance of success.
12 - 18
9 Obtain specialty equipment - Particularly in sports events there may be a necessity to purchase, hire or borrow
equipment that is not manufactured in Australia. Negotiating and transacting with foreign businesses and
organizations can be a lengthy process due to the need for document translation, waiting periods for orders to
be completed, transmission of funds, transportation of goods and clearance by Customs. Delays should be
anticipated.
6 - 12
10 Select and notify important officials - Important or high-ranking officials may have many demands placed on
them to attend many events. It is therefore necessary to seek their involvement as early as possible. Another
factor to be considered is if it is necessary to recruit officials who require air travel, then notice should be given
to such officials in time for them to obtain the maximum discount on airfares
6 - 12
11 Book caterers - Where a venue owner allows the event organizer to do their own catering (not all do), it is
advisable to obtain cost information early enough. The cost of catering will either be recovered from
participants (players and spectators) or written off as a cost of the event i.e. catering for
volunteers, hospitality for visiting dignitaries and/or sponsors.
If the cost of catering is to be recovered from participants, information needs to be obtained in time to set
participant fees. If catering is part of hospitality for sponsors, the costs should be considered in setting
sponsorship prices.
3 - 6
12 Print promotional materials - Promotional materials include competition entry forms for spectators, posters
and fliers to attract public support, and in some cases information kits for the media. Competition entry forms
should be sent out to associations, clubs and individuals approximately three months before the start of the
event. Therefore printing of entry forms must be completed before this. Inside the last 3 months the usefulness
of other forms of promotional material is reduced if printing with every week that passes and printing is not
complete.
3 - 6
13 Invite dignitaries - The term dignitaries may include local politicians, representatives of sponsors and
government funding agencies, important sports officials and notable sporting personalities. Particularly with
politicians, best results may be achieved with 3 - 6 months’ notice and with several follow ups. Politicians have
very considerable demands placed on their time and may be booked up several months in advanced.
3 - 6
(c)
14 Recruit and train event management team - The event management team (not to be confused with
the organizing committee) comprises all those individuals that will help on the day(s). Personnel may
include people who set-up the venue, supervise entry into the venue, announcers, marshals, crowd
controllers, trouble-shooters, cleaners, merchandise sellers, drivers and transporters, and many
others. The event management team need to be recruited and provided with training before the
event. They may also need to be outfitted with event uniform if such exists. Notice should be given
approximately 6 months before the event to allow people to make arrangements for leave from work
and to free themselves from other commitments. Training should begin approximately 2 months
before the event.
2 - 6
15 Send invitations (or entry forms) to prospective participants -Invitations and entry forms should be sent
1 or 2 months before the deadline date for the receipt of entries. This may be approximately 3 months
before the event. In case where participants may require air travel, event organizers should consider
that, generally, the later flights are booked by participants the greater is the cost of the air ticket.
2 - 3
16 Check venue facilities - Although a through checking of the venue may have taken place at the start of
the planning process, there may have been changes. Where the venue is not owned and operated by
the event organizers, there needs to be further checks of the venue. These checks serve to familiarize
event organizers with the venue, to consider emergency management plans, contingency plans, and
discover whether all facilities are in working order.
2 - 3
17 Finalize event programme - The event programme can be finalized when there is relative certainty as to
the number of participants. This may not be known until all entries have been received. It is therefore
necessary to set a deadline for the receiving of entries. When there is a good knowledge of who will be
participating, the Event Director can make adjustments to the timetable e.g. start times, order of
events, presentations, etc. Ideally the event programme should be printed and sent to participating
organizations and dignitaries one or two weeks ahead of the event. Other participants may receive
their programmes on the day of the event.
1 - 2
18 Commence media blitz - Although Media Kits may have been developed and sent to the media around
2 months to go, there may be little point in staging a media campaign more than one month before the
event. The purpose of the media campaign is generate public support for the event i.e. spectators. Early
event publicity may not be effective as the public will tend to forget. The peak period for media activity
will be the last two weeks.
½ -
1
(d)
19 Transport equipment to venue - There are usually many items to transfer and these include
public address equipment, kitchen equipment, signage and banners, scoreboards, computer
equipment, photocopiers, sports or activity equipment, tables and chairs, lecterns, first aid
equipment, drinking fountains and more. Drivers for this transportation will have been
recruited earlier as part of the event management team. In some cases it may be possible to
transport equipment and store at the venue several days in advance. At other times,
however, this may not be allowed until the last day.
Last week
20 Setup venue - In many cases may not be possible to commence setting until the day before or
even the night before. There may be other venue hirers packing up and leaving as your event
management team are arriving with the equipment to set up. Where possible, the venue
should be completed set up and all equipment tested on the day before. If this is not possible
then it may be necessary to work through the night if venue owners allow. Setting up on the
day, only hours before the event commences, runs the risk of a delay to the schedule start
time and this can affect the whole event dramatically. For example, stress increases
exponentially when equipment is found to be missing or does not work. Furthermore the
setting up of a venue is a surprisingly lengthy process and there needs to be sufficient time
allowed for workers to achieve all tasks comfortably.
Day
before
The Event Programme
Opening Program
Time Program
01: 00 pm Arrival of the team
01: 10 pm March Past Rehearsal
02: 30 pm Arrival of the Chief Guest
02: 45 pm National Anthem
02: 50 pm Team March Past
03: 20 pm Recitation of the Holy Quran
03:25 pm Oath Talking
03:30 pm Welcome Speech by the Vice Chancellor
03:35 pm Speech of the chief Guest & Declaration of the meet open
03:50 pm Baloon + Pigeon
04:00 pm March pit/ Gliders Fly-Pass/Band Display
04:10 pm Khattak Dance -1
04:20 pm Khattak Dance -2
Closing Program
Time Program
02: 00 pm Terms Assembles in the Ground
02: 15 pm Arrival of Chief Guest
02: 20 pm Recitation of Holy Quran
02: 25 pm Speech by The Organizating Secretary
02: 35 pm Speech by The Vice Chancellor of SUIT
02: 50 pm Speech by The Chief Guest
03:10 pm Prize Distribution Ceremony
03:40 pm The Chief Guest Declares the meet Close
03:50 pm National Anthem
Day – 1
Sr. No. Time Event
1 8:30 500MTRS Final
2 9:00 100MTRS Heat
3 9:00 High Jump Final
4 9:00 Javelin Throw Final
5 9:30 800MTRS S/Final
6 9:45 400MTRS(Hurdles) S/Final
7 10:00 400MTRS Heat
8 10:45 Shot Put Throw Final
9 10:45 100MTRS S/Final
10 10:45 Long Jump Final
11 11:15 400MTRS S/Final
12 12:00 3000 M Steeple Chase Final
13 12:30 400MTRS Final
14 12:45 100MTRS Final
15 13:00 400MTRS(Hurdles) Final
16 16:30 4*100MTRS S/Final
17 16:40 4*400MTRS S/Final
Day – 2
Sr. No. Time Event
1 8:30 10000 MTRS Final
2 9:00 Tripple Jump Final
3 9:00 Hammer Throw Final
4 9:20 200 MTRS Heat
5 9:55 110 MTRS (HURDLES) S/Final
6 10:15 800 MTRS Final
7 10:30 200 MTRS S/Final
8 10:45 POLE VAULT Final
9 10:45 DISCUSS THROW Final
10 11:00 110 MTRS (HURDLES) Final
11 11:30 200 MTRS Final
12 12:30 4X100 M (RELAY) Final
13 13:00 1500 MTRS Final
14 13:30 4X400 M (RELAY) Final
Cont (a)
The "Programme" is the schedule of activities from the start of the event to
its conclusion. For a sport event, the programme governs which competitors
participate at what time. For a conference, the programme stipulates the times of
lectures and workshops, what topics are offered and who is presenting. If the event
is the annual awards dinner, the programme sets out what time people should
arrive, what time each course will be served and the times that each award
ceremony will take place. The programme is therefore perhaps the central
organizing component of the event.
Keeping to times as advertised on the programme is a key
performance measure from the standpoint of the participant's satisfaction. An
event that fails to run on time will inevitably cause complaints from participants
and frustration on the part of all persons. People can be very adversely affected if
the event runs overtime and obviously commencing before the advertised time is
definitely NOT something to ever contemplate.
Cont (b)
In setting the programme, event organizers need to estimate as
accurately as possible the time that each and every activity in the
programme will take. Furthermore, it is necessary to include in this
calculations a time interval between each activity. This time interval is
very important. There is usually always a need to move people and
equipment, allow for introductions and thank-you’s, make
announcements and allow time for refreshments to be served and
toilet breaks. Preparing the official programme will inevitably require
someone to make many computations with calculator or spreadsheet.
The draft programme produced is likely to change and amendment
many times before it is ready for publication.
Cont (c)
The important factors to consider in preparing the official programme
are:
• Consultation with all parties directly involved in the programme
• Calculating the time of each and every activity
• Ensuring that the programme has time for "ceremonial" activities e.g.
opening and/or closing ceremonies, speeches, the presentation of awards,
entertainment
• Ensuring that the venue is available for the FULL duration of the event
• Choosing the date(s) so that the event does not clash with other major events
• Allowing for a little "slack" time between activities
• The order of activities
• How the printed programme will be published
Cont (d)
Event Ceremonies
Ceremonial aspects of events should not be underestimated in
importance. They include opening and closing speeches, musical
fanfares, playing of national anthems, presentation of awards and
flowers, visits from dignitaries, flag raising, and special displays.
While not a necessary component, there is an increasing trend to
add ceremonial activities to the event programme. They add greatly to
the emotion, symbolism and entertainment value of the event. The
inclusion of ceremonial activities is more common where events are of
national importance, are televised and have major sponsors.
Nevertheless adding a little ceremony to the event programme, which
often costs very little, should be considered for smaller events. A failure
to include ceremonial activities is an opportunity lost for the
organization hosting the event.
Cont (e)
Event Ceremonies (a)
Some points to consider in adding ceremony to the event programme
are:
• Dignitaries that fail to show or arrive late - make contingency plans
• Capturing and positioning the crowd to witness the ceremony - they tend not
to be effective if the people are dispersed too widely
• Ceremonies that are not well organized may backfire badly - include
rehearsals
• Consider carefully the best time for ceremonies in the event programme - try
to avoid dignitaries arriving at bad times or when there a few to witness i.e.
crowd at its smallest.
Round Robin Tournament
Round Robin Format
One of the most common formats for a tournament is a two-
pool Round Robin. In this format, teams or players are divided into two
groups. Then each player/team in each group plays every other player/team
once. After all pool matches have been completed, the top two teams in
each pool go forward to a finals series in which loses are knocked out.
It is perfectly possible to have pools where only winners go through to
the knockout semifinal stage, or the top two team go through to the quarter-
final.
The number of pools and the number of players/teams in each pool
depends on the total time available, the duration of each match, and the
number of pitches/courts. In a junior soccer/football tournament, matches
can be as short as 15 minutes each way (30 minutes total).
Cont (a)
The Schedule of Matches
As an organizer of a Round Robin Tournament, it is very important to create
a schedule of matches in which there is no error. The two main issues in creating a
draw for a Round Robin Tournament is that it is necessary to:
Avoid missing a match, an easy thing to do!
Avoid back-to-back matches for any team/athlete as this may put them at a
disadvantage
The schedule of matches needs to be made known to all teams/players well
in advance otherwise there are risks that teams/players may arrive late for the first
few matches.
In situations where an organization or club regularly conducts tournaments,
either knockout or round robin, it is worthwhile to consider the purchase
of tournament scheduling software. It will save you time and greatly reduce the
likelihood of error.
Cont (b)
The Schedule of Matches (cont b)
All-Pro Tournament Scheduler Pro is an excellent example
because it very versatile and easy to use. This software package has
many useful features and you will be able to:
• Create tournament charts and schedules for Single Elimination, Double
Elimination, Pool Play, Round-Robin, and Consolation
• Enables teams/players to be seeded
• Handle multiple events and multiple locations
• Publish tournament charts, game schedule and results online
Cont (c)
Hospitality in Events
Hospitality should be regarded as an integral aspect of improving the
quality of event spectators' experience. The two main objectives of
improving the spectators' experience is to encourage the spectator to:
• Return to event on a frequent basis
• Promote the event by word of mouth in the community
Event managers need to think beyond the refreshment stall but be
aware of industry trends as to how sport and recreation organizations are
increasing the rewards for participants. It is good policy for managers to
investigate some of the best events in their community to identify what are
other organizations are providing participants.
Cont (d)
Hospitality is often a term used to infer food and beverages served. However Collins dictionary
defines "hospitable" to be welcoming guests and strangers. Event managers need to see their event from the
point of view the participant/spectator point of view. The following may be some of the items that would make
spectator "guests" feel more welcome:
1. Seating
2. Food and refreshment
3. A reception area for dignitaries and other important personnel
4. Information stands manned by event personnel
5. Good standard of toilets, wash rooms and baby change areas for public
6. Good standard change facilities
7. Facilities for people with a disability
8. Giveaways and lucky door prizes
9. Special services for competitors such as masseurs, lockers
10. Directions to venue on web site
11. Assistance with parking
12. Good public announcement system
13. End of event function
Promotional Products for Events
Merchandising
Selling promotional products (merchandising) is not a necessary component of event
management but it can add to the potential for ongoing marketing of the event in future years. It
can also turn a profit unless the event organizers are stock with stock they cannot sell.
Types of Promotional Products
Product Example
Gift items Glassware, pottery, timber - etched, painted, printed or carved with special motifs, messages, logos, symbols
Clothing Caps, T-shirts, items of sport apparel
Badges Competitors badges are popular with children
Equipment Sporting equipment e.g. tennis balls and racquets sold at a tennis event`
Programmes Official event programme, souvenir programmes
Magazines Sport journals, newsletters
Books Sport books, coaching manuals
Memorabilia 2nd hand items that once belonged to famous identities
Food This is a special category of merchandising
Cont (a)
Purpose of Promotional Products
The purpose of selling such products is primarily to boost event revenue and increase
profits. However there are also considerable promotional advantages. T-shirts that have been
screen-printed with a pattern to commemorate the event is a common form of promotion, and one
that has a lasting effect. Such clothing helps to promote the event, the host organization, the
sponsor and/or the sport/activity in general.
The provision of clothing merchandise is also an opportunity for the host organization to
provide a uniform for volunteers, which they may receive free as a reward. The wearing of a
common article of clothing by all staff usually has a positive effect on the visual characteristics of
the event. Such visual characteristics of the event should not be underestimated in terms of
benefits for the competition environment.
Cont (b)
Tasks involved with Promotional Products
The work involved in merchandising includes selecting products, negotiating with suppliers,
receiving and ensuring security of stock, recruiting and training a sales team, setting up a sales
stand, payment of suppliers, cash management and producing financial reports. It is therefore not
to be undertaken without adequate thought or planning. It is generally only considered worthwhile
when one or more of the following conditions are true:
• The event brings together a significant number of participants
• The event has a sufficient duration to allow for sales of merchandising during the event
• The event has the potential to attract a significant number of spectators
• The perceived importance of event is likely to promote sales of merchandising
• The event is unique in some way and is worth commemorating
Cont (c)
Risks associated with Promotional Products
Some of the dangers that may arise from merchandising include:
Purchasing items that do not sell
It can be very difficult to judge what items will sell. Clothing poses a special problem for it
is necessary to carefully select a range of sizes. Having a knowledge of potential buyers may help.
For instance, clothing sold at a Gymnastics tournament is likely to be smaller than clothing sold at a
Rugby match.
Theft and damage to stock
The nature of events is that there is much frenzied work with too few helpers. A
merchandising stall needs to have at least one staff person in attendance at all times. Otherwise
articles are too tempting. Damage may also occur as a result of transportation, rain, customers
browsing or trying on items of clothing. It may be prudent to anticipate damage in setting a price
structure.
Cont (d)
Ordering merchandising stocks too late
For best effect merchandising should be available for sale two or three weeks before the
event. This allows for a maximum promotion effect. It is also worthwhile to consider advertising the
fact that merchandising will be on sale in pre-event brochures and fliers that are sent to
participants. Sales may be lost of participants do not anticipate purchasing products in setting the
amount of money with which they leave home. If stocks simply arrive the day before, advantages
such as pre-event promotion will be lost. Furthermore a late arrival of stocks reduces the
merchandisers' ability to check stocks, attach price tags and package in protective materials such
Failure to provide adequate training to merchandising staff
Merchandising can be an onerous task for the volunteer. In particular there is a need to
instruct staff in the procedures for recording sales accurately and for taking responsibility for cash.
There is a need to record the details of all sales transactions in an accounting document. Such a
document should be able to withstand the rigors of an audit by an accountant. For example it
should be possible to check the number of items sold, the price, the customer and the date. Staff
should also be trained in keeping money secure such as counting money in a back room or out of
sight, careful transportation
Cont (e)
Death in Sport
The following are, unfortunately, some of the ways that people have died at sporting
events. Some are quite bizarre.
The following accounts serve to be a reminder to all event directors to expect the
unexpected.
Riot:
In 1964, 318 people were killed and another 500 injured in riots at a football match at the National Stadium, Lima, Peru. This
was the worst ever sporting disaster.
Shooting:
A tennis spectator shot in the leg while sitting on the stadium court watching a match by someone letting off a gun on the
outside the court. Police never found out who was responsible.
Crushed:
In 1989, 95 people were crushed to death at the Hillsborough Soccer Stadium, Sheffield, England when police opened gates to
alleviate crowding, resulting in a rush of people onto the already filled terrace. The barriers broke under the weight of the
crowd which then toppled forwards and downwards, crushing those at the bottom.
Bridge collapse and drowning:
in 1997, four Australian athletes died at the Maccabiah Games, Israel when a temporary bridge collapsed under the weight of
people. Two athletes died immediately by drowning in the Yarkon River below, while the other two died of complications
caused by the polluted river water.
Cont (f)
Death in Sport (cont a)
Killed by a flare:
In 1993 at Word Cup Qualifying game in Cardiff, a football fan was killed by a flare which was fired across the pitch and into
the neck of an elderly man.
Killed by a Wheel:
A crash involving Formula 1 racing drive Jacques Villeneuve at the Australian Grand Prixcaused the right rear wheel of
his vehicle to be torn off. By a freak chance the errant wheel went through an access hole cut in the chainlink fence before
striking a track marshall in the chest and killing him and wound seven others.
Bombing:
In 2010, 88 people were killed and dozens more wounded in a suicide bomb attack at a volleyball match in north-west
Pakistan.
Fire:
In 1985, 56 people burned to death and over 200 injured when fire engulfed the main grandstand at Bradford's soccer
stadium.
Killed by a projectile:
In 2002, a 13 year old girl spectator was killed by an Ice Hockey puck that went over the glass walls surrounding the ice arena.
Cont (g)
Death in Sport (cont b)
Balcony collapse:
In 1998, a balcony collapsed holding more than 100 people, mostly children. The balcony fell 16 feet onto a crowded floor at
the Russian Freestyle Wrestling Championships at Nalchik, southern Russian.
Terrorists:
Five Arab terrorists wearing track suits climbed the six and 1/2 foot fence surrounding the 1972 Olympic Village in Munich,
Germany. Once inside, they were met by three others who had gained entrance with credentials. Within 24 hours, 11 Israelis,
five terrorists, and a German policeman were dead.
Killed by parachutist:
A woman was killed by a parachutist in Spearman, Texas in 1996 who was actually delivering the ball for a high school football
game and was blown by the wind into spectators in the crowd.
Crowd stampede:
In 2001, 42 people were killed at the Ellis Park Stadium, South Africa, when the crowd began to stampede trying to get into
the stadium.
Struck by car:
Two people were killed and three others injured when a rally car drove into crowd of spectators in Letter Kenny, Ireland, 2002.
Deadly fall:
In 2008, a man exiting New York's Shea Stadium died when he fell from an escalator and plunged two stories to the ground
level.
Preparing for disasters
Whenever large numbers of people come together to watch an event, there
is potential for major disasters. No-one ever suspects that day watching a sport
event is a major risk to life and health but history proves otherwise.
Sport administrators are required to conduct risk auditing for all types of
events, large and small. Any failure to do this can result in a law suits
for negligence. One important aspect of risk auditing is to examine all possible risks
associated with spectators. Risks associated with spectators can arise as a result of
the behavior of spectators and in particular when spectators begin to take on a
crowd mentality.
Risk associated with physical arrangements, dimensions and layout of the
venue must also be examined. Sport administrators really need to know Murphy's
Law (anything that can go wrong, will go wrong). (See more about risks associated
with events)
Cont (a)
Crowd Control
There is a necessity to make a careful estimation of the number of staff
• Manage entry and exits
• Control / patrol all areas of the ground / facility
• Control an evacuation should it prove to be necessary
• Raise the alarm and liaise with emergency services
Having sufficient staff to manage an emergency is a "Duty of Care"
It would be therefore prudent to consult appropriate emergency
authorities (police, fire service, etc.) in this matter.
Cont (b)
Training in Crowd Control
In Australia many states have legislation that requires a person to
be licensed before they can act as a crowd controller. You should check for legislation in
your own state.
In order to be licensed, a person will usually undergo an accredited course that
provides the participant with knowledge of the functions and roles of a crowd controller.
Such a course might include:
• Roles and responsibilities
• Communication and clients
• Operational procedures
• Managing performance
• Managing conflict
• Emergency first aid
• Crowd control operations
• Law and practice
• Emergency procedures
• Access control
• Securing premises and property
Cont (c)
Training in Crowd Control (cont a)
In addition to this training, event managers and venue managers should provide additional
training to familiarize their crowd control staff with specific aspects of the facility or venue. For
example, it will be necessary to know the:
• Location of exits, stairs and other aspects of buildings
• Position of emergency equipment such as fire hoses
• Location of communication devices e.g. alarms, public address systems and telephones
It will also be necessary to provide training in the venue's or hosting
organization’s policies and procedures for event management and control. These policies and
procedures should include conducting drills and tests to ensure staff have the knowledge required.
Cont (d)
The event goer's Bill of Rights
(Adapted from Crowd Management Strategies at www.crowdsafe.com)
• To enjoy the event in a safe environment.
• To be treated with respect by facility or venue management, event security,
officials, and promoters (regardless of race, sex, appearance, or disability).
• To be informed of facility or venue's house rules prior to or upon entry and my
responsibilities as an event goer
• To be informed of the risks associated with spectating at the event before or
upon entry into the facility or venue
• To be notified in a timely manner of changes in the performance, door opening,
or other information affecting the safety and enjoyment of a concert.)
• To have posted at the event, the names and addresses of the facility
management, event organizers and security/crowd control firm.
Cont (e)
The spectator's plan for injury
• Plan what you must do if you get injured. Try to find out in advance where the
nearest place for First Aid and medical treatment is.
• Get a written report of any treatment you receive if you are injured. This may be
useful if you wish to initiate legal proceedings at a later date.
• Don't sign the medical treatment report until you have read it and satisfied that it
correctly describes your injuries.
• Do not assume your injury is your fault. Even if your actions have partly
contributed to the accident, there may be other factors that led to your injury
over which you had no control.
• Carry proper identification and important phone numbers, or medical
information with you. (Allergy problems, medication data, etc.)
Event Safety
Below are a number of scenarios that indicate the range of risks associated
with crowds at sporting events. Although some of these scenarios may seem to
have a low probability, they do actually occur. As an event manager you are
expected to have some kind of plan to deal with these problems if and when they
occur.
Emergency Scenarios
What happens if . . .
• A spectator in one of the stands has a heart attack and requires urgent medical attention?
• Someone in one of the stands sets off a smoke canister and there are surges of people
pushing in all directions trying to get away?
• One of the parachutists (as seen in the picture above) lands badly and is suspected to have
spinal injuries?
• The number of people in one of the stands exceeds the design limit?
• There is an earthquake during the event?
• There is an electrical storm during the event?
• And of course there are many more possibilities!
Cont (a)
It is extremely important for event organizers to have an emergency plan in place.
The objectives of such a plan would be to reduce the possible consequences
of an emergency through the provision of training to event staff in:
• awareness of types of emergency at sport events
• early recognition of an emergency situation
• actions to be taken to bring medical services (e.g. ambulance) to those in need
• crowd communication, direction and control
• accelerating the resumption of normal operations
An emergency plan specifies the organization’s policies and procedures for
handling sudden and unexpected situations which require immediate
Cont (b)
Elements of an Emergency Plan
1. An Emergency Plan should include the following elements with the appropriate
documentation:
a) Assessment of the size and nature of the events foreseen and the probability of their
occurrence. It is highly recommended that a vulnerability analysis be instigated.
b) Formulation of a plan in consultation with outside authorities such as emergency services,
fire department, police
c) Procedures
i. raising the alarm
ii. invoking the emergency plan
iii. communication both within and outside the site
iv. evacuation of non-essential personnel to pre-determined safe assembly points by pre-determined
exits
Cont (c)
Elements of an Emergency Plan (cont a)
a) Appointment of key personnel and their duties and responsibilities
i. site incident controller
ii. site main controller
b) Emergency control center (if required)
c) Action on site, for example alerting staff and students, ordering evacuation,
confirming evacuation is complete
d) Action off site, alerting external agencies, alerting population, requesting external
aid, advising the media
e) Where and how injured persons are to be treated. Are suitable first aid facilities on
site?
Cont (d)
Elements of an Emergency Plan (cont b)
2. The plan should define the way in which personnel at the incident site can initiate action. The plan should also contain the full
sequence of key personnel to be called but consideration needs to be given to absences due to sickness and holidays, and any
other changes in manning.
3. Emergency planning should consider the need to make arrangements for an authoritative release of information to the media.
A person would be appointed to receive enquiries from the public.
4. Appropriate training needs to be given to all personnel who are part of the emergency plan.
5. Once the Emergency Plan has been finalized and appropriate training has been conducted then the plan should be tested in
one of three ways:
1. full scale exercise to test command, coordination and communication setups
2. tabletop exercises can be used to test some aspects of the emergency plan, and has the advantage of not interrupting normal operations
3. Specific aspects of the plan can be tested, for example communication and evacuation.
6. The Emergency Plan must be regularly updated. This will take into account changes in personnel, telephone numbers and
storage areas. This requirement should be written into the plan, and should be responsibility of a particular individual.
Cont (e)
Emergency Planning
It is a reasonable community expectation that an Emergency Plan will
be in place at all sporting events. Even small sporting events carry risks of
medical emergencies involving competitors and spectators. Every event
manager has to contemplate the need to deal with a range of scenarios from
minor cuts and bruises to life-threatening injuries or illnesses that need
require the immediate attention of paramedics. (See more about risks
associated with events)
When a large number of people are crowded into a sporting venue,
the event manager must contemplate scenarios such as:
• Explosion
• Fire
• Bomb Threat
• Crowd Riot (including crush or stampede)
Cont (f)
Emergency Planning (cont a)
• When bad things happen, the degree to which a disaster unfolds will
depend on a few critically important factors:
• The skills and knowledge of persons in charge of the event on the day
• The planned response actions to any particular emergency scenario
• The readiness of equipment
Cont (g)
Persons in charge of the event
A number of personnel must be appointed who have clear roles
and responsibilities and know exactly what to do in an event. Such
personnel would include:
• Emergency Coordinator
• First Aid Personnel
• Crowd Control Officials
Cont (h)
Planned response actions
Knowing what to do in an emergency is a key factor that saves lives. For each type of scenario
envisaged, there needs to be a planned set of actions (planned response actions) to be taken by all those who
are allocated responsibility. These planned response actions include:
• Evacuation procedure (when to evacuate, how to evacuate, where to evacuate to)
• Sounding an alarm
• Calling 000 for ambulance, police or fire
• Opening entrance ways
• Use of emergency equipment e.g. fire house
• Calling for a doctor in the crowd (if they exist) to come forward
Emergency management plans require people and people require training. The training needed by
the team of people in charge of an event on the day include:
• The Key personnel roles and responsibilities
• Emergency exit locations and paths
• Assembly point locations
• Fire Fighting equipment locations
• The rehearsal (exercise drills) of what to do on the day in the event of an emergency
Cont (i)
Maintenance and testing of equipment
Equipment failure is a very real and persistent threat. This could include:
• Mobile phones or 2-way radios with flat batteries
• Public announcement equipment (loudspeakers) that do not work
• Alarm signals that fail to go off
• Fire hoses that cannot be used (e.g. tap rusted, hose damaged)
• Gates or doors that cannot be opened
• First aid kits that are not replenish
Emergency Plan Checklist for an Event
It is extremely important to have considered various emergencies that might occur
at an event, and to undertake some planning as how such emergencies should be handled.
The following 'Emergency Plan Checklist' for an event should not be regarded as
complete. There will always be differences due to the type of event, the locality and the
facility. Event administrators should be built upon the following list but at least it will give
you a head start.
Cont (j)
Sample Emergency Plan Checklist
1. Has the event organizing committee actually discussed possible emergencies and tried to identify the different types of
emergencies that may occur?
2. Have event volunteers and other club staff received any training as what they may do in the case of an emergency?
3. Does your club have a documented emergency plan?
4. Does the emergency plan stipulate duties and responsibilities of event personnel and club staff if an emergency occurs?
5. Does the emergency plan list all safety/emergency equipment (and first aid kit) and the location it can be found?
6. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on the checking of emergency equipment?
7. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on how and when to contact emergency personnel and emergency
services?
8. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on how and when to shut down electricity supply?
9. Is key safety/emergency information posted clearly on an easily available noticeboard?
10. Are there notices that tell people not to block entry and exit routes for ambulances and other emergency personnel, and is this
policed?
11. Is there equipment for emergency lighting should an emergency occur in the dark?
12. Is there provision for access to master keys in the event of an emergency
13. Is there a means to signal to persons who might be in danger i.e. loudspeakers?
14. Is there plan to carry out emergency drills e.g. fire drills?
Cont (k)
Conducting an event risk audit
Conducting a risk audit is an essential component of developing an
event management plan. A risk audit involves identifying and assessing all
risks so that a plan can be put in place to deal with any occurrence of any
undesirable event which causes harm to people or detriment to the
organization.
A risk audit involves:
• checking the proposed venue for possible hazards,
• observing other similar events to see how participants are likely to interact
with the event environment
• reviewing event management systems, policies and procedures and
ensuring they are up to date
• interviewing event personnel to check whether they have received
appropriate training
Cont (l)
Checking the venue
Broadly speaking, there are two situations to consider. The first situation is that
you are familiar with the venue as you have used it before. In this circumstance, it is still
necessary to manage risks but the time spent checking the venue will focus more on
ensuring the venue is well prepared according to risk management plans you already have.
It will also be necessary to identify any changes in the venue since you last used it.
In the second situation, you are unfamiliar with the event and you may never have
used it before. In this circumstance it will be necessary to conduct a walk-through of the
venue to identify possible hazards and risks. It helps greatly to have a prepared checklist.
For example, your checklist might remind you to check for:
• Ambulance assess in case of an emergency
• Doors/gates that need to be secured to prevent equipment loss, restrict access to
spectators or prevent children from exiting the venue. (see spectator safety checklist)
• Areas that need to be cordoned off if they contain hazards
• Areas/rooms that can be used for first aid
Cont (m)
• Observing Other Events
It is the very nature of sport events that surprising things
happen, especially in the heat of the moment. There is no foolproof
method for identifying risks but watching similar events is very useful.
In particular, your observation might provide knowledge of the
behavior of spectators and players. Crowd control is an essential
element of sport event management. Spectators and players may be
unruly and even violent and the event officials needs to be able to
react swiftly.
Cont (n)
Event Management Procedures
Event managers must ensure that event management procedures cover a full range of
emergencies including major injury or illness of players or spectators, fire, bomb threat, crowd
disturbances and climatic conditions such as lightning, torrential rain, flooding, etc.
Event manage procedures should also assist event personnel to effectively do their job.
Although the most important procedures will be about safety, there should be other procedures
that lessen risks to the event profitability and the organization’s reputation. These procedures might
include:
• Cash management
• Food serving and hygiene
• Waste collection
• Marshaling of competitors
• Restriction of access to certain areas
• Arrival and greeting of visiting dignitaries
• Loudspeaker announcements during the event
• Giveaways of merchandising or free food and drink
• Raffles and fundraising
Cont (o)
Interviewing Event Staff
The provision of training to event staff (and volunteers) is a
critical element in risk management. It is a dangerous situation to
presume that procedures have been read and that people will know
what to do in an emergency. Ultimately the buck stops with the Event
Manager and therefore it is a reasonable use of the Event Manager's
time to have meetings with Event Staff, either individually or in groups,
to determine their knowledge of procedure.
Thank You…

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Event management 2nd Lecture in sports facilities

  • 1. Event Management Dr. Abdul Waheed Mughal Dean, Social Sciences, Arts & Education Email: dean.ss@suit.edu.pk
  • 2. Introduction The organization of events is perhaps the primary activity of sport and recreation organizations. Workers in the sport and recreation industry, salaried and voluntary, are essentially organizers of people whether they be event directors, coaches, referees, instructors or facility supervisors. This organization of people is manifest by what we see and call an "event". The term "event" in the sport and recreation industry usually refers to a situation where participants, facilities, equipment and other resources are coordinated to enable a form of sport or recreation to occur.
  • 3. Types of Event: The events conducted by Sport/Recreation organizations include: • Competitive or non-competitive sport and recreation events • Courses • Promotional events • Conferences • Fundraising events
  • 4. Competitive or non-competitive sport and recreation events Competitive events may range from the Olympic Games to a small local Football Tournament and anything in between. The scope of the events therefore depends upon the purpose of the event, the extent of participation, the facilities and equipment required, and the importance of the event in terms of community interest.
  • 5. Courses The organization of courses to assist participants learn more about playing, coaching and officiating are a fundamental part of the work carried out by recreation organizations.
  • 6. Promotional events Promotional events are not primarily organized for the benefit of the player or participant. They are organized to promote the sport or form of recreation activity to a target market with the underlying objective to increase participation. They may also have a second objective to promote the sponsor to the target market as well.
  • 7. Conferences Conferences have many objectives. They may be organized gatherings of participants and/or members to carry out planning, to review progress, discuss important issues, circulate new information, select committee personnel, examine the position of the organization and to impart new knowledge about the sport or recreation activity.
  • 8. Fundraising events Fundraising events include dinner functions, special entertainment functions, bingo or card nights, charity auctions and awards evenings.
  • 9. Event Director Irrespective of the type of event, the skills required to manage an event are much the same and only the magnitude and complexity differs. Persons who are called upon to manage an event may acquire many titles but in this text for the sake of simplicity they will be called the Event Director.
  • 10. Bidding for events • Why it is necessary to bid for an event?
  • 11. cont (a) The sport and recreation industry abounds with events at local, regional, national and sometimes international level. It is important to consider that except for intra-club competitions, events are not "owned" by any one organization. While the responsibility for organizing a provincial event may fall to one association club, all clubs in the region have a stake in ensuring a successful outcome. Similarly all clubs in all provinces of a nation have a vested interest in ensuring that a national championship is conducted successfully.
  • 12. cont (b) It is often the case that more than one club or association will desire to stage an event. Such a situation is healthy and generally leads to a striving by each bidding organization to show that they can put on the best event. The decision as to which club will host what event is usually taken at meetings of the organization that governs the event (the sport governing body).
  • 13. cont (c) For example, the decision as to which club will host a provincial championship will be taken by the provincial association. The provincial association comprises delegates and elected officials drawn from all the clubs in that provincial. In the case of a world championship, the decision as to which nation will host the event will be taken by the World Federation that is comprised of elected officials drawn from the member nations.
  • 14. The Bid Process It is a normal practice for any representative body, at any level, that has the responsibility to select which organization will stage an event, to ask each and every rival organization to supply a proposal detailing how they will organize and stage the event. This process of supplying a proposal is often referred to as the "bid process". The main purpose of the bid process is to:
  • 15. Cont (a) 1. Demonstrate that the bidding organization has the capability and resources to stage the event 2. Provide additional reasons why the bidding organization should be selected over other rival bidders. For example, these additional reasons may include: • Participants will have better facilities than other rival bidders • The event has greater financial backing than rival bids • Public support is more assured • Spectators will have better facilities • It's their turn
  • 16. cont (b) • When organizations are required to enter into a formal bid process in order to win the right to stage an event, there are two tasks. The first task is to develop a bid proposal and to submit the document to the selecting authority by the required date. In addition, it is often advantageous to attend a meeting of the selecting authority and make a formal presentation that draws out the main points or highlights of their proposal and to answer any questions that may arise. This is the second task.
  • 17. Preparing the Event Proposal The amount of detail required in the event proposal will depend on the scale and importance of the event. However event proposals generally share many common components. The information that event proposals should convey includes but is not limited to the following:
  • 18. cont (a) 1. The Event Team The proposal should provide information about the event management team in terms of the experience and qualifications of key team members. It is important for the reader of the proposal to feel that the event team have the capability to run the event and to be able to do what they say they will do. If experience in staging events is limited then it is useful to mention any managerial, project management or co-ordination experience in any other field. Qualifications of persons in the event management team may also prove useful to mention. The proposal should also describe any training that will be given to event volunteers.
  • 19. cont (b) 2. Venue and Facilities The reader of the proposal will want to know whether the venue is suitable for the event. The proposal should outline all facilities available at the venue, everything from toilets to car-parking. For indoor events, the type of surface, lighting, air- conditioning, seating, electronic equipment should be well described. For outdoor events, the level of maintenance on turf, seating and shading for spectators, fencing, drainage and floodlighting is worthy of mention. The number of change rooms and their condition for teams/participants is always important. There needs to be a detailed description of what would be attractive to event goers and how the venue will fully cater for the needs of the event, including performers, officials and spectators. Don't forget to include information about public transport to the venue, and car parking for those who arrive by car. If the venue has staged similar events in the past, you should make mention of this.
  • 20. cont (c) 3. The Program It is often the case that the host club or organization has little or no say in setting the competition program when the date, or dates have been set by the sport governing body. However, at the initial stage of bidding, the event proposal may suggest a competition program in terms of the number of days, and the start and finish times each day. It is important for decision makers to know how many hours a day the venue is available. It is worthwhile to consider that the program should also include ceremonial events with visiting dignitaries who may make speeches or present awards, and also possibly entertainment events that may start or finish the program or fill any gaps.
  • 21. cont (d) 4. The Budget The club or organization bidding for the event should draft a budget of probable income and expenditure. It is important that such a budget is realistic, and does not show a loss. The club or organization that wins the bid may be entitled to an amount of funding from the sport governing body to alleviate certain costs that will likely be incurred. However, there is also an expectancy that the host club or organization will have an opportunity to make money through the canteen, bar, fundraising raffles and merchandising. These forms of income should be reflected in the budget in the event proposal.
  • 22. The Purpose of an Event Proposal The document may be viewed by many different potential stakeholders in the event. The table below provides examples of how an event proposal may be used by such stakeholders.
  • 23. The Purpose of an Event Proposal Stakeholder Need for the proposal A National Sports Organization (NSO) Example: Athletics Australia Inc. A NSO may receive requests from more than one organization wishing to organize a National Championship. The NSO must therefore decide which organization has the right to organize the event. Each state may be asked to submit a proposal to the NSO outlining how they will organize the event and how much it will cost. Based upon submitted proposals the NSO will make a choice of which organization will host the event. A Sponsor Example: Telstra Corporation Sponsors will view the proposal to gain an understanding of the scale and importance of the event, the potential exposure to their target markets to be gained and the relative strengths and weaknesses of forming a partnership with the event organizers. Sponsors will use this information to make decisions about whether to sponsor the event or not, and if so to put a value on the event as a form of promotion. Government Example: A city council The event proposal may be used as the basis of an application for funding to government agencies. They are often interested in supplying public funds to assist organizations to bid and stage major events. Governments are keen to attract events as they are viewed as a mechanism for attracting "sport tourists" who will provide increased revenues to local businesses, prestige to a city or region and have an impact on the development of a sport or recreation in their area of jurisdiction.
  • 25. Cont (a) Step 1: Analyse the event's need for a venue It is necessary to ask many questions about what sort of venue is needed. Here are just a few of the questions that should be considered. • Do we need an indoor or outdoor venue? • What audience capacity does the event require? • How long do we need the venue for, including setup and takedown? • Is it necessary to select a venue with good public transport access?
  • 26. Cont (b) Step 2: Investigate possible venue In a large metropolitan area there may be a great variety of venues from which to choose. However, outside of the metropolitan areas choice may be extremely limited. On the assumption that your organization does not own and operate a perfect venue for their event, event organizers should research possible venues by:
  • 27. Cont (c) Step 2: Investigate possible venue (cont a) • Contacting government agencies who may maintain and publish a database of sporting, cultural and educational venues • Consulting industry peak bodies that represent organizations in the sport and recreation industry and/or the entertainment industry • Searching the "Yellow Pages" Directory or the "Yellow Pages" Internet web site • Utilizing one of the CD ROM products on the market to search an electronic database of telephone numbers by name field or business category field • Contacting schools, colleges and universities individually • Telephoning avenue and asking for assistance, if they cannot help they will more than likely refer you to someone who can • Telephoning experience event managers and/or sports administrators. All information, even subjective comments, found as a result of researching venues should be retained for future use. Event managers should create their own database.
  • 28. Cont (d) Step 3: Make site visits Once some possible venues have been identified, it is important to make a site visit. Venue staff are usually only too pleased to show prospective customer's around. The purpose a site visit is to determine the suitability of the venue. The table below identifies and explains five facets of suitability.
  • 29. Cont (e) Step 3: Make site visits (cont b) Venue suitability Dimensions  Area must be appropriate to cater for the event i.e. abide by rules (if a sport). For indoor venues, ceiling height must be sufficient. Environment  The venue needs to be appealing to all participants. The venue should appear to be well maintained and clean.  Indoor venues - consideration needs to be given to lighting and air temperature control. Seating needs to be comfortable and in good view of the performance area. Places to relax away from the performance area also a beneficial feature.  Outdoor venues - advantageous elements include sufficient drainage, lighting, shading and protection from wind. Facilities  Sufficient changing areas, showers, sauna, etc  Kitchens, canteens and food serving areas  Offices or meeting rooms for Media and the Event Staff  Telecommunication facilities - telephone, fax, Internet  Public address system is available Position  Can be accessed by public transport  Nearness to majority of participants  Sufficient accommodation within reasonable distance  Shops in close proximity Cost  The cost of the venue need to be within the realistic limitations of the event budget.
  • 30. Cont (f) Step 3: Make site visits (cont c) Equipment has been left out of the above list. Organizations booking venues can be reasonably expected to supply and transport to the venue the equipment that their event needs. Some exceptions to this rule may be items related to popular indoor sports such as basketball hoops and backboards, indoor soccer goals, volleyball nets, etc. However this may only apply if the venue being sought is an indoor sports center. Clearly if a cultural venue such as a theater is being sought for a sport such as Olympic Weightlifting, venue managers cannot be expected to provide equipment.
  • 31. Cont (g) Step 4: Agree on price and terms Once you have identified some possibly suitable venues, your next step is to enter into negotiations with venue managers to get the best possible deal that you can. Although venue managers will have standard prices you should not think there is no chance of bargaining the price down, or alternatively, bargaining for extra services. If it proves to be difficult to get a reduced hourly rate, you may be able to get some free time, or use of an additional part of the facility free, or obtain access to sound equipment at no cost, or even get some additional personnel at a reduced price e.g. security.
  • 32. Cont (h) Step 5: Make a booking and confirm When you have selected which venue is the best for your event, it is time to make a booking. Although the venue will take a booking over the phone, it is likely that you will be sent within a few days a contract that states: • Facilities booked • Dates and times booked • Payments required e.g. deposit and final payments • Other contractual obligations e.g. cleaning • Your contact details
  • 33. Cont (i) Step 5: Make a booking and confirm (cont a) After you have signed and returned the contract together with a cheque deposit, you should never assume that your booking is safe and forget about it until the last week before the event. It is well worth your while to keep lines of communication open with the venue manager and to keep checking that you booking is safe (i.e. does not get double booked).
  • 34. Cont (j) Step 6: Make further site visits The purpose of making further site visits is to assure yourself that nothing has changed, or at least that any changes that do occur will not affect your event. Changes that could occur include lighting, fixtures removed, equipment and decor.
  • 35. The Event Director Managing an event is like managing a business, and like all businesses there needs to be someone who is the ultimate decision maker. In the case of an event, the final executive authority is usually referred to as the "Event Director". The role is complex and demanding even when events are small-scale. The primary role of the Event Director is to organize and mobilize considerable human such as participants, officials, administrators and helpers. They are a focal point for communication, internally and externally, and need to be contactable in and out of office hours, and over Managing people can be a burdensome responsibility and it is important that anyone undertaking the role of Event Director has the capability and personality to deal effectively with people in often-difficult circumstances. The ability to remain calm is perhaps a necessary prerequisite for an Event Director.
  • 36. Cont (a) The role of Event Director goes beyond human resource management. The table below provides a general overview of all responsibilities and tasks: Major Tasks of the Event Director Tasks Notes Recruit and convene a bid committee. Developing a bid proposal is not always required. Recruit and convene an organizing committee Covered by the section "Organizing Committee". Plan and oversee the recruitment and training of all human resources required to organize and conduct the event. Human resources include volunteers as well as paid staff. Develop an event management plan. The event management plan is instrumental in coordinating and training people to do organizing work. Represent the event in dealings with outside parties. This includes dealings with sponsors, government and the media. Develop policies. Policies serve to assist in the process of managing the event as the Event Director cannot be in all places at the same time. Monitor the progress of the planning and organization of event tasks. The event manager needs to know about aspects of the event organization that are NOT going to plan so that corrective action can be taken.
  • 37. Structure of an event management team The work involved in planning, organizing and conducting a major event can be sufficiently great to require the recruitment of a large team of people. Members of the team may be involved on a full- time, part-time, contractor, casual and voluntary basis. At the head of the team is the Event Director whose job it is to keep everyone working together for a considerable period of time. Organization Chart The organization chart below indicates the magnitude and diversity of the team needed to run a major sporting event such as a National or Provincial Championships. Smaller events will obviously require a much smaller team, and individuals in the team may be able to take on more than one role.
  • 38. Cont (a) The example organization chart above has "departments" for Programme, Venue, Equipment, Promotions, Officials, Hospitality and Merchandising. Furthermore, with small modifications, the same organization structure could be applicable to running a different type of event such as a conference.
  • 39. Cont (b) Importance of Coordinators An important aspect of the above model is that each department has a coordinator. As exceptionally important people in the event management team, they should be identified and recruited as early as possible. Coordinators should be a part of the organizing committee and collectively they will share in decision making processes with the Event Director. The selection of coordinators is usually on the basis of knowledge or expertise and sometimes because only one person volunteers for the task. Whether coordinators have expertise or not, Event Directors need to appreciate that sport and recreation depends very considerably on the input of voluntary persons. Therefore systems should be put in place to recognize the contribution of volunteers and to provide non-monetary rewards.
  • 40. Cont (c) Job Descriptions In consultation and close co-operation with members of the Event Team, the Event Director should develop and provide a job description for each coordinator. Financing the Event The table below provides common sources of event revenue. Some differences exist between organizations that run events for profit motives and those that are not-for-profit oriented.
  • 41. Cont (d) Categories of Event Income Government Grants Government grants to assist with the running of events are not easy to obtain. To be successful, applicant organisations need to demonstrate that the event has strategic regional importance. For example it may increase overseas tourists to the region. Sponsorship Despite the prevalence of event sponsorship in the sport and recreationmarketplace is increasing, many organisations have great difficulty in achieving a significant amount of sponsorship. Competition between sport and recreation organisations for sponsorship is intense. Organisations need to be very professional in their approach to sponsorship and to be able to offer sponsoring companies outstanding value in promotional services. Event Directors need to exercise some realism and caution in relying to heavily on sponsorship. Merchandising Sales The term merchandising applies to the sale of a range of products that may be strongly identified with the event or the organisation hosting the event. A common example of merchandising is the production and sale of T-shirts, polo shirts, caps and other forms of clothing that are screen printed or embroidered with a design or trademark of the event. Participants tend to purchase such articles for their commemorative value. Other typical forms of merchandise include glassware, pens, dishcloths, drink bottles and badges. Merchandising may be a form of income suitable for events that have larger numbers of either players or participants.
  • 42. Cont (e) Categories of Event Income Participant Fees The charging of fees to participate in the event is perhaps the most common form of event revenue. Sport and recreation events are a service provided and it is reasonable to suggest therefore that all basic costs of the event should be covered by participant fees. These "basics" include the hire of the venue, provision of appropriate equipment and the administration of the event. Sponsorship and government funding, if it can be achieved, allows the organisation of the event to go beyond the basics. The event budget should be set so that if sponsorship and/or government funding is not forthcoming the event does not have to be canceled. Raffles It is common to find that recreation organisations employ "on-the-day"fundraising strategies. The most common example is the raffle and a small amount of income can be achieved this way. Whereas it is difficult to achieve cash sponsorships, it is easier to obtain goods from sponsors which can be raffled. Event Directors should identify and research legislation in their own state/nation that pertains to raffles and other similar forms of fundraising. Raffles are often regulated by governments because of the potential for fraud and misrepresentation. Spectator Fees In some cases, events are sufficiently popular and entertaining to attract paying spectators. However it can be difficult to obtain money from spectators in circumstances where there no restriction of access(for example an outdoor event with no perimeter fence). If this is the case it may be better to make off-street parking for a fee.
  • 43. The Event Budget Predicting the financial outcome of an event The event budget is a projection (forecast) of the income and expenditure that the event will incur based on plans made and information gathered. The preparation of a budget is an essential part of event management. It is fundamentally important that Event Directors are able to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. This is achieved by identifying and costing all probable expenditures and by totaling all expected revenues (income). By comparing expenditures and revenues, it then becomes possible to forecast the financial outcome of the event. The prediction of financial outcomes of the event need to take place very early in the planning stages. There is no use on setting dates, booking venues, preparing plans until there has been some attempt to determine whether the event is financially viable.
  • 44. Cont (a) Importance of financial control of an event Once the Event Budget has been constructed, the Event Director has a means to exercise control of the event finances. Many organizations have run into severe financial difficulty and even bankruptcy as a result of staging events. The budget therefore enables the Event Director to make sound financial decisions about the choice of venue, and expenditure on a whole range of things including promotion, equipment and staffing. The process of budgeting also enables the Event Director to calculate how much revenue is needed to stage the event in accordance with the planned level of expenditure.
  • 45. Cont (b) Continual adjustment of the event budget The preparation of an event budget is one of the earliest tasks to be undertaken in the event management process. However, it should be expected that there will be numerous adjustments and refinements to the budget throughout the whole project life-cycle. It is not possible to know every cost from the start, nor is it possible to know whether efforts to secure sponsorship and government funding will be successful. Event budgets by the event management team as better information comes to hand.
  • 46. Cont (c) Basic event budgeting rules Although the budget takes time to develop, there are some basic rules that should be followed from the outset: • Budget to avoid making a loss If an event looks likely to make a loss, it calls into question whether the event should go ahead according to the existing plan. If it is not too late, plans should be changed so that the event will at least break-even. • Be realistic about event incomes Far too often, event plans are far too optimistic about the amount of sponsorship to get gained, or the number of people who will attend as spectators or participants. Over optimistic predictions are often a cause for financial loss as a result of staging an event. • Have a contingency plan In thinking through what could possibly go wrong with an event, it is a good idea to determine what must be done if something does go wrong. For example, what happens if the sponsorship pull out, or there is very bad weather?
  • 47. Typical event expenditure Events costs will depend on the scale and type of event. Not all the categories stated in the table below will apply to every event. Travel and Accommodation Costs associated with officials needed to run the event may have to be borne by the event organizers. Event participants are generally responsible for their own travel and accommodation costs. In minor or local events travel and accommodation costs are unlikely. Trophies, Awards The cost of medals, trophies and other awards requires detailed knowledge about the number of competitors, the categories of divisions of the competition and the format of the competition. Salaries Applies only events are organized by professional staff. Postage and telephone Events usually require considerable communications with participants and the event management team. Stationery and Photocopying Special event stationery may be printed but otherwise there is always a lot of photocopying and usage of organization letterheads to write correspondence. Medical Fees Events require persons with at least First Aid training to be in attendance. Larger events may also warrant the employment of a doctor and physiotherapists.
  • 48. Cont (a) Venue Hire A critically important aspect of the budget. Information about the probable cost of the venue needs to be obtained as early as possible. Beware that there some hidden costs such as security and supervision costs, and heating and lighting costs. Insurance Additional insurance can be taken out to cover risks of injury and/or financial losses associated with events. Printing Event programmes, posters, fliers and other promotional documents may need to be printed - especially where quality and color is required. Promotion Expenditure on promotion may be considerable where a significant proportion of the event revenue is likely to be earned through spectators. Promotion covers items such as advertising, giveaways, costs associated with promotional events and sponsors' signage. Equipment Hire Includes equipment directly used by participants in the event and also any equipment used by the event management staff including sound systems, computers, mobile phones, two way radios, etc. Transport Includes costs of transporting equipment and hire of buses.
  • 49. Selling the Event Strategies for promoting an event discussed on this page include: • Using Social Media • Paid advertising online • Paid advertising offline • Free publicity via television, radio or print media • Promotional events leading up to the main event • Signage and banners
  • 50. Importance of promotion For several reasons, promotion is a key factor in the success of a special event. The main purpose that promotion serves is to attract participants, spectators or both to the event. A football match without a crowd is always disappointing and so is a local tennis tournament with only half the expected number of players. It is essential therefore that the efforts of many people over many months to organize a special event.
  • 51. Cont (b) Promotion is also important to the sponsor, if one exists. The objective of the sponsor is to achieve as much exposure of their name, logo and other properties as possible. Sponsors therefore have a keen interest in pre-event promotion and in the promotion that can be achieved on the day through erecting signage and product displays in view of all participants.
  • 52. Cont (b) Promotion is also important to the organization for reasons other than attracting a crowd on the day. A well promoted event increases public awareness of the organization. This is a chief reason why special events are important. Achieving an attendance target is not only good for the atmosphere of the tournament but also it is often a critical component that determines the event's financial success. Event organizers require income earned from spectator attendance or participants fees to pay for costs of the event. Any shortfall in expected revenues can have a disastrous effect on organizations that stage special events. There are numerous cases of sport and recreation organizations that have suffered major financial loss and even bankruptcy as a result of staging one event.
  • 53. Cont (c) The means of promotion should be considered from the outset i.e. in the feasibility analysis. Organizers need to consider promotional strategies in order to estimate the total costs of the event. They must select strategies that are most reliable and cost effective in terms of achieving the target participation or patronage. Promotion is a key result area in event management and as such is deserving of adequate human and financial resources. Appointing a manager or coordinator for promotion is a sensible strategy.
  • 54. Strategies for promoting events include: • Using social media • Paid advertising online • Paid advertising offline • Free publicity via television, radio or print media • Promotional events leading up to the main event. • Signage and banners
  • 55. Cont (a) Using social media The use of social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.) is now regarded as a "must do" strategy for promoting any event. However, there is a lot to learn to make good use of the promotional power of social media. Probably there are few sport administrators over the age of 40 that have any inkling of how it works, and they rely on the skills and knowledge of Generation Y who are intimate with social media. Importantly, it is not just about having a Facebook page for your event, you need to really get to grips with how to use the phenomenal power of Facebook to create targeted adverts. For example, advertising can be targeted towards people who have a particular interest and who live in a particular geographic area.
  • 56. Cont (b) Paid advertising online Most people will be familiar with the extent of advertising on the World Wide Web but few really understand how it really works. It would be a really difficult proposition, and far too time consuming, for advertisers to deal with the millions of website managers around the world. So, a very lucrative business niche (affiliate marketing) exists that intermediates between people who want to advertise, and people wanting to earn money by putting adverts on their websites.
  • 57. Cont (c) Paid advertising online (cont a) There are a number of mechanisms by which a website earns money by displaying advertising, they include: • Cost per click (CPC) - the advertiser pays when the web page visitor clicks on their add • Pay per 1000 impressions (CPM) - the advertiser pays a fee based on how many 1000's of times their add is seen by website visitors • Cost per action (CPA) - the advertiser pays when a defined action occurs e.g. often the action is a sale made • Pay per lead generated (CPL) - the advertiser pays when a lead is generated by the website as a visitor fills in a contact form giving their name, email address and possibly other contact details • Pay per sale (CPS) - the advertiser pays when a sale is made to the website visitor
  • 58. Cont (d) Paid advertising online (cont b) Events can be advertised easily promoted through paid online advertising but the event manager needs to contact an affiliate marketing company. There is also a necessity for the event manager to provide the graphical components for the advertising that the website manager needs. Two main difficulties exist with paid online advertising. Most events have a very local appeal whereas website often have a much larger geographic focus. It is still possible however to select websites who serve only a local audience. The second problem is that it is necessary to set an upper limit to the cost for the advertiser. In both these issue, advertising via Facebook solves the problem.
  • 59. Cont (e) Paid advertising offline This category is really the traditional forms of advertising that include: • Newspaper advertising • Magazine advertising • Radio advertising • Television advertising • Billboards Events can also be advertised in newsletters, banners and letterbox drops but these strategies usually have a very limited geographic reach. Nevertheless, many events can benefit greatly by employing local advertising strategies. For example, a banner can be hung where it can be viewed by passing traffic.
  • 60. Cont (f) Free publicity Everybody wants free publicity but it is quite hard to achieve. Certainly, it's important to be able to generate press releases with interesting stories to catch the interest of the media. It is also a time consuming occupation to create a database of media organizations with the names of editors, email addresses and fax numbers. There are companies that specialized in this data but the service can be expensive. The key to free publicity is to avoid attempts to blatantly promote your event. Media organizations will say if you want to advertise your event, you should pay for the privilege. After all media organizations depend on advertising to pay the wages of staff!!
  • 61. Cont (g) Promotional Events This strategy involves setting up small community events, at which sporting stars attend, to give away some free tickets or other promotional goods such as caps and t-shirts, for a chance to address the public with a loudspeaker. Events can be held in shopping centers, sport clubs and schools. Promotional are relatively short and easy to undertake but do require event managers to make early contact with community organizations.
  • 62. Timeframes for Event Management Tasks The table below includes the majority of tasks that must be carried out in order to successfully stage an event. Some differences may arise where venues are owned and operated by the event organizers and where the scale of the event is very small e.g. an intra- club event (in which case timeframes may be smaller) or very large e.g. The Olympic Games (in which case timeframes will be greater).
  • 63. Cont (a) Priority Order of Event Management Tasks Priority Tasks Months before 1 Examine feasibility of staging the event - The organization wishing to stage a special event may need to consult stakeholders, examine the resources needed and develop a budget. 18 - 24 2 Bid for event - The organization wishing to stage a special event may be required to develop, document and deliver a proposal to any person or organization that has the power to determine which club, association or company will have responsibility for staging the event. 18 - 24 3 Appoint Event Director - The organization needs to recruit a person with suitable skills, knowledge and personality to take responsibility for managing the event from start to finish. They may be salaried or voluntary and their responsibilities may span a period of 2 years or more. 18 4 Form organizing committee - not necessary to have a full organizing committee in place but a small number of individuals with skills and knowledge to assist with early decision making e.g. choice of venue 18 5 Secure venue - Check possible venues and book a venue that is most suitable for the date(s) required. The venue chosen does not have to be the same as the one indicated in the event bid but it should be equally as good. Otherwise there may be concerns on the part of major stakeholders. 18 6 Seek government funding - If government funding is a possibility it should be sought early. Organizations applying for government funding need to take note of deadlines for applications in the year before the event. From the time an application is received by a government agency to the time when decisions are announced is often 3 months. Furthermore if the application is successful there may be a delay before funds are received. The combination of these factors mean that an application inside a 12 month period before the event start is probably too late. 12 - 18 7 Develop a detailed event management plan - The Event Director with the assistance of the organizing committee must identify the resources and tasks needed to stage the event. Every aspect must be covered. The work involved in planning the event (after a successful bid) may commence 18 months before the event but will continue to within a few months of the event's start. 3 - 18
  • 64. (b)8 Seek major sponsors - It is important to anticipate that commercial organizations may be involved in preparing their budgets in a three month period before the end of the financial year on June 30. Sponsorship proposals need to be received after budgets have been set may have less chance of success. 12 - 18 9 Obtain specialty equipment - Particularly in sports events there may be a necessity to purchase, hire or borrow equipment that is not manufactured in Australia. Negotiating and transacting with foreign businesses and organizations can be a lengthy process due to the need for document translation, waiting periods for orders to be completed, transmission of funds, transportation of goods and clearance by Customs. Delays should be anticipated. 6 - 12 10 Select and notify important officials - Important or high-ranking officials may have many demands placed on them to attend many events. It is therefore necessary to seek their involvement as early as possible. Another factor to be considered is if it is necessary to recruit officials who require air travel, then notice should be given to such officials in time for them to obtain the maximum discount on airfares 6 - 12 11 Book caterers - Where a venue owner allows the event organizer to do their own catering (not all do), it is advisable to obtain cost information early enough. The cost of catering will either be recovered from participants (players and spectators) or written off as a cost of the event i.e. catering for volunteers, hospitality for visiting dignitaries and/or sponsors. If the cost of catering is to be recovered from participants, information needs to be obtained in time to set participant fees. If catering is part of hospitality for sponsors, the costs should be considered in setting sponsorship prices. 3 - 6 12 Print promotional materials - Promotional materials include competition entry forms for spectators, posters and fliers to attract public support, and in some cases information kits for the media. Competition entry forms should be sent out to associations, clubs and individuals approximately three months before the start of the event. Therefore printing of entry forms must be completed before this. Inside the last 3 months the usefulness of other forms of promotional material is reduced if printing with every week that passes and printing is not complete. 3 - 6 13 Invite dignitaries - The term dignitaries may include local politicians, representatives of sponsors and government funding agencies, important sports officials and notable sporting personalities. Particularly with politicians, best results may be achieved with 3 - 6 months’ notice and with several follow ups. Politicians have very considerable demands placed on their time and may be booked up several months in advanced. 3 - 6
  • 65. (c) 14 Recruit and train event management team - The event management team (not to be confused with the organizing committee) comprises all those individuals that will help on the day(s). Personnel may include people who set-up the venue, supervise entry into the venue, announcers, marshals, crowd controllers, trouble-shooters, cleaners, merchandise sellers, drivers and transporters, and many others. The event management team need to be recruited and provided with training before the event. They may also need to be outfitted with event uniform if such exists. Notice should be given approximately 6 months before the event to allow people to make arrangements for leave from work and to free themselves from other commitments. Training should begin approximately 2 months before the event. 2 - 6 15 Send invitations (or entry forms) to prospective participants -Invitations and entry forms should be sent 1 or 2 months before the deadline date for the receipt of entries. This may be approximately 3 months before the event. In case where participants may require air travel, event organizers should consider that, generally, the later flights are booked by participants the greater is the cost of the air ticket. 2 - 3 16 Check venue facilities - Although a through checking of the venue may have taken place at the start of the planning process, there may have been changes. Where the venue is not owned and operated by the event organizers, there needs to be further checks of the venue. These checks serve to familiarize event organizers with the venue, to consider emergency management plans, contingency plans, and discover whether all facilities are in working order. 2 - 3 17 Finalize event programme - The event programme can be finalized when there is relative certainty as to the number of participants. This may not be known until all entries have been received. It is therefore necessary to set a deadline for the receiving of entries. When there is a good knowledge of who will be participating, the Event Director can make adjustments to the timetable e.g. start times, order of events, presentations, etc. Ideally the event programme should be printed and sent to participating organizations and dignitaries one or two weeks ahead of the event. Other participants may receive their programmes on the day of the event. 1 - 2 18 Commence media blitz - Although Media Kits may have been developed and sent to the media around 2 months to go, there may be little point in staging a media campaign more than one month before the event. The purpose of the media campaign is generate public support for the event i.e. spectators. Early event publicity may not be effective as the public will tend to forget. The peak period for media activity will be the last two weeks. ½ - 1
  • 66. (d) 19 Transport equipment to venue - There are usually many items to transfer and these include public address equipment, kitchen equipment, signage and banners, scoreboards, computer equipment, photocopiers, sports or activity equipment, tables and chairs, lecterns, first aid equipment, drinking fountains and more. Drivers for this transportation will have been recruited earlier as part of the event management team. In some cases it may be possible to transport equipment and store at the venue several days in advance. At other times, however, this may not be allowed until the last day. Last week 20 Setup venue - In many cases may not be possible to commence setting until the day before or even the night before. There may be other venue hirers packing up and leaving as your event management team are arriving with the equipment to set up. Where possible, the venue should be completed set up and all equipment tested on the day before. If this is not possible then it may be necessary to work through the night if venue owners allow. Setting up on the day, only hours before the event commences, runs the risk of a delay to the schedule start time and this can affect the whole event dramatically. For example, stress increases exponentially when equipment is found to be missing or does not work. Furthermore the setting up of a venue is a surprisingly lengthy process and there needs to be sufficient time allowed for workers to achieve all tasks comfortably. Day before
  • 68. Opening Program Time Program 01: 00 pm Arrival of the team 01: 10 pm March Past Rehearsal 02: 30 pm Arrival of the Chief Guest 02: 45 pm National Anthem 02: 50 pm Team March Past 03: 20 pm Recitation of the Holy Quran 03:25 pm Oath Talking 03:30 pm Welcome Speech by the Vice Chancellor 03:35 pm Speech of the chief Guest & Declaration of the meet open 03:50 pm Baloon + Pigeon 04:00 pm March pit/ Gliders Fly-Pass/Band Display 04:10 pm Khattak Dance -1 04:20 pm Khattak Dance -2
  • 69. Closing Program Time Program 02: 00 pm Terms Assembles in the Ground 02: 15 pm Arrival of Chief Guest 02: 20 pm Recitation of Holy Quran 02: 25 pm Speech by The Organizating Secretary 02: 35 pm Speech by The Vice Chancellor of SUIT 02: 50 pm Speech by The Chief Guest 03:10 pm Prize Distribution Ceremony 03:40 pm The Chief Guest Declares the meet Close 03:50 pm National Anthem
  • 70. Day – 1 Sr. No. Time Event 1 8:30 500MTRS Final 2 9:00 100MTRS Heat 3 9:00 High Jump Final 4 9:00 Javelin Throw Final 5 9:30 800MTRS S/Final 6 9:45 400MTRS(Hurdles) S/Final 7 10:00 400MTRS Heat 8 10:45 Shot Put Throw Final 9 10:45 100MTRS S/Final 10 10:45 Long Jump Final 11 11:15 400MTRS S/Final 12 12:00 3000 M Steeple Chase Final 13 12:30 400MTRS Final 14 12:45 100MTRS Final 15 13:00 400MTRS(Hurdles) Final 16 16:30 4*100MTRS S/Final 17 16:40 4*400MTRS S/Final
  • 71. Day – 2 Sr. No. Time Event 1 8:30 10000 MTRS Final 2 9:00 Tripple Jump Final 3 9:00 Hammer Throw Final 4 9:20 200 MTRS Heat 5 9:55 110 MTRS (HURDLES) S/Final 6 10:15 800 MTRS Final 7 10:30 200 MTRS S/Final 8 10:45 POLE VAULT Final 9 10:45 DISCUSS THROW Final 10 11:00 110 MTRS (HURDLES) Final 11 11:30 200 MTRS Final 12 12:30 4X100 M (RELAY) Final 13 13:00 1500 MTRS Final 14 13:30 4X400 M (RELAY) Final
  • 72. Cont (a) The "Programme" is the schedule of activities from the start of the event to its conclusion. For a sport event, the programme governs which competitors participate at what time. For a conference, the programme stipulates the times of lectures and workshops, what topics are offered and who is presenting. If the event is the annual awards dinner, the programme sets out what time people should arrive, what time each course will be served and the times that each award ceremony will take place. The programme is therefore perhaps the central organizing component of the event. Keeping to times as advertised on the programme is a key performance measure from the standpoint of the participant's satisfaction. An event that fails to run on time will inevitably cause complaints from participants and frustration on the part of all persons. People can be very adversely affected if the event runs overtime and obviously commencing before the advertised time is definitely NOT something to ever contemplate.
  • 73. Cont (b) In setting the programme, event organizers need to estimate as accurately as possible the time that each and every activity in the programme will take. Furthermore, it is necessary to include in this calculations a time interval between each activity. This time interval is very important. There is usually always a need to move people and equipment, allow for introductions and thank-you’s, make announcements and allow time for refreshments to be served and toilet breaks. Preparing the official programme will inevitably require someone to make many computations with calculator or spreadsheet. The draft programme produced is likely to change and amendment many times before it is ready for publication.
  • 74. Cont (c) The important factors to consider in preparing the official programme are: • Consultation with all parties directly involved in the programme • Calculating the time of each and every activity • Ensuring that the programme has time for "ceremonial" activities e.g. opening and/or closing ceremonies, speeches, the presentation of awards, entertainment • Ensuring that the venue is available for the FULL duration of the event • Choosing the date(s) so that the event does not clash with other major events • Allowing for a little "slack" time between activities • The order of activities • How the printed programme will be published
  • 75. Cont (d) Event Ceremonies Ceremonial aspects of events should not be underestimated in importance. They include opening and closing speeches, musical fanfares, playing of national anthems, presentation of awards and flowers, visits from dignitaries, flag raising, and special displays. While not a necessary component, there is an increasing trend to add ceremonial activities to the event programme. They add greatly to the emotion, symbolism and entertainment value of the event. The inclusion of ceremonial activities is more common where events are of national importance, are televised and have major sponsors. Nevertheless adding a little ceremony to the event programme, which often costs very little, should be considered for smaller events. A failure to include ceremonial activities is an opportunity lost for the organization hosting the event.
  • 76. Cont (e) Event Ceremonies (a) Some points to consider in adding ceremony to the event programme are: • Dignitaries that fail to show or arrive late - make contingency plans • Capturing and positioning the crowd to witness the ceremony - they tend not to be effective if the people are dispersed too widely • Ceremonies that are not well organized may backfire badly - include rehearsals • Consider carefully the best time for ceremonies in the event programme - try to avoid dignitaries arriving at bad times or when there a few to witness i.e. crowd at its smallest.
  • 77. Round Robin Tournament Round Robin Format One of the most common formats for a tournament is a two- pool Round Robin. In this format, teams or players are divided into two groups. Then each player/team in each group plays every other player/team once. After all pool matches have been completed, the top two teams in each pool go forward to a finals series in which loses are knocked out. It is perfectly possible to have pools where only winners go through to the knockout semifinal stage, or the top two team go through to the quarter- final. The number of pools and the number of players/teams in each pool depends on the total time available, the duration of each match, and the number of pitches/courts. In a junior soccer/football tournament, matches can be as short as 15 minutes each way (30 minutes total).
  • 78. Cont (a) The Schedule of Matches As an organizer of a Round Robin Tournament, it is very important to create a schedule of matches in which there is no error. The two main issues in creating a draw for a Round Robin Tournament is that it is necessary to: Avoid missing a match, an easy thing to do! Avoid back-to-back matches for any team/athlete as this may put them at a disadvantage The schedule of matches needs to be made known to all teams/players well in advance otherwise there are risks that teams/players may arrive late for the first few matches. In situations where an organization or club regularly conducts tournaments, either knockout or round robin, it is worthwhile to consider the purchase of tournament scheduling software. It will save you time and greatly reduce the likelihood of error.
  • 79. Cont (b) The Schedule of Matches (cont b) All-Pro Tournament Scheduler Pro is an excellent example because it very versatile and easy to use. This software package has many useful features and you will be able to: • Create tournament charts and schedules for Single Elimination, Double Elimination, Pool Play, Round-Robin, and Consolation • Enables teams/players to be seeded • Handle multiple events and multiple locations • Publish tournament charts, game schedule and results online
  • 80. Cont (c) Hospitality in Events Hospitality should be regarded as an integral aspect of improving the quality of event spectators' experience. The two main objectives of improving the spectators' experience is to encourage the spectator to: • Return to event on a frequent basis • Promote the event by word of mouth in the community Event managers need to think beyond the refreshment stall but be aware of industry trends as to how sport and recreation organizations are increasing the rewards for participants. It is good policy for managers to investigate some of the best events in their community to identify what are other organizations are providing participants.
  • 81. Cont (d) Hospitality is often a term used to infer food and beverages served. However Collins dictionary defines "hospitable" to be welcoming guests and strangers. Event managers need to see their event from the point of view the participant/spectator point of view. The following may be some of the items that would make spectator "guests" feel more welcome: 1. Seating 2. Food and refreshment 3. A reception area for dignitaries and other important personnel 4. Information stands manned by event personnel 5. Good standard of toilets, wash rooms and baby change areas for public 6. Good standard change facilities 7. Facilities for people with a disability 8. Giveaways and lucky door prizes 9. Special services for competitors such as masseurs, lockers 10. Directions to venue on web site 11. Assistance with parking 12. Good public announcement system 13. End of event function
  • 82. Promotional Products for Events Merchandising Selling promotional products (merchandising) is not a necessary component of event management but it can add to the potential for ongoing marketing of the event in future years. It can also turn a profit unless the event organizers are stock with stock they cannot sell. Types of Promotional Products Product Example Gift items Glassware, pottery, timber - etched, painted, printed or carved with special motifs, messages, logos, symbols Clothing Caps, T-shirts, items of sport apparel Badges Competitors badges are popular with children Equipment Sporting equipment e.g. tennis balls and racquets sold at a tennis event` Programmes Official event programme, souvenir programmes Magazines Sport journals, newsletters Books Sport books, coaching manuals Memorabilia 2nd hand items that once belonged to famous identities Food This is a special category of merchandising
  • 83. Cont (a) Purpose of Promotional Products The purpose of selling such products is primarily to boost event revenue and increase profits. However there are also considerable promotional advantages. T-shirts that have been screen-printed with a pattern to commemorate the event is a common form of promotion, and one that has a lasting effect. Such clothing helps to promote the event, the host organization, the sponsor and/or the sport/activity in general. The provision of clothing merchandise is also an opportunity for the host organization to provide a uniform for volunteers, which they may receive free as a reward. The wearing of a common article of clothing by all staff usually has a positive effect on the visual characteristics of the event. Such visual characteristics of the event should not be underestimated in terms of benefits for the competition environment.
  • 84. Cont (b) Tasks involved with Promotional Products The work involved in merchandising includes selecting products, negotiating with suppliers, receiving and ensuring security of stock, recruiting and training a sales team, setting up a sales stand, payment of suppliers, cash management and producing financial reports. It is therefore not to be undertaken without adequate thought or planning. It is generally only considered worthwhile when one or more of the following conditions are true: • The event brings together a significant number of participants • The event has a sufficient duration to allow for sales of merchandising during the event • The event has the potential to attract a significant number of spectators • The perceived importance of event is likely to promote sales of merchandising • The event is unique in some way and is worth commemorating
  • 85. Cont (c) Risks associated with Promotional Products Some of the dangers that may arise from merchandising include: Purchasing items that do not sell It can be very difficult to judge what items will sell. Clothing poses a special problem for it is necessary to carefully select a range of sizes. Having a knowledge of potential buyers may help. For instance, clothing sold at a Gymnastics tournament is likely to be smaller than clothing sold at a Rugby match. Theft and damage to stock The nature of events is that there is much frenzied work with too few helpers. A merchandising stall needs to have at least one staff person in attendance at all times. Otherwise articles are too tempting. Damage may also occur as a result of transportation, rain, customers browsing or trying on items of clothing. It may be prudent to anticipate damage in setting a price structure.
  • 86. Cont (d) Ordering merchandising stocks too late For best effect merchandising should be available for sale two or three weeks before the event. This allows for a maximum promotion effect. It is also worthwhile to consider advertising the fact that merchandising will be on sale in pre-event brochures and fliers that are sent to participants. Sales may be lost of participants do not anticipate purchasing products in setting the amount of money with which they leave home. If stocks simply arrive the day before, advantages such as pre-event promotion will be lost. Furthermore a late arrival of stocks reduces the merchandisers' ability to check stocks, attach price tags and package in protective materials such Failure to provide adequate training to merchandising staff Merchandising can be an onerous task for the volunteer. In particular there is a need to instruct staff in the procedures for recording sales accurately and for taking responsibility for cash. There is a need to record the details of all sales transactions in an accounting document. Such a document should be able to withstand the rigors of an audit by an accountant. For example it should be possible to check the number of items sold, the price, the customer and the date. Staff should also be trained in keeping money secure such as counting money in a back room or out of sight, careful transportation
  • 87. Cont (e) Death in Sport The following are, unfortunately, some of the ways that people have died at sporting events. Some are quite bizarre. The following accounts serve to be a reminder to all event directors to expect the unexpected. Riot: In 1964, 318 people were killed and another 500 injured in riots at a football match at the National Stadium, Lima, Peru. This was the worst ever sporting disaster. Shooting: A tennis spectator shot in the leg while sitting on the stadium court watching a match by someone letting off a gun on the outside the court. Police never found out who was responsible. Crushed: In 1989, 95 people were crushed to death at the Hillsborough Soccer Stadium, Sheffield, England when police opened gates to alleviate crowding, resulting in a rush of people onto the already filled terrace. The barriers broke under the weight of the crowd which then toppled forwards and downwards, crushing those at the bottom. Bridge collapse and drowning: in 1997, four Australian athletes died at the Maccabiah Games, Israel when a temporary bridge collapsed under the weight of people. Two athletes died immediately by drowning in the Yarkon River below, while the other two died of complications caused by the polluted river water.
  • 88. Cont (f) Death in Sport (cont a) Killed by a flare: In 1993 at Word Cup Qualifying game in Cardiff, a football fan was killed by a flare which was fired across the pitch and into the neck of an elderly man. Killed by a Wheel: A crash involving Formula 1 racing drive Jacques Villeneuve at the Australian Grand Prixcaused the right rear wheel of his vehicle to be torn off. By a freak chance the errant wheel went through an access hole cut in the chainlink fence before striking a track marshall in the chest and killing him and wound seven others. Bombing: In 2010, 88 people were killed and dozens more wounded in a suicide bomb attack at a volleyball match in north-west Pakistan. Fire: In 1985, 56 people burned to death and over 200 injured when fire engulfed the main grandstand at Bradford's soccer stadium. Killed by a projectile: In 2002, a 13 year old girl spectator was killed by an Ice Hockey puck that went over the glass walls surrounding the ice arena.
  • 89. Cont (g) Death in Sport (cont b) Balcony collapse: In 1998, a balcony collapsed holding more than 100 people, mostly children. The balcony fell 16 feet onto a crowded floor at the Russian Freestyle Wrestling Championships at Nalchik, southern Russian. Terrorists: Five Arab terrorists wearing track suits climbed the six and 1/2 foot fence surrounding the 1972 Olympic Village in Munich, Germany. Once inside, they were met by three others who had gained entrance with credentials. Within 24 hours, 11 Israelis, five terrorists, and a German policeman were dead. Killed by parachutist: A woman was killed by a parachutist in Spearman, Texas in 1996 who was actually delivering the ball for a high school football game and was blown by the wind into spectators in the crowd. Crowd stampede: In 2001, 42 people were killed at the Ellis Park Stadium, South Africa, when the crowd began to stampede trying to get into the stadium. Struck by car: Two people were killed and three others injured when a rally car drove into crowd of spectators in Letter Kenny, Ireland, 2002. Deadly fall: In 2008, a man exiting New York's Shea Stadium died when he fell from an escalator and plunged two stories to the ground level.
  • 90. Preparing for disasters Whenever large numbers of people come together to watch an event, there is potential for major disasters. No-one ever suspects that day watching a sport event is a major risk to life and health but history proves otherwise. Sport administrators are required to conduct risk auditing for all types of events, large and small. Any failure to do this can result in a law suits for negligence. One important aspect of risk auditing is to examine all possible risks associated with spectators. Risks associated with spectators can arise as a result of the behavior of spectators and in particular when spectators begin to take on a crowd mentality. Risk associated with physical arrangements, dimensions and layout of the venue must also be examined. Sport administrators really need to know Murphy's Law (anything that can go wrong, will go wrong). (See more about risks associated with events)
  • 91. Cont (a) Crowd Control There is a necessity to make a careful estimation of the number of staff • Manage entry and exits • Control / patrol all areas of the ground / facility • Control an evacuation should it prove to be necessary • Raise the alarm and liaise with emergency services Having sufficient staff to manage an emergency is a "Duty of Care" It would be therefore prudent to consult appropriate emergency authorities (police, fire service, etc.) in this matter.
  • 92. Cont (b) Training in Crowd Control In Australia many states have legislation that requires a person to be licensed before they can act as a crowd controller. You should check for legislation in your own state. In order to be licensed, a person will usually undergo an accredited course that provides the participant with knowledge of the functions and roles of a crowd controller. Such a course might include: • Roles and responsibilities • Communication and clients • Operational procedures • Managing performance • Managing conflict • Emergency first aid • Crowd control operations • Law and practice • Emergency procedures • Access control • Securing premises and property
  • 93. Cont (c) Training in Crowd Control (cont a) In addition to this training, event managers and venue managers should provide additional training to familiarize their crowd control staff with specific aspects of the facility or venue. For example, it will be necessary to know the: • Location of exits, stairs and other aspects of buildings • Position of emergency equipment such as fire hoses • Location of communication devices e.g. alarms, public address systems and telephones It will also be necessary to provide training in the venue's or hosting organization’s policies and procedures for event management and control. These policies and procedures should include conducting drills and tests to ensure staff have the knowledge required.
  • 94. Cont (d) The event goer's Bill of Rights (Adapted from Crowd Management Strategies at www.crowdsafe.com) • To enjoy the event in a safe environment. • To be treated with respect by facility or venue management, event security, officials, and promoters (regardless of race, sex, appearance, or disability). • To be informed of facility or venue's house rules prior to or upon entry and my responsibilities as an event goer • To be informed of the risks associated with spectating at the event before or upon entry into the facility or venue • To be notified in a timely manner of changes in the performance, door opening, or other information affecting the safety and enjoyment of a concert.) • To have posted at the event, the names and addresses of the facility management, event organizers and security/crowd control firm.
  • 95. Cont (e) The spectator's plan for injury • Plan what you must do if you get injured. Try to find out in advance where the nearest place for First Aid and medical treatment is. • Get a written report of any treatment you receive if you are injured. This may be useful if you wish to initiate legal proceedings at a later date. • Don't sign the medical treatment report until you have read it and satisfied that it correctly describes your injuries. • Do not assume your injury is your fault. Even if your actions have partly contributed to the accident, there may be other factors that led to your injury over which you had no control. • Carry proper identification and important phone numbers, or medical information with you. (Allergy problems, medication data, etc.)
  • 96. Event Safety Below are a number of scenarios that indicate the range of risks associated with crowds at sporting events. Although some of these scenarios may seem to have a low probability, they do actually occur. As an event manager you are expected to have some kind of plan to deal with these problems if and when they occur. Emergency Scenarios What happens if . . . • A spectator in one of the stands has a heart attack and requires urgent medical attention? • Someone in one of the stands sets off a smoke canister and there are surges of people pushing in all directions trying to get away? • One of the parachutists (as seen in the picture above) lands badly and is suspected to have spinal injuries? • The number of people in one of the stands exceeds the design limit? • There is an earthquake during the event? • There is an electrical storm during the event? • And of course there are many more possibilities!
  • 97. Cont (a) It is extremely important for event organizers to have an emergency plan in place. The objectives of such a plan would be to reduce the possible consequences of an emergency through the provision of training to event staff in: • awareness of types of emergency at sport events • early recognition of an emergency situation • actions to be taken to bring medical services (e.g. ambulance) to those in need • crowd communication, direction and control • accelerating the resumption of normal operations An emergency plan specifies the organization’s policies and procedures for handling sudden and unexpected situations which require immediate
  • 98. Cont (b) Elements of an Emergency Plan 1. An Emergency Plan should include the following elements with the appropriate documentation: a) Assessment of the size and nature of the events foreseen and the probability of their occurrence. It is highly recommended that a vulnerability analysis be instigated. b) Formulation of a plan in consultation with outside authorities such as emergency services, fire department, police c) Procedures i. raising the alarm ii. invoking the emergency plan iii. communication both within and outside the site iv. evacuation of non-essential personnel to pre-determined safe assembly points by pre-determined exits
  • 99. Cont (c) Elements of an Emergency Plan (cont a) a) Appointment of key personnel and their duties and responsibilities i. site incident controller ii. site main controller b) Emergency control center (if required) c) Action on site, for example alerting staff and students, ordering evacuation, confirming evacuation is complete d) Action off site, alerting external agencies, alerting population, requesting external aid, advising the media e) Where and how injured persons are to be treated. Are suitable first aid facilities on site?
  • 100. Cont (d) Elements of an Emergency Plan (cont b) 2. The plan should define the way in which personnel at the incident site can initiate action. The plan should also contain the full sequence of key personnel to be called but consideration needs to be given to absences due to sickness and holidays, and any other changes in manning. 3. Emergency planning should consider the need to make arrangements for an authoritative release of information to the media. A person would be appointed to receive enquiries from the public. 4. Appropriate training needs to be given to all personnel who are part of the emergency plan. 5. Once the Emergency Plan has been finalized and appropriate training has been conducted then the plan should be tested in one of three ways: 1. full scale exercise to test command, coordination and communication setups 2. tabletop exercises can be used to test some aspects of the emergency plan, and has the advantage of not interrupting normal operations 3. Specific aspects of the plan can be tested, for example communication and evacuation. 6. The Emergency Plan must be regularly updated. This will take into account changes in personnel, telephone numbers and storage areas. This requirement should be written into the plan, and should be responsibility of a particular individual.
  • 101. Cont (e) Emergency Planning It is a reasonable community expectation that an Emergency Plan will be in place at all sporting events. Even small sporting events carry risks of medical emergencies involving competitors and spectators. Every event manager has to contemplate the need to deal with a range of scenarios from minor cuts and bruises to life-threatening injuries or illnesses that need require the immediate attention of paramedics. (See more about risks associated with events) When a large number of people are crowded into a sporting venue, the event manager must contemplate scenarios such as: • Explosion • Fire • Bomb Threat • Crowd Riot (including crush or stampede)
  • 102. Cont (f) Emergency Planning (cont a) • When bad things happen, the degree to which a disaster unfolds will depend on a few critically important factors: • The skills and knowledge of persons in charge of the event on the day • The planned response actions to any particular emergency scenario • The readiness of equipment
  • 103. Cont (g) Persons in charge of the event A number of personnel must be appointed who have clear roles and responsibilities and know exactly what to do in an event. Such personnel would include: • Emergency Coordinator • First Aid Personnel • Crowd Control Officials
  • 104. Cont (h) Planned response actions Knowing what to do in an emergency is a key factor that saves lives. For each type of scenario envisaged, there needs to be a planned set of actions (planned response actions) to be taken by all those who are allocated responsibility. These planned response actions include: • Evacuation procedure (when to evacuate, how to evacuate, where to evacuate to) • Sounding an alarm • Calling 000 for ambulance, police or fire • Opening entrance ways • Use of emergency equipment e.g. fire house • Calling for a doctor in the crowd (if they exist) to come forward Emergency management plans require people and people require training. The training needed by the team of people in charge of an event on the day include: • The Key personnel roles and responsibilities • Emergency exit locations and paths • Assembly point locations • Fire Fighting equipment locations • The rehearsal (exercise drills) of what to do on the day in the event of an emergency
  • 105. Cont (i) Maintenance and testing of equipment Equipment failure is a very real and persistent threat. This could include: • Mobile phones or 2-way radios with flat batteries • Public announcement equipment (loudspeakers) that do not work • Alarm signals that fail to go off • Fire hoses that cannot be used (e.g. tap rusted, hose damaged) • Gates or doors that cannot be opened • First aid kits that are not replenish Emergency Plan Checklist for an Event It is extremely important to have considered various emergencies that might occur at an event, and to undertake some planning as how such emergencies should be handled. The following 'Emergency Plan Checklist' for an event should not be regarded as complete. There will always be differences due to the type of event, the locality and the facility. Event administrators should be built upon the following list but at least it will give you a head start.
  • 106. Cont (j) Sample Emergency Plan Checklist 1. Has the event organizing committee actually discussed possible emergencies and tried to identify the different types of emergencies that may occur? 2. Have event volunteers and other club staff received any training as what they may do in the case of an emergency? 3. Does your club have a documented emergency plan? 4. Does the emergency plan stipulate duties and responsibilities of event personnel and club staff if an emergency occurs? 5. Does the emergency plan list all safety/emergency equipment (and first aid kit) and the location it can be found? 6. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on the checking of emergency equipment? 7. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on how and when to contact emergency personnel and emergency services? 8. Does the emergency plan provide clear instructions on how and when to shut down electricity supply? 9. Is key safety/emergency information posted clearly on an easily available noticeboard? 10. Are there notices that tell people not to block entry and exit routes for ambulances and other emergency personnel, and is this policed? 11. Is there equipment for emergency lighting should an emergency occur in the dark? 12. Is there provision for access to master keys in the event of an emergency 13. Is there a means to signal to persons who might be in danger i.e. loudspeakers? 14. Is there plan to carry out emergency drills e.g. fire drills?
  • 107. Cont (k) Conducting an event risk audit Conducting a risk audit is an essential component of developing an event management plan. A risk audit involves identifying and assessing all risks so that a plan can be put in place to deal with any occurrence of any undesirable event which causes harm to people or detriment to the organization. A risk audit involves: • checking the proposed venue for possible hazards, • observing other similar events to see how participants are likely to interact with the event environment • reviewing event management systems, policies and procedures and ensuring they are up to date • interviewing event personnel to check whether they have received appropriate training
  • 108. Cont (l) Checking the venue Broadly speaking, there are two situations to consider. The first situation is that you are familiar with the venue as you have used it before. In this circumstance, it is still necessary to manage risks but the time spent checking the venue will focus more on ensuring the venue is well prepared according to risk management plans you already have. It will also be necessary to identify any changes in the venue since you last used it. In the second situation, you are unfamiliar with the event and you may never have used it before. In this circumstance it will be necessary to conduct a walk-through of the venue to identify possible hazards and risks. It helps greatly to have a prepared checklist. For example, your checklist might remind you to check for: • Ambulance assess in case of an emergency • Doors/gates that need to be secured to prevent equipment loss, restrict access to spectators or prevent children from exiting the venue. (see spectator safety checklist) • Areas that need to be cordoned off if they contain hazards • Areas/rooms that can be used for first aid
  • 109. Cont (m) • Observing Other Events It is the very nature of sport events that surprising things happen, especially in the heat of the moment. There is no foolproof method for identifying risks but watching similar events is very useful. In particular, your observation might provide knowledge of the behavior of spectators and players. Crowd control is an essential element of sport event management. Spectators and players may be unruly and even violent and the event officials needs to be able to react swiftly.
  • 110. Cont (n) Event Management Procedures Event managers must ensure that event management procedures cover a full range of emergencies including major injury or illness of players or spectators, fire, bomb threat, crowd disturbances and climatic conditions such as lightning, torrential rain, flooding, etc. Event manage procedures should also assist event personnel to effectively do their job. Although the most important procedures will be about safety, there should be other procedures that lessen risks to the event profitability and the organization’s reputation. These procedures might include: • Cash management • Food serving and hygiene • Waste collection • Marshaling of competitors • Restriction of access to certain areas • Arrival and greeting of visiting dignitaries • Loudspeaker announcements during the event • Giveaways of merchandising or free food and drink • Raffles and fundraising
  • 111. Cont (o) Interviewing Event Staff The provision of training to event staff (and volunteers) is a critical element in risk management. It is a dangerous situation to presume that procedures have been read and that people will know what to do in an emergency. Ultimately the buck stops with the Event Manager and therefore it is a reasonable use of the Event Manager's time to have meetings with Event Staff, either individually or in groups, to determine their knowledge of procedure.