Event Title:  “Play: The workshop” Date:  12th of September 2008 Speaker:  Robert Grigg Company:  University of Portsmouth...
Event Description Methods for evaluating experience within the video games industry are growing and changing at a rapid pa...
Where is FUN today? Robert Grigg Advanced Games Research Group School of Creative Technologies Faculty of Creative and Cul...
Fun <ul><li>“ We have the equation that lets you know how fun your designed title will be...” </li></ul>
Interested? <ul><li>We can catch up for a coffee later </li></ul>
What Will I Be Talking About? <ul><li>Problems facing Usability and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Entertainment...
Usability and HCI <ul><li>Research into Usability and Human Computer Interfaces traditionally focuses on the problem of ma...
Fun Research is Lonely <ul><li>Monk (1999) in his preface to the first workshop on ‘Computers and Fun’ for Human-Computer ...
Where is the Fun? <ul><li>Fun is not the priority of HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Fun is not a component or requirement </li></ul...
Games Industry and Fun <ul><li>Industry suffers from being largely profit focused </li></ul><ul><li>Title development gene...
Fun - Questions to Be Asked <ul><li>Is  fun a valid metric? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the components of fun? </li></ul><u...
Entertainment Industry Research <ul><li>The challenge is now to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand what fun is </li>...
Why Would It Be Nice to Know More About Fun? <ul><li>Being more accurate in how a completely new game title design may equ...
Understanding Fun <ul><li>“ Unless we have a detailed vocabulary with which to express and debate the cognitive features o...
Is Fun Precise Enough? <ul><li>Fun is a little ambiguous: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowboarding  is fun </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
ISO Standard for Fun (Spoof) <ul><li>“ Fun : Consisting of elements of animation, bliss, buoyancy, cavorting, cheer, chuck...
Sport? <ul><li>Sport = Fun  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all sport is fun </li></ul><ul>...
Elusive But We Are Not Alone <ul><li>Moraldo describes  Fun  as the  crucial  but  elusive  ingredient in computer games (...
FUN - Defining <ul><li>How do we define fun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun requi...
The Encounter – Lessons from Improvisation Theatre <ul><li>Narrative Contract </li></ul>Offer Accept Block Counter-Offer
Albert Meets El <ul><li>El – she is a Druid in the World of WarCraft (WoW) </li></ul><ul><li>El took Albert on a tour </li...
Acceptances in WoW <ul><li>Mechanisms to avoid blocks (a few examples): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocating Items </li></ul><...
Growing Level of Acceptances <ul><li>Newbie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of individual campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Blocking and the Cold-Shoulder <ul><li>The implicit block (silent block) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No response to a typed comm...
Three Groupings Emerge <ul><li>Individual Predisposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He/She is a lot of fun </li></ul></ul><ul><...
The Fun Unification Model (Newman)
Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Tendency to Become Focused  (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I easily become deep...
Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Tendency to Become Involved   (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I frequently find ...
Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Gaming Tendency (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When watching sports, I sometime...
Narrative Tendencies <ul><li>Finding Narrative (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoy hearing funny stories </li></ul...
Narrative Tendencies <ul><li>Creating Narrative (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoy making people laugh with my st...
The Fun Response <ul><li>Temporal Dissociation  (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time went by very quickly...
The Fun Response <ul><li>Heightened Enjoyment  (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had fun communicating on...
The Fun Response <ul><li>Narrative Engagement (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt I was joining in with a story in ...
The Fun Response <ul><li>Intention to Revisit (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I would like to participate...
Experimental Results <ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Tendency was a significant and better predictor of Fu...
Male Experience
Female Experience
Medium Altered Required Predisposition <ul><li>Fun is highly predictable when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Narrative Predis...
Other Outcomes <ul><li>People want to play </li></ul><ul><li>People want to hear stories </li></ul><ul><li>People want to ...
Future Improvements <ul><li>Other measurements could be used in parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing specific behavio...
Impacts to How We Develop <ul><li>Teams in the development process need to be made up of members with different dispositio...
Closing Note <ul><li>A lot of fun comes from experiencing and engaging with something new so how do we isolate this and he...
Questions? <ul><li>Robert Grigg </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
Thank you! For more information about Use8 events please visit: www.use8.net Or follow us on Twitter: www.twitter.com/use8...
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Fun And Games Presentation, Robert Grigg, University of Portsmouth, Use8

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  • Fun And Games Presentation, Robert Grigg, University of Portsmouth, Use8

    1. 1. Event Title: “Play: The workshop” Date: 12th of September 2008 Speaker: Robert Grigg Company: University of Portsmouth Topic: “Where is fun today?” www.use8.net www.twitter.com/use8 *The contents of this slideshow was presented at a Use8 event and reflects the views of the presenting parties ..
    2. 2. Event Description Methods for evaluating experience within the video games industry are growing and changing at a rapid pace. The South East Gaming Symposium is an innovative workshop that brings together industry professionals and academics to understand the mutual challenges that they face within the field. The workshop format creates the perfect environment to generate a shared understanding; leveraging both academic and industry participation as knowledge co-creators in the development of robust and reliable methods for evaluating experience. *The contents of this slideshow was presented at a Use8 event and reflects the views of the presenting parties ..
    3. 3. Where is FUN today? Robert Grigg Advanced Games Research Group School of Creative Technologies Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries University of Portsmouth
    4. 4. Fun <ul><li>“ We have the equation that lets you know how fun your designed title will be...” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Interested? <ul><li>We can catch up for a coffee later </li></ul>
    6. 6. What Will I Be Talking About? <ul><li>Problems facing Usability and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Entertainment Industry </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of understanding Fun </li></ul><ul><li>What is the current research into Fun today? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the Future of Fun? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Usability and HCI <ul><li>Research into Usability and Human Computer Interfaces traditionally focuses on the problem of making computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient at achieving their programmed task or function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooted in the world of business applications </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Fun Research is Lonely <ul><li>Monk (1999) in his preface to the first workshop on ‘Computers and Fun’ for Human-Computer Interface researchers observed, </li></ul><ul><li>“ What has HCI to say about fun? The answer is – very little!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ fun should be serious topic for research...” </li></ul><ul><li>Are academics fun? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Where is the Fun? <ul><li>Fun is not the priority of HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Fun is not a component or requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Most research centres on achieving a task </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively doing your job does not equate to fun </li></ul><ul><li>Education and fun do not go hand-in-hand </li></ul><ul><li>The Entertainment Industry is just plain different </li></ul>
    10. 10. Games Industry and Fun <ul><li>Industry suffers from being largely profit focused </li></ul><ul><li>Title development generally shies away from risk which promotes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity of sequels to successful products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of titles in proven genres with proven game play mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely for a company to take a big gamble on a new unproven title </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Fun - Questions to Be Asked <ul><li>Is fun a valid metric? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the components of fun? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the outcomes for such a metric? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Entertainment Industry Research <ul><li>The challenge is now to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand what fun is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how this can be designed into games effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the fun level from a game design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the most out of better knowing fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine the production process </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Why Would It Be Nice to Know More About Fun? <ul><li>Being more accurate in how a completely new game title design may equate to the final levels of fun </li></ul><ul><li>Actively developing fun so that the final product requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer iterations to produce an entertaining title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieves publisher/audience approval </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Understanding Fun <ul><li>“ Unless we have a detailed vocabulary with which to express and debate the cognitive features of interaction with computer games then we stand little chance of understanding why these artefacts have such appeal.” (Johnson 1999, pp105) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Is Fun Precise Enough? <ul><li>Fun is a little ambiguous: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowboarding is fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have experience of this activity? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brighton is fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have you been there? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What makes this fun? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sally is a lot of fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is Sally? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What makes her fun? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. ISO Standard for Fun (Spoof) <ul><li>“ Fun : Consisting of elements of animation, bliss, buoyancy, cavorting, cheer, chuckles, delight, ecstasy, frivolity, frolicking, gags, gaiety, gladness, glee, happiness, jests, jokes, joviality, joy, laughter, light-heartedness, merriment, mirth, play, pleasantries, quips, rapture, sport , tranquility, and witticism.” (Stewart, 1996, pp1) </li></ul><ul><li>Note this is made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical actions </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Sport? <ul><li>Sport = Fun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all sport is fun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of hardcore game players would agree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people hate sport </li></ul><ul><li>Sport on a computer can be different... </li></ul>
    18. 18. Elusive But We Are Not Alone <ul><li>Moraldo describes Fun as the crucial but elusive ingredient in computer games (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers et al. describes Fun as the essential purpose of drama (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Riva describes identity creation has the Fun of dressing up as someone else (1999) </li></ul>
    19. 19. FUN - Defining <ul><li>How do we define fun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun requires conscious attention... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fun requires conscious attention, and often we do not want to give that when we are trying to achieve something else, any more than we want a difficult user interface to intrude on and distract from a work task.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(S Draper 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Encounter – Lessons from Improvisation Theatre <ul><li>Narrative Contract </li></ul>Offer Accept Block Counter-Offer
    21. 21. Albert Meets El <ul><li>El – she is a Druid in the World of WarCraft (WoW) </li></ul><ul><li>El took Albert on a tour </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Contracting Observational examination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Gameplay Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Transcripts for Contracting patterns </li></ul></ul>El (Druid from WoW) WoW Chat Interface
    22. 22. Acceptances in WoW <ul><li>Mechanisms to avoid blocks (a few examples): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocating Items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling for items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain Items for certain people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading Items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I want that sword! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Player Classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain items are for certain players </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed to encourage acceptances? </li></ul>Dice rolling mechanism for item allocation
    23. 23. Growing Level of Acceptances <ul><li>Newbie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of individual campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with Levelism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about who I am </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seasoned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well skilled and coordinated groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well defined player roles </li></ul></ul>Low High Maturity in Game Level of Acceptances
    24. 24. Blocking and the Cold-Shoulder <ul><li>The implicit block (silent block) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No response to a typed communication message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel or withdrawal from the game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The explicit block </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active blocking is often responded to with conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be quite offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourages higher implicit blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages lower counter-offers and blocks </li></ul>
    25. 25. Three Groupings Emerge <ul><li>Individual Predisposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He/She is a lot of fun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity in an Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowboarding is so much fun in Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Response to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a lot of fun at the party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basis for a Theoretical Model? </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Fun Unification Model (Newman)
    27. 27. Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Tendency to Become Focused (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I easily become deeply involved in movies or TV dramas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes become so involved in a television program or book that people have problems getting my attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am good at blocking out external distractions when I am involved in something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes become so involved in doing something that I lose all track of time </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Tendency to Become Involved (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I frequently find myself closely identifying with the characters in a story line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes become so involved in a daydream that I am not aware of things happening around me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am able to concentrate well on enjoyable activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes get excited during a chase or fight scene on TV or in the movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes get disturbed by something happening on a TV show or in a movie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sometimes remain apprehensive or fearful long after watching a disturbing movie </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Immersive Tendencies <ul><li>Gaming Tendency (Witmer & Singer 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When watching sports, I sometimes become so involved in the game that I react as if I were one of the players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When playing sports, I become so involved in the game that I lose track of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I often play arcade or video games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OFTEN should be taken to mean every day or every two days, on average (Newman 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Narrative Tendencies <ul><li>Finding Narrative (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoy hearing funny stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I do not enjoy a story with cliché plots or characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When I am part of a spontaneous humorous conversation I would rather listen than join in </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Narrative Tendencies <ul><li>Creating Narrative (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoy making people laugh with my stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoy telling stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My best stories are about things that have happened to me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I often exaggerate a little to make my stories more entertaining </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. The Fun Response <ul><li>Temporal Dissociation (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time went by very quickly while I was communicating online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I lost track of time while I was communicating online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused Immersion (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was absorbed in what I was doing while communicating online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I noticed things going on around me while I was communicating online </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Fun Response <ul><li>Heightened Enjoyment (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had fun communicating online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction gave me a lot of enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoyed using the communication system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating online bores me </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. The Fun Response <ul><li>Narrative Engagement (Newman 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt I was joining in with a story in this activity/environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was able to participate in and contribute to the story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was able to be spontaneous and imaginative in this activity/environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I found it difficult to participate in the story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I found the whole idea of the story of this activity/environment a bit silly </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. The Fun Response <ul><li>Intention to Revisit (Agarwal & Karahanna 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I would like to participate in this activity again in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I could easily become interested in this activity/environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not really interested in what happens in this activity/environment </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Experimental Results <ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Tendency was a significant and better predictor of Fun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersive Tendencies was the significant predictor of Fun </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Male Experience
    38. 38. Female Experience
    39. 39. Medium Altered Required Predisposition <ul><li>Fun is highly predictable when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Narrative Predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text based environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avatar based environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Immersive Predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full motion video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First person action environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something is NEW </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Other Outcomes <ul><li>People want to play </li></ul><ul><li>People want to hear stories </li></ul><ul><li>People want to tell stories </li></ul><ul><li>How do these happen? </li></ul><ul><li>Intention to revisit becomes high when all of these are present </li></ul>
    41. 41. Future Improvements <ul><li>Other measurements could be used in parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing specific behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting relevant physiological data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanic skin response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain area activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Impacts to How We Develop <ul><li>Teams in the development process need to be made up of members with different dispositions </li></ul>
    43. 43. Closing Note <ul><li>A lot of fun comes from experiencing and engaging with something new so how do we isolate this and heighten the intention to revisit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example the multi-layered story structure to Shrek </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Questions? <ul><li>Robert Grigg </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    45. 45. Thank you! For more information about Use8 events please visit: www.use8.net Or follow us on Twitter: www.twitter.com/use8 *The contents of this slideshow was presented at a Use8 event and reflects the views of the presenting parties ..

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