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Providing safe food

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Providing safe food

  1. 1. Providing Safe Food John RupnowDepartment of Food Science University of Nebraska 1-1
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  13. 13. Providing Safe FoodNational Restaurant Association 1-13
  14. 14. Providing Safe Food National Restaurant AssociationTrain 1,000,000 managers each year 1-14
  15. 15. Providing Safe Food National Restaurant AssociationTrain 1,000,000 managers each year 12 hr class, test, certification 1-15
  16. 16. Providing Safe Food National Restaurant Association Train 1,000,000 managers each year 12 hr class, test, certificationManual and exam are available in Spanish 1-16
  17. 17. Serve - Safe Many current issues in food service industry 1-17
  18. 18. Nutrition CDC report:64.5% of adults are overweight30.5% obese4.7% severe obesity 1-18
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  20. 20. Has the industry done a good job inproviding safe food? 1-20
  21. 21. Has the industry done a good job inproviding safe food? 1-21
  22. 22. Why does the public have this perception of foodservice ? 1-22
  23. 23. Training is not necessary All a company needs is responsible employees. true false 1-23
  24. 24. No need to towash afteranswering the callof natureGenitals are cleanShould washBEFORE ratherthan AFTER usingthe restroom 1-24
  25. 25. CDC estimates foodborne illnesses affects > 60 million persons, causes 9,000 deaths, and cost an estimated $5 billion 1-25
  26. 26. CDC estimates foodborne illnesses affects > 60 million persons, causes 9,000 deaths, and cost an estimated $5 billionMany of these cases are caused bypathogens that are fecally transmitted (e.g.Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli ). 1-26
  27. 27. Given your position on personalhygiene, if we should ever meet, letus simply wave rather than shakehands. Sincerely,Dr. John Rupnow 1-27
  28. 28. Everyone working in the foodindustry knows you should wasyour hands before handling food.TrueFalse 1-28
  29. 29. Street vendor 1-29
  30. 30. Costs of Foodborne Illness 1-30
  31. 31. Moral Responsibility 1-31
  32. 32. Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessHigher Risk People 1-32
  33. 33. Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessHigher Risk People 1-33
  34. 34. Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessHigher Risk People 1-34
  35. 35. Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessHigher Risk People 1-35
  36. 36. Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessHigher Risk People 1-36
  37. 37. The Microworld 1-37
  38. 38. Microbial ContaminantsMicroorganism Small, living organism 1-38
  39. 39. Why are we concerned aboutmicroorganisms ?Spoilage milk? 1-39
  40. 40. Why are we concerned aboutmicroorganisms ?SpoilageFermentationPathogens 1-40
  41. 41. CARBOHYDRATES PROTEIN FAT ALCOHOL TOXINS ACID CO2 1-41
  42. 42. Microbial ContaminantsMicroorganisms That Can ContaminateFood and Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi 1-42
  43. 43. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM FFood A Acidity T Temperature TTime O Oxygen M Moisture 1-43
  44. 44. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMFood Foodborne microorganisms require nutrients to grow. Specifically carbohydrates and proteins F These are found in potentially Food hazardous food including: Meat Poultry Dairy products Eggs 1-44
  45. 45. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMAcidity Foodborne microorganisms grow best in food that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH (7.5 to 4.6) Most food falls into this range A Acidity pH Scale Acidic Neutral Alkaline 1-45
  46. 46. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMTemperature Foodborne microorganisms grow well at temperatures between 41˚F and 135˚F (5˚C and 57˚C) T Temperature 135°F (57°C) 41°F (5°C) 1-46
  47. 47. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMTime Foodborne microorganisms need sufficient time to grow T 5 hours or more is enough to cause illness Time 1-47
  48. 48. How bacteria grow? 1-48
  49. 49. Microorganisms of Significance Bacteria Mode of Reproduction “Binary Fission” 1-49
  50. 50. Generation time = 15 minutestime # of bacteria0 1:15 2:30 4:45 81:002:003:004:005:00 1-50
  51. 51. Generation time = 15 minutestime # of bacteria0 1:15 2:30 4:45 81:00 162:00 2563:00 41004:00 65,0005:00 1,000,000 1-51
  52. 52. Microorganisms of Significance BACTERIA 1-52
  53. 53. Bacilli - rods 1-53
  54. 54. Vibrio - spiral 1-54
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  57. 57. CapsuleSecreted material thatadheres to bacterial cell 1-57
  58. 58. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMOxygen Some foodborne microorganisms require oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen is absent O Oxygen 1-58
  59. 59. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMMoisture All microorganisms require some moisture to grow The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called water M activity (aw) Moisture Control of water in food Which foods are preserved by removing water? Remove water 1-59
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  61. 61. What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOMMoisture All microorganisms require some moisture to grow The amount of moisture available in M food for this growth is called water activity (aw) Moisture Control of water in food Remove water Bind water 1-61
  62. 62. 1-62
  63. 63. Controlling the Growth of MicroorganismsThe two conditions you can control: Temperature Refrigerate or freeze food properly Cook food properly Time Minimize time food spends in the temperature danger zone 1-63
  64. 64. Classifying Foodborne IllnessFoodborne Infections Result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illnessFoodborne Intoxications Result when a person eats food containing toxins that cause illness 1-64
  65. 65. Bacteria That Cause Foodborne IllnessBasic Characteristics Living, single-celled organism Can be carried by food, water, soil, animals, humans, or insects Can reproduce very rapidly under favorable conditions Survive freezing 1-65
  66. 66. SporesCertain bacteria can change intoa different form, called spores,to protect themselvesSpores Form when nutrients are not available Are commonly found in soil and contaminate food grown there Can contaminate meat, poultry, fish, and other food exposed to soil or dust 1-66
  67. 67. SporesSpores Can resist heat, allowing them to survive cooking temperatures Can revert back to a form capable of growth when: Food is not stored at the proper temperature Food is not held or cooled properly 1-67
  68. 68. Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by BacteriaInfections - living organism causes the disease Campylobacteriosis Salmonellosis Shigellosis Listeriosis Vibrio vulnificus 1-68
  69. 69. Infection: Campylobacteriosis Illness: Campylobacteriosis Bacteria: Campylobacter jejuniCommonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Diarrhea Abdominal Cramps Diarrhea (may be Poultry bloody) Fever Water Headache Abdominal cramps contaminated with the bacteria Fever Headache “FLS” 1-69
  70. 70. Infection: Salmonellosis Illness: Salmonellosis Bacteria: Salmonella spp. Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Poultry and eggs Diarrhea Dairy products Abdominal cramps Beef Vomiting Fever 1-70
  71. 71. Infection: Shigellosis Illness: Shigellosis Bacteria:Shigella spp. Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Food easily Bloody diarrhea contaminated by hands FLS 1-71
  72. 72. Infection: Listeriosis Illness: Listeriosis Bacteria:Listeria monocytogenes Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Pregnant women Unpasteurized milk and Spontaneous milk products abortion of the fetus Ready-to-eat food including: Deli meats Hot dogs Soft cheese 1-72
  73. 73. I tell my students there is one food no oneshould eat. What is it ? 1-73
  74. 74. Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia Illness: Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia Bacteria: Vibro vulnificus Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Raw or partially (People with liver disease cooked oysters and diabetes) Fever and chills Nausea Death 1-74
  75. 75. 1-75
  76. 76. Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis Illness: Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis Bacteria: Vibrio vulnificus Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Raw or partially (Otherwise healthy cooked oysters people) Diarrhea Abdominal cramps 1-76
  77. 77. 1-77
  78. 78. Preventing Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia/GastroenteritisMost Important PreventionMeasures Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers. Cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperature. Inform people at risk to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked oysters Don’t eat them! 1-78
  79. 79. Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by BacteriaIntoxications - poison produced by bacteria Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis Botulism 1-79
  80. 80. Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Illness: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Bacteria: Bacillus cereus (Diarrheal Toxin) Most Common Symptoms Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Cooked corn Watery diarrhea Cooked potatoes Abdominal cramps and pain Cooked vegetables Vomiting is absent Meat products 1-80
  81. 81. Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Illness: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Bacteria: Bacillus cereus (Emetic Toxin) Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Cooked rice dishes Nausea including: Vomiting Fried rice Projectile Vomiting Rice pudding 1-81
  82. 82. Intoxication: Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis Illness: Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Commonly Associated FoodMost Common Symptoms Salads containing Nausea potentially Vomiting and hazardous food: retching Egg, tuna, Abdominal cramps chicken, macaroni Deli meats 1-82
  83. 83. Preventing Staphylococcal GastroenteritisTo prevent the transferof the bacteria to food: Wash hands after touching the body Cover cuts on hands and arms Restrict foodhandlers with infected cuts on hands and armsTo prevent the growth of thebacteria in food: Minimize the time food spends in the TDZ Cook, hold, and cool food properly 1-83
  84. 84. Intoxication: Botulism Illness: Botulism Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Improperly canned food Initially: ROP food Nausea and Vomiting Temperature abused Later: vegetables like: Weakness Baked potatoes Double vision Untreated garlic- Difficulty speaking and and-oil mixtures swallowing Death 1-84
  85. 85. Death 1-85
  86. 86. “ INFANT BOTULISM ”Commonly find Clostridiumbotulinum spores in honeySpores are able to germinate,grow and produce toxin inthe infants intestinal track 1-86
  87. 87. BOTOX® Wrinkle TherapyFrown lines before injection Attempting to frown after injection 1-87
  88. 88. Preventing BotulismMost ImportantPrevention Measures: Cool, and reheat food properly Inspect canned food for damage 1-88
  89. 89. Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by BacteriaToxin-Mediated Infections: Escherichia coli 1-89
  90. 90. Escherichia coli Illness: Hemorrhagic Colitis Bacteria: Shiga toxin-producing Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Ground beef (raw Diarrhea (eventually and undercooked) becomes bloody) Contaminated Abdominal cramps produce Severe cases can result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) 1-90
  91. 91. Preventing Hemorrhagic ColitisTo reduce the bacteria in food: Cook food, particularly ground beef, to required minimum internal temperaturesTo prevent the transfer of the bacteria to food: Prevent cross-contamination between raw meat and ready-to-eat food Exclude employees from the establishment if: They have diarrhea They have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis 1-91
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  95. 95. Basic Characteristics of ParasitesParasites Are living organisms that need a host to survive Are small, often microscopic Infect many animals and can be transmitted to humans Are a hazard to food and water 1-95
  96. 96. Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by ParasitesParasitic Foodborne Illnesses Ascaris Anisakiasis Cyclosporiasis Cryptosporidiosis Giardiasis 1-96
  97. 97. 1-97
  98. 98. Infection: Giardiasis Illness: Giardiasis Parasite: Giardia duodenalis Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Initially: Improperly treated water Fever Later: Loose stools Abdominal cramps Nausea 1-98
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  101. 101. Basic Characteristics of VirusesViruses Some may survive freezing Can be transmitted from: Person to person People to food People to food-contact surfaces Usually contaminate food through a foodhandler’s improper hygiene Can contaminate both food and water supplies Do not grow in the food 1-101
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  103. 103. Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by VirusesViral Foodborne Illnesses Hepatitis A Norovirus 1-103
  104. 104. Infection: Hepatitis A Illness: Hepatits Virus: Hepatitis A Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Ready-to-eat food Initially: including: Fever (mild) Deli meats General weakness Nausea Produce Abdominal pain Salads Later: Raw and partially Jaundice cooked shellfish 1-104
  105. 105. Preventing Hepatitis ATo prevent the transfer of the virus to food: Wash hands properly Exclude employees who have jaundice or hepatitis A Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foodOther prevention measures: Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers Inform high-risk populations to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked shellfish 1-105
  106. 106. Infection: Norovirus Gastroenteritis Illness: Norovirus Gastroenteritis Virus: Norovirus Commonly Associated Food Most Common Symptoms Most Common Symptoms Ready-to-eat food Vomiting Shellfish Diarrhea contaminated by sewage Nausea Abdominal cramps 1-106
  107. 107. Over 50% of Foodborne Illness in the USA Can Be Attributed toNorovirus More than 50% of all cases of foodborne illness is linked to Norovirus Both Avoidable and unavoidable cases linked to food service establishments 1-107
  108. 108. 1-108
  109. 109. Preventing Norovirus GastroenteritisTo prevent the transfer of thevirus to food: Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea and vomiting Exclude employees who have been diagnosed with Norovirus Gastroenteritis Wash hands properlyOther prevention measures: Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers 1-109
  110. 110. FungiFungi Commonly cause food spoilage and sometimes illness FungiMolds 1-110
  111. 111. Basic Characteristics of MoldMold Spoils food and sometimes causes illness Grows well in acidic food with low water activity Is not destroyed by freezing Can produce toxins such as aflatoxins 1-111
  112. 112. Feet and legs were more commonly affected and eventually turned a charcoal black. The gangrenous part shrank and became mummified. Gradually, the lesion spread upwards. The severity varied from mere shedding of nails and the loss of fingers or toes to the loss of all four limbs.Feet and legs were more commonly affected and eventually turned acharcoal black. The gangrenous part shrank and became mummified.Gradually, the lesion spread upwards. The severity varied from mereshedding of nails and the loss of fingers or toes to the loss of all fourlimbs. 1-112
  113. 113. 1-113
  114. 114. FungiFungi Commonly cause food spoilage and sometimes illness Fungi Molds Yeasts 1-114
  115. 115. Basic Characteristics of YeastYeast Can spoil food rapidly May produce a smell or taste of alcohol as it spoils food May appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble Not pathogenic 1-115
  116. 116. Three general approaches to control of microorganisms 1. Control Growth 2. Kill them 3. Keep them out of food How do they get into food? 1-116
  117. 117. Contamination, Food Allergens, and Foodborne Illness 1-117
  118. 118. Foodborne ContaminantsBiological Fish toxins Shellfish toxins Plant and mushroom toxinsChemical Toxic metal poisoning Chemicals and pesticidesPhysical Metal shavings from cans, staples Fingernails, hair, bandages 1-118
  119. 119. Major Foodborne Illnesses from Fish ToxinsFish Toxin Illnesses Scombroid poisoning Ciguatera fish poisoning 1-119
  120. 120. Chemical ToxinsToxic MetalsToxic metal poisoning can occur when: Utensils or equipment containing toxic metals are used to prepare food (especially acidic food) Carbonated beverage dispensers are installed improperly 1-120
  121. 121. Chemical ToxinsChemicals, (cleaners, sanitizers, pesticides) Store away from food, utensils, and equipment Label them properly if they are transferred to new containers 1-121
  122. 122. Physical ContaminantsForeign objects accidentallyintroduced into food: Metal shavings from cans Staples from cartons Glass from broken light bulbs Blades from plastic or rubber scrapers Fingernails, hair, and bandages Dirt Bones 1-122
  123. 123. How do they get into food? 1-123
  124. 124. Food AllergensDoes anyone here have a food allergy? 1-124
  125. 125. Food Allergens 1-125
  126. 126. Food AllergensCommon Food Allergens Milk and dairy products Eggs and egg products Fish Shellfish Wheat Soy and soy products Peanuts Tree nuts 1-126
  127. 127. Food AllergensSymptoms of an allergicreaction include: Itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalp Tightening in the throat Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face, eyes, hands, or feet Gastrointestinal symptoms Loss of consciousness and death 1-127
  128. 128. Food Allergens 1-128
  129. 129. Food AllergensTo protect guests with foodallergies: Be able to fully describe menu items If you are unsure if an item is allergen free, urge the guest to order something else Ensure that cookware and utensils used to prepare the guests’ food are allergen free 1-129
  130. 130. The Safe Foodhandler 1-130
  131. 131. How Foodhandlers Contaminate FoodBehaviors That Can Contaminate Food A B A Scratching the scalp C E Touching a pimple or D open sore B Running fingers E through hair F Wearing a dirty uniform C Wiping or touching G Coughing or sneezing into the nose the hand F D Rubbing an ear H Spitting in the establishment G H 1-131
  132. 132. Hygienic Hand Practices: HandwashingProper Handwashing Procedure The whole process should take 20 seconds 1 Wet hands with running 2 Apply soap 3 Vigorously scrub hands water as hot as you can and arms for ten to fifteen comfortably stand (at least seconds Clean under 100°F/38°C) fingernails and between fingers 4 Rinse thoroughly 5 5 Dry hands and arms with under running water a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer Use a paper towel to turn off the faucet. 1-132
  133. 133. Hygienic Hand Practices: Hand AntisepticsHand Antiseptics Must comply with Food and Drug Administration standards Should be used after handwashing (if used in the establishment) Must never be used in place of handwashing 1-133
  134. 134. Hygienic Hand Practices: Bare-Hand ContactBare-Hand Contact withReady-to-Eat FoodSome jurisdictions allow it but requirewritten policies and procedures on: 1-134
  135. 135. Employee health Handwashing Other hygienic practices 1-135
  136. 136. Hygienic Hand Practices: Hand MaintenanceRequirements for Foodhandlers Keep fingernails Do not wear false Bandage cuts and short and clean nails or nail polish cover bandages 1-136
  137. 137. 1-137
  138. 138. Hygienic Hand Practices: GlovesWhen to Change Gloves As soon as they become soiled or torn Before beginning a different task At least every four hours during continual use and more often when necessary After handling raw meat and before handling cooked or ready-to-eat food 1-138
  139. 139. Proper Work AttireFoodhandlers should: A A Wear a clean hat or other B hair restraint B Wear clean clothing daily D C Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas C D Remove jewelry from hands and arms E Wear appropriate, clean, and closed- toe shoes E 1-139
  140. 140. Handling Employee IllnessesIF: THEN: The foodhandler has Exclude the employee from the one or more of the establishment following symptoms: Vomiting Diarrhea Jaundice 1-140
  141. 141. Managers role in a personal hygiene program model proper behavior establish personal hygiene policies train food handlers on personal hygiene policies continuously supervise sanitary practices when making job assignments, consider the risk of cross-contamination and plan tasks to prevent it 1-141
  142. 142. 5. Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food Choosing a Supplier Quality standards Does the supplier have a HACCP program? Check condition of delivery trucks Check each shipment Request that products be delivered at convenient time Plan to receive shipments Label items (delivery date, use-by date) 1-142
  143. 143. B. Accepting Deliveries: 1. Fresh meat and poultry 2. Dairy Products 3. Eggs a. Should be < 41 F (5 C) 1-143
  144. 144. 3. ProduceMost fruits and vegetables should beheld at 41 F (5 C) or below and notwashed before storage. 1-144
  145. 145. 4. Frozen foods All frozen foods should be delivered frozen Blocks of ice at the bottom of the case Large crystals on the product itself Discoloration or dryness Stains on the outer packaging 1-145
  146. 146. 5. Dry foods Look for signs of previous wetness water stains Always inspect packages for holes, tears, punctures and signs of insect or rodent infestations6. Canned foods Look for swollen cans, leaks, rust, dents Reject any cans received without labels 1-146
  147. 147. 6. Keeping Food Safe In Storage Storage Guidelines FIFO. Write the date on each product when it is received or prepared. Properly shelve foods to facilitate FIFO. 1-147
  148. 148. Types of Storage 1. Chemical Storage a. Never use empty foods containers for chemical storage b. Keep chemicals in original containers c. Store away from food storage and preparation areas 1-148
  149. 149. 2. Food Storage Refrigerators Do not overload the unit Always store prepared foods above raw food. Do not put warm food directly into refrigerator 1-149
  150. 150. Freezer Rotate frozen foods using the FIFO method Do not overload freezer 1-150
  151. 151. Dry StorageControl temperature, moisture,ventilation, and cleanlinessInspect for insect and rodent infestation 1-151
  152. 152. 7. Protecting Food During Preparation A. Safe Food Handling Temperature abuse is the biggest factor in outbreaks of foodborne illness Temperature danger zone 41 to 135 F (5 C to 57 C) However, microorganisms grow much faster in the middle of the zone Four-hour rule: Never let food remain in the temperature danger zone for more than four hours 1-152
  153. 153. 2. Prevent Cross-ContaminationWhat is cross contamination? 1-153
  154. 154. 2. Prevent Cross-Contamination 1-154
  155. 155. 2. Prevent Cross-Contamination Prepare raw meats in separate areas from produce and cooked foods Assign specific equipment to each type of food product Use specific containers for each type of food product Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and utensils after each task 1-155
  156. 156. B. Preparing Food - GeneralProceduresThaw Foods Properly - 3 methods1. Thaw food in refrigerator at temperaturesof 4l F (5 C) or less2. Submerge the frozen product in runningwater at temperature of 70 F (21 C) or below3. Foods may be thawed in microwave if itwill be cooked immediately afterward 1-156
  157. 157. 1-157
  158. 158. Egg and Egg Mixtures a. Once thought that contents of whole, clean, uncracked shell eggs were free of bacteria b. Salmonella enteritidis can live inside of the egg c. Eggs should be refrigerated 1-158
  159. 159. 4. Fruits and Vegetables Can carry parasites, bacteria and viruses a. Sanitize work area b. Wash thoroughly under running water before cutting c. Cooked vegetables must be held above 135 F(57 C) or below 41 F (5 C) d. You are not permitted to add sulfites to prevent browning 1-159
  160. 160. D. Cooking the FoodCooking the food is a CriticalControl Point for most foods a. Poultry, stuffing, stuffed meats, and casseroles l65 F (74 C) for l5 sec. Stuffing should be cooked separately 1-160
  161. 161. b. Pork, Beef 145 F (63 C) for l5 sec.c. All ground meats l55 F (68 C) for l5 sec 1-161
  162. 162. e. Egg and Egg Mixtures1) Shell eggs should be cooked to 145 F (63 C) for l5 sec. At this temperature and time, the white is set and the yolk begins to thicken.2) Scrambled eggs should be cooked to l55 F (68 C) for l5 sec. then held at l35 F (57 C)3) Remove only small numbers of eggs from refrigerator and never stack near the grill 1-162
  163. 163. E. Cooling Foods1. If food isn’t going to be served immediately , it is essential to cool it as quickly as possible One-stage method: Food is be cooled from 135 F (57 C) to less than 41 F (5 C) in less than 4 hours Two-stage cooling method - Preferred Method Food is cooled from 135 F (57 C) to 70 F (41 C) within two hours Then cooled from 70 F (57C) to below 41 F (5 C) in an additional 4 hours 1-163
  164. 164. Specific recommendationsReduce the size of the foodUse ice-water baths to bring food temperaturesdown quicklyStir foods as they coolCold Paddles chill food very quicklyKeep food in shallow pans 1) Dense foods - 2 inch pans (5 cm) 2) Thinner foods - 3 inch pans (7.5 cm)Position pans so that air can circulate 1-164
  165. 165. 8. Protecting Food During ServiceHolding foods for serviceA. Hot Foods 3. Discard hot foods after 4 hours if they have not been held at or above 135 F (57 C) 4. Never mix freshly prepared food with foods being held for service 6. Prepare food in small batches 1-165
  166. 166. B. Cold foods l. Use equipment that can keep foods at 41 F (5 C) or below 2. Measure temperatures at least every 2 hrs 3. Ice used on a display should be self draining 1-166
  167. 167. Serving foods safely A Kitchen Staff l. Store utensils properly 2. Serving utensils should have long handles 3. Practice good personal hygiene 1-167
  168. 168. Serving foods safely B Servers l. Handle glassware and dishes properly 2. Hold utensils by handle 3. Never touch food with bare hands 1-168
  169. 169. 1-169
  170. 170. 1-170
  171. 171. Serving foods safely B Servers l. Handle glassware and dishes properly 2. Hold utensils by handle 3. Never touch food with bare hands 4. Use scoops or tongs for ice 1-171
  172. 172. Division of laborAvoid assigning staff to do more thanone job during a shift serving food setting tables and busing dirty dishes are separate tasksStaff must wash hands between these different tasks 1-172
  173. 173. Re-Serving foodUneaten bread and rollsmay not be re-served and linens used to linebread baskets must be be changed each timea customer is servedThe only foods which can be re-served areunopened, prepackaged foods 1-173
  174. 174. 1-174
  175. 175. Self-Service Areas1. Should be monitored2. Do not let customers use soiled plates for refills3. Sneeze guards4. Label all food items5. Maintain proper temperatures 1-175
  176. 176. Self-Service Areas cont.6. Prepare and replenish small amount at a time7. Never mix fresh food with food being replaced8. Keep raw foods separate from cooked and ready to eat foods 1-176
  177. 177. 10. Sanitary Facilities Restrooms 1-177
  178. 178. Water supply Cross-Connections physical link through which contaminants from drains can enter a potable water supply allows for the possibility of backflow occurs when there is a loss of water pressure 1-178
  179. 179. Do not attach a hose to a faucet unless ablack flow prevention device is attachedThreaded faucets must have a backflowprevention device. 1-179
  180. 180. A properly installed sink has two air gaps toprevent backflow faucet is above the rim air gap between drainpipe of sink and floor drain 1-180
  181. 181. Cleaning and SanitizingCleaning - process of removing foodand other types of soilSanitizing - reducing the number ofmicroorganisms on a clean surface tosafe levels. 1-181
  182. 182. Types of Cleaning Agents Detergents Solvent cleaners (degreasers) Acid Cleaners Abrasive cleanersConsult your supplier to help select theappropriate cleaning agent for yourneeds. 1-182
  183. 183. Machine WarewashingHigh-temperature MachinesChemical sanitizing machines All machines should be operated according to the manufactures instructions. 1-183
  184. 184. Hand Wash / SanitizeStep 1 - Rinse, scrape or soak items before wash 1-184
  185. 185. Step 2 - Wash items in first sink in detergent solution (110 F, minimum temp ) 1-185
  186. 186. Step 3 - Immerse in second tank using water at least ll0 F - replace water when cloudy or dirty 1-186
  187. 187. Step 4 - Sanitize a. Hot water (180 F, 82 C) for 30 sec b. Chemical sanitizer - correct concentration and correct temperature 1-187
  188. 188. Step 5- Towel dry. 1-188
  189. 189. Step 5- Towel dry Air Dry. 1-189
  190. 190. Storage of utensils and tableware Must be 6 inches (15 cm) off the floor Keep covered Clean and sanitize trays Store glasses and cups upside down Store flatware and utensils with handles up 1-190
  191. 191. Integrated Pest Management3 Basic Principles of an IPMprogram 1. Deny pest access 2. Deny pests food, water and hiding place 3. Work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pest that enter 1-191
  192. 192. 1. Deny Access Deliveries Doors - self closing, air curtains 1-192
  193. 193. 1-193
  194. 194. Equipment portable is often easier to clean stationary equipment must be mounted on legs are least six inches off the floor or sealed in a base 1-194
  195. 195. 1-195
  196. 196. Identifying Pests Cockroaches strong oily odor droppings capsule shaped egg cases 1-196
  197. 197. Identifying Pests Flies 1-197
  198. 198. Identifying Pests Rodents signs of gnawing droppings nesting materials holes along foundations 1-198
  199. 199. Identifying Pests Rodents 1-199
  200. 200. Identifying Pests Rodents 1-200
  201. 201. 1-201
  202. 202. 3. Work with licensed PCO to eliminatepests that do enter Control Measures used by PCO s Repellents Sprays Bait Traps Glue Boards 1-202
  203. 203. Only PCOs should apply pesticides atyour establishment 1-203
  204. 204. Product Tampering 1-204
  205. 205. Product Tampering 1-205
  206. 206. Food Defense 1-206
  207. 207. 9. Principles of HACCPHazard Analysis Critical Control Point 1-207
  208. 208. Principle 1 - Conduct a hazardanalysisIdentify potential food hazards which foods could be contaminated which foods could allow growth of microorganismsDetermine where hazards can occur in the flowof food for each potentially hazardous food, identify the steps in its flow through the establishment to the customer 1-208
  209. 209. Food - Chicken breast Identify where hazards Receive can occur in the flow Store Prepare Cook Serve 1-209
  210. 210. Food - Chicken breast Identify where hazards Receive can occur in the flow Store PrepareThawing at roomtemperature CookUsing only one cuttingboard to prepare food Serve 1-210
  211. 211. Principle 2 -Determine Critical Control PointsAny step in a the flow where a physical,chemical or biological hazard can becontrolled is a control point 1-211
  212. 212. Principle 2 -Determine Critical Control PointsAny step in a the flow where a physical,chemical or biological hazard can becontrolled is a control pointCritical Control Point -The last step where you can intervene toprevent, eliminate, or reduce the growth ofmicroorganisms before the food is served tocustomers 1-212
  213. 213. Food - Chicken breast Receive Store Prepare CCP Cook Serve 1-213
  214. 214. Cooking, cooling, or holding are typicallyCCP’sWhile care is needed during preparation toprevent cross contamination, proper cooking is essential to prevent, eliminate, or reduce these hazards.Preparation is a control pointCooking is a critical control point 1-214
  215. 215. Principle 3 - Establish Critical Limits.Must establish minimum and maximum limits forthe CCP measurable clear and easy to followe.g. The critical limit for cooking chicken is aninternal temperature of 165 F (74 C) for l5 sec. 1-215
  216. 216. Principle 4 -Establish Monitoring Procedures How to monitor the CCP When and how often to monitor the CCP Who will monitor the CCP Equipment, materials, or tools need to monitor the CCP 1-216
  217. 217. Principle 4 -Establish Monitoring Procedures How to monitor the CCP When and how often to monitor the CCP Who will monitor the CCP Equipment, materials, or tools need to monitor the CCPInsert a clean, sanitized and calibrated thermometerinto the thickest part of the chicken breast. Take tworeadings in different locations and record in atemperature log 1-217
  218. 218. Principle 5 -Identify Corrective Actions Might include: throwing food away after a specific time rejecting a shipment not received at the right temperature continue to cook 1-218
  219. 219. Principle 5 -Identify Corrective Actions Might include: throwing food away after a specific time rejecting a shipment not received at the right temperature continue to cook Chicken - when chicken breast has not reached l65 F (74 C), the corrective action is to cook until it does. 1-219
  220. 220. Principle 6 -Verify that the system works Verification includes: monitor logs employees are following establish procedures 1-220

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