A RESOURCE GUIDE FORUNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY SCHOOLS        Collaborative Leadership               October 2012            ...
Community School Collaborative LeadershipTable of ContentsA Resource Guide for Understanding Community Schools ..............
A Resource Guide for Understanding Community SchoolsINTRODUCTIONUrban Strategies Council has collected and reviewed more t...
4. Collaborative Leadership   Addresses how to build, strengthen and expand the collaborative leadership structure at   co...
UPDATING THE RESOURCE GUIDEUrban Strategies Council will continue its efforts to update the Resource Guide with the mostcu...
Our Community School work with                       Oakland Unified School DistrictUrban Strategies Council has a long hi...
Collaborative Leadership: Literature ReviewIntroductionCollaborative leadership brings together partners and stakeholders ...
the school site and larger council, students, families and community, providing site-levelfeedback and participating in de...
an effective means to understand and assess each partner’s interests, needs andcompetencies4.Conclusion    1. ChallengesA ...
Collaborative Leadership: Annotated BibliographyAchieving Results Through Community School PartnershipsBlank, Martin J., R...
1.   Developing diverse financing;   2.   Employing technical assistance and professional development;   3.   Using data t...
Strengthening Partnerships: Community School Assessment ChecklistBlank, Martin J. and Barbara Hanson Langford. Coalition f...
1. Defining the committee’s purpose;   2. Recruiting the right people; and   3. Ongoing support and training.The worksheet...
Starting Points; (2) Sticking Points; (3) Summary Points; (4) Building Relationships; (5) Rules ofEngagement; (6) Moving F...
Leading the Way to Meaningful Partnerships Benson, Lee and Ira Harkavy. Principal Leadership, May/June 2001. Web. 19 Decem...
Models:        1. The BTS Model: A Community School Strategy (pgs. 12-14)        2. Appendix A: Site Team as a Coordinatin...
worksheets, guiding questions and activities to aid in writing a school-family-communitypartnership plan. The manual helps...
In addition, Part II contains profiles for each of the 16 successful partnership programs.       Best practices: See 10 st...
experience: (1) Laying the Foundation; (2) Building a Strategic Partnership; and (3) Embeddingthe Work in Systems. The fir...
Best practices: See four common operating principles and five core elements above        Exemplary sites (case studies):  ...
Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact WorkHanley Brown, Fay, John Kania, and Mark Kramer. Stanford Social Innovation...
The study reveals that central offices have vital roles to play in developing systems of supportfor district wide teaching...
Exemplary sites:        1. Thomas Gardner Extended Services School, Boston, MA        2. O’Farrell Community School for Ad...
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Collaborative Leadership

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In a community school, all stakeholders share opportunities for leadership roles and are meaningfully engaged, active participants in many aspects of decision-making. Collaborative leadership brings together partners and stakeholders to coordinate a range of services and opportunities for youth, families and the community. This section explores how collaborative leadership works on a site, district, and state level to carry out the community school strategy. The highlighted content in this area includes collaborative leadership infrastructure, operational elements, and strategies for creating, strengthening and expanding collaborative leadership.

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Collaborative Leadership

  1. 1. A RESOURCE GUIDE FORUNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY SCHOOLS Collaborative Leadership October 2012 Prepared by: Iris Hemmerich Urban Strategies Council
  2. 2. Community School Collaborative LeadershipTable of ContentsA Resource Guide for Understanding Community Schools .......................................................................... 2 Updating the Resource Guide ................................................................................................................... 4 Additional Community School Resources ................................................................................................. 4Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School District ............................................................. 5Collaborative Leadership: Literature Review ................................................................................................ 6 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Review ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 1. Infrastructure of Collaborative Leadership ................................................................................... 6 2. How Collaborative Leadership Operates....................................................................................... 7 3. Creating and Strengthening Collaborative Leadership ................................................................. 7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 8 1. Challenges ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2. Promising Practices ....................................................................................................................... 8 3. Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................................... 8Collaborative Leadership: Annotated Bibliography ...................................................................................... 9 1 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  3. 3. A Resource Guide for Understanding Community SchoolsINTRODUCTIONUrban Strategies Council has collected and reviewed more than 175 evaluations, case studies,briefs and reports for use by those considering or planning a community school or communityschool district. Our intention is to provide interested individuals and stakeholders theresources they need to better understand the unique structure and core components ofcommunity schools. The promising practices, recommendations, tools and information sharedin this document have been culled from documents representing the last 20 years of researchand documentation of community schools across the United States.We highlighted 11 content areas that we believe to be the most foundational for understandingcommunity schools. Within each of the content areas, you will find: 1. A literature review: The literature reviews for each content area are organized around core questions and provide a synthesis of the most commonly identified solutions and responses to each question, as well as highlights, promising practices, challenges and recommendations. 2. An annotated bibliography: We gathered and annotated literature in each of the content areas to underscore key themes, some of which include: best practices, exemplary sites, models and tools. The annotations vary by content area in order to draw attention to the most pertinent information. For example, the Evaluations content area includes annotations of the evaluation methodology and indicators of success.The 11 content areas include the following: 1. Community School Characteristics Provides a general overview of the structure, function, core elements, programs and services of a community school. 2. Planning and Design Explores the general planning and design structures for community schools, and discusses the initial steps and central components of the planning and design process, as well as strategies for scaling up community schools. 3. Equity Frameworks and Tools Examines literature and tools that can be adapted to an equity framework for community schools. We included equity frameworks and tools that explore disproportionality and the monitoring of disparities and demographic shifts. 2 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  4. 4. 4. Collaborative Leadership Addresses how to build, strengthen and expand the collaborative leadership structure at community schools. Collaborative leadership is a unique governance structure that brings together community partners and stakeholders to coordinate a range of services and opportunities for youth, families and the community.5. Family and Community Engagement Explores how community and family engagement operates as well as the challenges for actualizing it at the site level. Family and community engagement is a unique component of community schools in which the school, families, and community actively work together to create networks of shared responsibility for student success.6. Data Collection and Analysis Addresses the outcomes measured at community schools, methods for collecting data at community schools, and short and long term indicators.7. Assessment Tools Includes tools used to measure outcomes at community schools.8. Community School Evaluations Provides evaluations of community school initiatives with special attention paid to methodology, indicators of success, findings and challenges.9. Community School Funding Explores how to leverage revenue streams and allocate resources at community schools.10. Budget Tools Includes tools that support the process of budgeting and fiscal mapping.11. Community School Sustainability Explores promising practices for creating sustainability plans, partnership development and leveraging resources for the future. 3 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  5. 5. UPDATING THE RESOURCE GUIDEUrban Strategies Council will continue its efforts to update the Resource Guide with the mostcurrent information as it becomes available. If you know of topics or resources that are notcurrently included in this guide, please contact Alison Feldman, Education Excellence Program,at alisonf@urbanstrategies.org. We welcome your ideas and feedback for A Resource Guide forUnderstanding Community Schools.ADDITIONAL COMMUNITY SCHOOL RESOURCESNational:The Coalition for Community Schoolshttp://www.communityschools.org/The National Center for Community Schools (Children’s Aid Society)http://nationalcenterforcommunityschools.childrensaidsociety.org/Yale University Center in Child Development and Social Policyhttp://www.yale.edu/21c/training.htmlRegional:The Center for Community School Partnerships, UC Davishttp://education.ucdavis.edu/community-school-partnershipsCenter for Strategic Community Innovationhttp://cscinnovation.org/community-schools-project/about-cscis-community-schools-project/community-school-initiative-services-coaching-and-ta/’ 4 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  6. 6. Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School DistrictUrban Strategies Council has a long history of working with the Oakland Unified School District(OUSD) to support planning for improved academic achievement. Most recently, we helpeddevelop and support the implementation of OUSD’s five-year strategic plan, CommunitySchools, Thriving Students. Adopted by the Board of Education in June 2011, the plan calls forbuilding community schools across the district that ensure high-quality instruction; developsocial, emotional and physical health; and create equitable opportunities for learning. UrbanStrategies Council has worked with the school district, community members and otherstakeholders to support this system reform in several ways: Community Schools Strategic Planning: Urban Strategies Council facilitated six School Board retreats over a 14-month period to help develop the strategic plan. As part of that process, the District created 14 task forces to produce recommendations for the plan, with Urban Strategies Council facilitating one task force and sitting on several others. Full Service Community Schools Task Force: Urban Strategies Council convened and co- facilitated the Full Service Community Schools and District Task Force, which created a structural framework and tools for planning and implementation, and produced a report with a set of recommendations that formed the foundation of the strategic plan. Community Engagement in Planning: Urban Strategies Council partnered with the district to educate and engage more than 900 school and community stakeholders on how community schools could best serve them. Planning for Community Schools Leadership Council: Urban Strategies Council has been working with OUSD’s Department of Family, School and Community Partnerships to lay the groundwork for building an interagency, cross-sector partnership body that will provide high-level system oversight and support, and ensure shared responsibility and coordination of resources towards the vision of healthy, thriving children supported through community schools. Convening Workgroups: Urban Strategies Council continues to partner with the District to convene and facilitate several workgroups developing specific structures, processes, and practices supporting community school implementation, as well as informing the eventual work of the Community Schools Leadership Council. African American Male Achievement Initiative: Urban Strategies Council is a partner in OUSD’s African American Male Achievement Initiative (AAMAI), a collaboration supporting efforts to close the achievement gap and improve other key outcomes for African American males in OUSD. Urban Strategies Council has developed data-based research; explored promising practices, programs and policies inside and outside the school district; analyzed the impact of existing system-wide policies; and developed policy recommendations to improve outcomes in various areas identified by the AAMAI Task Force. Boys and Men of Color: Urban Strategies Council is the Regional Convener for the Oakland Boys and Men of Color site, which adopted community schools as a vehicle to improve health, education and employment outcomes for boys and men of color. 5 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  7. 7. Collaborative Leadership: Literature ReviewIntroductionCollaborative leadership brings together partners and stakeholders to coordinate a range ofservices and opportunities for youth, families and the community. In order to successfully carryout the community school strategy, collaborative leadership must occur on a site, district,interagency, and even state level. We used three central research questions to guide theliterature review of collaborative leadership: 1. What is the infrastructure for collaborative leadership? 2. How does collaborative leadership operate? 3. How do you create, strengthen and expand a collaborative leadership structure?Published research on collaborative leadership ranging from 2000 to 2012 has been included aspart of this literature review. What is lacking in research and scholarship is a more detailedaccount of actualizing various components of a collaborative leadership structure. Keycomponents are identified and their significance explained, but the processes foroperationalizing certain elements, such as decision-making, are not explored in detail.Review 1. Infrastructure of Collaborative LeadershipMost literature described collaborative leadership as consisting of three groups of leaders,which the Coalition for Community Schools refers to as community leaders, leaders on theground and leaders in the middle1. Community leaders include members of partnerorganizations, companies, public agencies and local government. Leaders on the ground includeschool and site level staff. Leaders in the middle include the intermediary or backbone supportorganization(s) that help facilitate the infrastructure-building process.In nearly all community school initiatives, collaborative leadership at the interagency levelbegins with a task force which eventually transforms into a community-wide collaborativecouncil. The community-wide collaborative council includes members from the threeaforementioned categories of leadership. The tasks of a community-wide collaborative councilgenerally include the development and distribution of a community needs assessment,strategic planning and decision-making.At the site level, most literature called for an advisory committee of school staff and serviceproviders that are responsible for connecting the school with the community, liaising between1 Blank, Martin J., Amy Berg, and Atelia Melaville. “Growing Community Schools: The Role of Cross-BoundaryLeadership.” Coalition for Community Schools, April 2006.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Growing_COMM_Schools.pdf>. 6 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  8. 8. the school site and larger council, students, families and community, providing site-levelfeedback and participating in decision-making. At all of the reviewed community schoolinitiatives, there was a site coordinator who worked directly with service providers and liaisedwith school staff, students, families and community members. Most literature identified theuse of a backbone organization as critical for facilitating meetings and navigating tensionsthroughout the partnership process. 2. How Collaborative Leadership OperatesCollaborative leadership operates on an interagency level through the convening of keypartners, stakeholders, and school and district personnel. Representatives from all groupsconvene to discuss a common vision and goals, strategize a community school plan and makedecisions. A key role of the collaborative leadership team is to conduct a community needsassessment and evaluate the resources currently available at or connected to their school. Thisprocess helps inform which programs and services will be provided at the school sites2.The interagency leadership body designates subcommittees or workgroups that are assignedspecific responsibilities to advance a targeted area of the community school strategy3.Oftentimes, a site level advisory committee is created to connect the school with thecommunity, review and contribute to an annual plan, and coordinate events at school. A sitecoordinator generally acts as a liaison to school staff, community members, families and serviceproviders. 3. Creating and Strengthening Collaborative LeadershipIn most cases, collaborative leadership began with the convening of a small group of leaderswho discussed a series of questions to navigate what kind of partnership they wanted (i.e. thesize of the partnership, initial desired outcomes, etc.). The initial meetings were identified as aspace to create basic ground rules for interaction, a common vision and goals, a shared systemof accountability, an assessment plan and a process for sharing data. The strategic use andsharing of data among partners was highlighted as one of the most critical components of asuccessful collaborative leadership structure.In order to strengthen and expand collaborative leadership, the literature suggests thatpartners establish the terms and purpose of the joint effort, create and frequently reevaluateproblem-solving procedures, and provide ongoing support and training, such as professionaldevelopment. The literature specifically identified the development of partnership checklists as2 Blank, Martin J., Amy Berg, and Atelia Melaville. “Growing Community Schools: The Role of Cross-BoundaryLeadership.” Coalition for Community Schools, April2006.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Growing_COMM_Schools.pdf>.3 Melaville, Atelia. “Doing What Matters: The Bridges to Success Strategy for Building Community Schools.” Bridgesto Success, January 2004. Pages 12-14 and 21-34. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Doing_What_Matters.pdf>. 7 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  9. 9. an effective means to understand and assess each partner’s interests, needs andcompetencies4.Conclusion 1. ChallengesA significant challenge raised by the literature was the facilitation of diverse interests andperspectives among partners and stakeholders. Community school initiatives should utilize anintermediary or backbone support organization(s) to help facilitate the collaborative leadershipprocess, particularly the facilitation of discussions and process building. The use of anintermediary can help moderate strong opinions and center the group. 2. Promising PracticesIn order to build effective collaborative partnerships, the following promising practices wereidentified: (1) share a common vision, goals and expectations; (2) develop a problem-solvingprocess for midcourse corrections; (3) create a shared system of accountability; and (4) sharedata. Accounting for measurable progress through shared data was the most emphasizedpractice. The use of shared data was highlighted as an effective means to draw more visibility toan issue, garner support, and shape the future work of collaborative leadership efforts. 3. Concluding RemarksThe literature suggests that a collaborative leadership structure forms the nucleus of asuccessful community school initiative. A collaborative leadership structure is necessary tocoordinate multiple support services and communicate with students, families, and thecommunity. Moreover, the collaborative leadership structure is critical because it creates anew, participatory space for all stakeholders to engage in mapping the trajectory of acommunity school.4 Institute for Educational Leadership. “Building Effective Community Partnerships.” Institute for EducationalLeadership. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.ojjdp.gov/resources/files/toolkit1final.pdf>. 8 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  10. 10. Collaborative Leadership: Annotated BibliographyAchieving Results Through Community School PartnershipsBlank, Martin J., Reuben Jacobson, and Atelia Melville. Center for American Progress, January2012. Web. January 19, 2012.<http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2012/01/pdf/community_schools.pdf>.The report explores six key strategies that successful community school initiatives use to buildeffective partnerships with local government agencies, teachers’ unions and otherorganizations. The six key strategies are: 1. Ensuring that all partners share a common vision and agree on the same goals and expectations; 2. Establishing collaborative structures to engage stakeholders; 3. Encouraging open dialogue so stakeholders engage honestly and constructively with each other when solving problems and making midcourse corrections; 4. Engaging partners in the use of data in order to account for measurable progress; 5. Creating capacity at the district level to sustain community school work; and 6. Leveraging community resources and braiding funding streams to support programs and activities. Best practices: See six strategies above Exemplary sites: 1. Tulsa Area Community School Initiative (TACSI), Tulsa, OK 2. Schools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN), Multnomah County, OR 3. Chicago Public Schools Community Schools Initiative, Chicago, IL 4. Evansville Community Schools, Evansville, IN 5. Cincinnati Community Learning Centers (CLCs), Cincinnati, OH 6. Say Yes to Education, Syracuse, NY Models: Collaborative leadership structure for community schools (pg. 7) Level of leadership: Interagency levelGrowing Community Schools: The Role of Cross-Boundary LeadershipBlank, Martin J., Amy Berg, and Atelia Melaville. Coalition for Community Schools, April 2006.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Growing_COMM_Schools.pdf>.The report details case studies of 11 community schools in order to illustrate how cross-boundary leadership helps community schools move from pilot projects to large-scaleeducation reform strategies. The experiences of leaders in these 11 sites also point to fourstrategies for scaling up and sustaining community schools, which include: 9 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  11. 11. 1. Developing diverse financing; 2. Employing technical assistance and professional development; 3. Using data to drive work; and 4. Building broad-based community support.Moreover, the report breaks down the infrastructure for collaborative leadership into threemajor categories: (1) Community Leaders; (2) Leaders on the Ground; and (3) Leaders in theMiddle. The roles and responsibilities for each leadership position are detailed in the report. Best practices: See four strategies above Exemplary sites: 1. Chicago Public Schools Community Schools Initiative, Chicago, IL 2. Cincinnati Community Learning Centers (CLCs), Cincinnati, OH 3. Evansville Community Schools, Evansville, IN 4. Local Investment Commission’s Caring Communities, Jackson County, MO 5. Lincoln Community Learning Centers Initiative, Lincoln, NE 6. Stevenson-YMCA Community School, Long Beach, CA 7. Schools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN), Multnomah County, OR 8. Achievement Plus, St. Paul, MN 9. San Francisco Beacon Centers, San Francisco, CA 10. Families on Track, South San Francisco, CA 11. Tukwila School-Community Collaboration, Tukwila, WA Level of leadership: Interagency levelEngaging All Leaders (Diagram)Melville, Atelia and Martin J. Blank. Cable in the Classroom, 2005. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/TH-Sum05-EngagingAllLeaders.pdf>.The “Engaging All Leaders” diagram provides a visual representation of the leadership roles ofbusinesses and foundations, higher education, educators, students, families, public and privateagencies, and government. Each of the leadership roles includes specific responsibilities and allroles are visually represented as contributing to the core conditions of learning at full servicecommunity schools. Models: Diagram of collaborative leadership structure for community schools Level of leadership: Interagency level 10 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  12. 12. Strengthening Partnerships: Community School Assessment ChecklistBlank, Martin J. and Barbara Hanson Langford. Coalition for Community Schools and theFinance Project, September 2000. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/csassessment.pdf>.The assessment checklist contains a series of checklists to aid school and community leaders increating and/or strengthening community school partnerships. The “Community SchoolPartnership Assessment” helps assess the development of the community school partnership.The “Community School Program and Service Assessment” helps take inventory of existingprograms and services in or connected to your school that support children, youth, families,and other community residents. The “Community School Funding Source Assessment” helps tocatalogue the funding sources that support these programs and services. Tools: Three assessment checklists for strengthening community school partnershipsAdvisory Committee Development: Advisory Committee IntroductionSchools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN) Service System. Department of County Human Services,Multnomah County, Oregon, 2011. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://web.multco.us/sites/default/files/sun/documents/advisory_committee_intro.pdf>.The Schools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN) document provides an introduction to developing anadvisory committee along with recommendations. The role of the committee is to connect theschool with the community, act as a sounding board, review and help build an annual plan,break down barriers and sponsor or support events at school. SUN lists potential members fromseveral areas of community school involvement to consider including in an advisory committee.The document also emphasizes the importance of representing parents, youth and othercommunity members on the advisory committee because of their input and crucial connectionto community resources. Best practices: How to develop an effective community school advisory committee Level of leadership: Site level (for detailed resources and materials regarding SUN Coordinating Council and workgroups, visit http://web.multco.us/sun/resources-and-materials)Advisory Committee Development: Advisory Group Development WorksheetsSchools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN) Service System. Department of County Human Services,Multnomah County, Oregon, 2011. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://web.multco.us/sites/default/files/sun/documents/advisory_group_worksheets.pdf>.SUN outlines three steps for creating and sustaining an advisory committee and providesworksheets to aid in each step. The three steps are: 11 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  13. 13. 1. Defining the committee’s purpose; 2. Recruiting the right people; and 3. Ongoing support and training.The worksheets for the first step include relevant questions to ask members as well as samplecommittee roles. Step two worksheets include exercises to evaluate the critical skills andcharacteristics needed for committee members as well as a skills matrix to aid in futurerecruitment efforts. The worksheets for the third step include a series of questions to thinkabout how to nurture a well-functioning advisory committee. A “Next Steps” worksheet is alsoprovided and allows members to give feedback on further steps needed to strengthen theadvisory committee. Tools: Worksheets on developing and sustaining an effective community school advisory committee Level of leadership: Site level (for detailed resources and materials regarding SUN Coordinating Council and workgroups, visit http://web.multco.us/sun/resources-and-materials)Planning Forms: Partnership WorksheetSchools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN) Service System. Department of County Human Services,Multnomah County, Oregon, 2011. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://web.multco.us/sites/default/files/sun/documents/partnership_worksheet.pdf>.The School/Business partnership worksheet provides basic forms that aim to assist school andpartner collaboration. Space is provided for partners and schools to input their contributingstrengths, interests, shared issues and evaluation criteria in order to better understand oneanother’s goals and concerns. An idea list for project planning is also provided at the bottom ofthe forms. Tools: Worksheets on developing school-business partnerships Level of leadership: Interagency level (for detailed resources and materials regarding SUN Coordinating Council and workgroups, visit http://web.multco.us/sun/resources-and-materials)Education and Community Building: Connecting Two WorldsJehl, Jeanne, Martin J. Blank, and Barbara McCloud. Institute for Educational Leadership, 2001.Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED458700.pdf>.The report explores the issues in building relationships between schools and community-building organizations. Interviews and conversations with key leaders inform therecommendations and strategies to guide interactions. The seven sections of the report are: (1) 12 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  14. 14. Starting Points; (2) Sticking Points; (3) Summary Points; (4) Building Relationships; (5) Rules ofEngagement; (6) Moving Forward; and (7) Stories of Four Communities.“Starting Points” outlines the background of school and community involvement and “StickingPoints” examines differences between school and community organizations. “Summary Points”charts the rules of engagement in partnerships and “Building Relationships” describesstrategies that have been successful. “Rules of Engagement” offers specific recommendationsand “Moving Forward” provides suggestions for expanding and strengthening school andcommunity relationships. “Stories of Four Communities” profiles four sites where communitiesand schools are working together effectively. Best practices: See “Building Relationships” and “Rules of Engagement” (pgs. 21-28) Exemplary sites: 1. Germantown Community Collaborative Board, Philadelphia, PA 2. Logan Square Neighborhood Association, Chicago, IL 3. Marshall Heights Community Development Organization, Washington D.C. 4. Chula Vista Elementary School District, Chula Vista, CA Tools: Wall Chart of Education and Community Building: Rules of Engagement (pgs. 21- 23) Level of leadership: Interagency levelSchools as Centers of Communities: A Citizen’s Guide for Planning and Design Bingler, Steven, Linda Quinn, and Kevin Sullivan. National Clearinghouse for EducationalFacilities, KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Council of Educational Facility Planners, International,Building Educational Success Together, Coalition for Community Schools, 2003. Pages 43-65.Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.ncef.org/pubs/scc_publication.pdf>.The Getting Organized and Getting Started section of the report, although referring to theplanning and design of school facilities, discusses key steps for initiating a planning process anddeveloping collaborative leadership. Some highlighted key steps include: identifying a handfulof key players in the community; identifying a facilitator; organizing a steering committee;creating operating norms; and creating a database to track information about members. Thereport also emphasizes the inclusion of students in the planning process because theyrepresent a pool of creativity and enthusiasm. Parents are also important partners becausethey can answer questions, gain feedback and suggestions, and suggest ways of helping theirsons and daughters learn. Best practices: See “Part Four: Making it Happen” (pgs. 43-65) Level of leadership: Interagency level 13 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  15. 15. Leading the Way to Meaningful Partnerships Benson, Lee and Ira Harkavy. Principal Leadership, May/June 2001. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/48803.pdf>.The article focuses on the central role of higher education institutions in community schoolpartnerships. The University of Pennsylvania is discussed as an example of a higher education-assisted community school partner. In higher education-assisted community schools, advisoryboards help to identify community problems and assist the principal and teachers in advancingthe schools instructional program. Site-based professional educators lead the effort and are atthe core of the governance structure. Ideally, university students, faculty and staff members,and community members work under the direction of the onsite coordinator. The studentsfunction as liaisons to the higher education institution and assist the onsite community schoolcoordinator. Exemplary sites: University of Pennsylvania with Drew Elementary School, Turner Middle School, and University City High School in Philadelphia, PA Level of leadership: Interagency levelDoing What Matters: The Bridges to Success Strategy for Building Community SchoolsMelaville, Atelia. Bridges to Success, January 2004. Pages 12-14 and 21-34. Web. 19 December2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Doing_What_Matters.pdf>.Part II of the Bridges to Success (BTS) guide describes the governance and planning capacitiesneeded to support a BTS community school and the process for developing a strongcollaborative initiative. Initially, a task force of interested and influential organizations andindividuals convenes and is responsible for structuring the planning process and conducting acommunity assessment. Through the community assessment, community leaders, residentsand family members can share a role in developing the initiative. Site team assessments arealso conducted to create a neighborhood level understanding of all needs and resources.The task force becomes a community-wide collaborative council and converts their broad visioninto a practical plan with guiding principles. Managers assigned by partner agencies provideinsight by participating on council subcommittees. A full-time person takes primaryadministrative responsibility for staffing the initiative and implementing its directives. The BTSArea School Coordinators support site teams and act as a liaison to school staff, communitymembers, families and service providers. Best practices: See “Community-Wide Governance: A Vision for Change” (pgs. 21-34) Exemplary sites: 1. Washington Irving Elementary School, Indianapolis, IN 2. George Washington Community School, Indianapolis, IN 3. Vandalia Elementary School, Greensboro, NC 14 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  16. 16. Models: 1. The BTS Model: A Community School Strategy (pgs. 12-14) 2. Appendix A: Site Team as a Coordinating Body (pg. 53) 3. Appendix C: Theory of Bridges to Success (pg. 55) Tools: Appendix D: Four Phases of Site Team Development (pg. 56) Level of leadership: Interagency levelBuilding Effective Community PartnershipsInstitute for Educational Leadership. Institute for Educational Leadership. Web. 19 December2011.<http://www.ojjdp.gov/resources/files/toolkit1final.pdf>.The report describes the organizational structure of building community partnerships andprovides guiding questions for each stage of building the relationship. The report describes thestructure of the initial meetings of the partnerships and provides sample ground rules,checklists, and a series of relevant organizational questions. In order to maintain momentum inthe partnership, the report suggests the following: 1. Developing strategies for sustainability; 2. Broadening the focus; 3. Expanding the geographical reach; 4. Developing new or non-traditional partners; 5. Developing an institutionalization strategy; 6. Collaborating with other partnerships; and 7. Developing a graceful exit strategy. Best practices: See seven strategies above Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Bethel New Life, Chicago, IL 2. Boston Strategy to Prevent Youth Violence, Boston, MA Tools: Assessing your Community Partnership Checklist (pgs. 23-26) Level of leadership: Interagency levelPartnerships by Design: Cultivating Effective and Meaningful School-Family-CommunityPartnershipsEllis, Debbie and Kendra Hughes. Creating School-Family Partnerships Team, October 2002.Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/booklet_Partn_design.pdf>.“Partnerships by Design” is a comprehensive booklet that lays the foundation for partnershipbuilding and an efficient planning process. It is a practical toolkit that contains forms, 15 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  17. 17. worksheets, guiding questions and activities to aid in writing a school-family-communitypartnership plan. The manual helps representatives of the school community to: (1) identifycharacteristics that are most important for youth to be successful in their community; (2)identify resources and assets in the community that will help youth develop the desiredcharacteristics; (3) plan and implement a project to promote the characteristics; (4) evaluatethe effectiveness of the project; and (5) communicate findings to the public. Best practices: See “Barriers to School-Family-Community Partnerships” (pgs.37-40) Tools: Worksheets re: 1. Personal and group assumptions; 2. School climate and environmental checklists; 3. Assessment of current activities; 4. Developing a clear vision; 5. Activity plans; 6. Action plans; 7. Community-school partnership feedback and evaluation surveys; 8. Needs assessment for the school, family and community members; 9. Hurdles and ideas for action; and 10. Roles in partnership development. Level of leadership: Interagency levelFamily School Partnerships 2.0: Collaborative Strategies to Advance Student LearningHenderson, Anne T., Nancy Henderson, Cynthia Kain, Nancy Kochuk, Cindy Long, BarbaraMoldauer, and Carol Sills Strickland. National Education Association, 2011. Web. January 2012.<http://neapriorityschools.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Entire_PSC_Profiles_Interactive.pdf>.The report identifies and describes key partnerships that National Education Associationmembers have forged in 16 communities. Part I of the report reviews recent research on schooland family collaboration and presents 10 key strategies for creating effective family school-community partnerships. The 10 key strategies include: 1. Agreeing on core values; 2. Listening to the community; 3. Using data to set priorities and focus strategies; 4. Providing on-site professional development; 5. Building collaborations with community partners; 6. Using targeted outreach to focus on high-needs communities, schools and students; 7. Building one-to-one relationships between families and educators; 8. Setting, communicating, and supporting high and rigorous expectations; 9. Addressing cultural differences; and 10. Connecting students to the community. 16 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  18. 18. In addition, Part II contains profiles for each of the 16 successful partnership programs. Best practices: See 10 strategies above and the following recommendations (pg. 6): 1. At the local level: Build capacity in schools 2. At the school district level: Work collaboratively on policies and practices 3. At the state level: Provide opportunities for dialogue and offer technical assistance 4. At the national level: Promote research-based strategies on family-school- community partnerships Exemplary sites: 1. Making Parents Count-James A. Shanks Middle School, Quincy, FL 2. Wicomico Mentoring Project-Wicomico County Public Schools, Salisbury, MD 3. Bringing Learning to Life-Columbus City Schools, Columbus, OH 4. Academic Parent Teacher Teams-Creighton Elementary School District, Phoenix, AZ 5. Parent-Teacher Home Visit Project-Sacramento City Unified Schools District, Sacramento, CA 6. Revitalizing the Title I School-Parent Compact-Geraldine W. Johnson Elementary- Middle School, Bridgeport, CT 7. Climate and Culture Committee-Math and Science Leadership Academy, Denver, CO 8. Hispanic Parents Council-Capt. James E. Daly Jr. Elementary School, Germantown, MD 9. Infinite Campus Parent Portal, Ninth Grade Outreach Program-Washoe County School District, Reno, NV 10. Before- and Afterschool Support Programs, Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High School, Elmont, NY 11. Compadres in Education-Putnam City West High School, Oklahoma City, OK 12. Successful Transitions-Upper Merion Area Middle School, King of Prussia, PA 13. Parent and Community Outreach Initiative-Reading School District, Reading, PA 14. Community School Programs-Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation, Evansville, IN 15. Lincoln Community Learning Centers-Lincoln Public Schools, Lincoln, NE 16. SUN Service System-Multnomah County, Portland, OR Level of leadership: Interagency levelMobilizing a Cross-Sector Collaborative for Systemic Change: Lessons from Project U-Turn,Philadelphia’s Campaign to Reduce the Dropout RateAllen, Lili. Jobs for the Future, January 2010. Web. 23 February 2012.<http://www.jff.org/sites/default/files/PUT_paper_PDF_VERSION_010610.pdf>.The report explores the ways in which a staffed cross-sector partnership can move beyondinstitutional silos and sustain a commitment to improving outcomes for youth. Although thepaper focuses on the experience of Project U-Turn, a campaign to reduce the dropout rate inPhiladelphia schools, the lessons described are applicable to multi-sector collaborations. Thepaper is organized into three sections which provide key lessons from Project U-Turn’s 17 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  19. 19. experience: (1) Laying the Foundation; (2) Building a Strategic Partnership; and (3) Embeddingthe Work in Systems. The first section discusses Project U-Turn’s initial organizing and planningwork and the second section explores developing strategic priorities based on data. The thirdsection describes the partnership’s efforts to embed and coordinate the work of improvinggraduation rates across multiple sectors. Best practices: 1. Build a partnership focused on a common mission 2. Create a process for mutual accountability and trust 3. Use data strategically for greater visibility and to drive action 4. Get partners to own the problem and move forward 5. Shape a long-term strategy while acting opportunistically 6. Cultivate and align champions 7. Embed the work across organizations at multiple levels 8. Keep the agenda moving forward Exemplary sites: Project U-Turn, Philadelphia, PA Level of leadership: Interagency levelNeedle-Moving Community Collaboratives: A Promising Approach to Addressing America’sBiggest ChallengesJolin, Michele, Paul Schmitz, and Willa Seldon. The Bridgespan Group, February 2012. Web. 23February 2012. <http://www.bridgespan.org/needle-moving-community-collaboratives.aspx>.The report identifies effective needle-moving collaboratives and provides recommendations forencouraging more collective action. Various case studies of successful communitycollaboratives and their common operating principles are shared. The common operatingprinciples include: 1. Commitment to long-term involvement; 2. Involvement of key stakeholders across all sectors; 3. Use of shared data to inform the agenda and make changes or improvements; and 4. Engagement of community members as substantive partners.Additionally, five core elements are identified for contributing to the success of thesecollaboratives. The elements are: 1. A shared vision and agenda; 2. Effective leadership and governance; 3. Alignment of resources toward what works; 4. Dedicated staff capacity; and 5. Sufficient funding. 18 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  20. 20. Best practices: See four common operating principles and five core elements above Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Strive Partnership, Cincinnati, OH and Northern Kentucky 2. Children and Youth Master Plan, Nashville, TN 3. Milwaukee teen pregnancy prevention effort-United Way, Milwaukee, WI 4. Operation Ceasefire, Boston, MA 5. Project U-Turn, Philadelphia, PA 6. East Lake Foundation, Atlanta, GA Level of leadership: Interagency levelCollective ImpactKania, John and Mark Kramer. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter 2011. Web. 23February 2012. <http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/collective_impact>.The final portion of the article explores the five conditions of collective impact success.Successful collective impact initiatives typically have the following five conditions that producetrue alignment: 1. A common agenda; 2. Shared measurement systems; 3. Mutually reinforcing activities; 4. Continuous communication; and 5. Backbone support organizations.A common agenda requires all participants to have a shared vision for change and a commonunderstanding of the problem and actions to solve it. Shared measurement systems enable theparticipants to hold each other accountable and learn from each other’s successes and failures.Mutually reinforcing activities encourage each participant to undertake the specific set ofactivities at which it excels in a way that supports the actions of others. Continuouscommunication helps partners recognize and appreciate the common motivation behind theirdifferent efforts. Furthermore, backbone support organizations help create and managecollective impact initiatives. Best practices: See five conditions above Level of leadership: Interagency level 19 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  21. 21. Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact WorkHanley Brown, Fay, John Kania, and Mark Kramer. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2012.Web. 23 February 2012.<http://tamarackcci.ca/files/collective_impact_channeling_change_pdf_2.pdf>.The article aims to expand the understanding of collective impact and provide greater guidancefor those who seek to lead collective impact initiatives. Various organizations are profiled toexemplify how implementing a collective impact approach can solve large-scale socialproblems. The five conditions of collective impact are explained in detail and include: 1. A common agenda; 2. Shared measurement systems; 3. Mutually reinforcing activities; 4. Continuous communication; and 5. Backbone support organizations.A matrix of the three phases of collective impact is also provided and describes how differentcomponents for success are employed during each phase of collective impact. The three phasesof collective impact are: (1) initiate impact; (2) organize for impact; and (3) sustain actions andimpact. Additionally, a matrix weighing the different types of backbone organizations isprovided. Best practices: See five conditions above Level of leadership: Interagency levelCentral Office Transformation for District-wide Teaching and Learning ImprovementHonig, Meredith I., Michael A. Copland, Lydia Rainey, Juli Anna Lorton & Morena Newton.Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, April 2010. Web. 12 March 2012.<http://depts.washington.edu/uwcel/news/ctp_cotdtli.pdf>.The report summarizes main results from a national study of how leaders in urban schooldistrict central offices fundamentally transformed their work and relationships with schools tosupport district wide teaching and learning improvement. Five dimensions of central officetransformation are identified and include: 1. Learning-focused partnerships with school principals to deepen principals’ instructional leadership practice; 2. Assistance to the central office–principal partnerships; 3. Reorganizing and reculturing of each central office unit, to support the central office– principal partnerships and teaching and learning improvement; 4. Stewardship of the overall central office transformation process; and 5. Use of evidence throughout the central office to support continual improvement of work practices and relationships with schools. 20 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  22. 22. The study reveals that central offices have vital roles to play in developing systems of supportfor district wide teaching and learning improvement. Four recommendations are highlightedand include: 1. Engage in central office transformation as a focal point of a district wide reform effort and as a necessary complement to other improvement initiatives; 2. Start the work of transformation by developing a theory of action for how central office practice in the particular local context contributes to improving teaching and learning, and plan to revise this theory as the work unfolds; 3. Invest substantially in people to lead the work throughout the central office, and especially at the interface between the central office and schools; and 4. Start now engaging key stakeholders, political supporters, and potential funders in understanding that central office transformation is important and requires sustained commitment. Best practices: See five dimensions of transformation and four recommendations above Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Atlanta Public Schools, Atlanta, GA 2. New York City/Empowerment Schools Organization (NYC/ESO), New York, NY 3. Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA Level of leadership: District levelA Handbook for State Policy Leaders: Community Schools: Improving StudentLearning/Strengthening Schools, Families and CommunitiesCoalition for Community Schools. Coalition for Community Schools, 2002. Web. 20 March 2012.<http://www.iel.org/pubs/handbook.pdf>.In the section, “What State Policy Leaders Can Do”, the Coalition for Community Schoolsexplores how state agencies and policy leaders can take action to support community schools.The Coalition suggests that states provide necessary leadership in the following three areas: 1. Develop and promote a VISION for improving student learning that incorporates the critical role of families, communities and schools; 2. Ensure that all state programs and policies FOCUS on supporting student learning; and 3. Make targeted INVESTMENTS in community schools to increase the effectiveness of existing programs and resources.Within each category of leadership action, the Coalition offers a list of specificrecommendations for states and includes examples from states that have moved in thedirection of the recommendations. Best practices: See pgs. 17-31 for a comprehensive list of recommendations 21 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  23. 23. Exemplary sites: 1. Thomas Gardner Extended Services School, Boston, MA 2. O’Farrell Community School for Advanced Academic Studies, San Diego, CA 3. University City High School, Philadelphia, PA 4. Flambeau School, Tony, WI Level of leadership: State levelHelping Young People Succeed: Strengthening and Sustaining Relationships Between Schoolsand Youth Development OrganizationsNational Collaboration for Youth, Coalition for Community Schools, Institute for EducationalLeadership. National Collaboration for Youth, Coalition for Community Schools, Institute forEducational Leadership, March 2002. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/helping_YOUNG_people.pdf>.The article discusses what collaboration between youth development organizations and schoolsshould look like and how to weave their efforts together. The following essential practices areidentified to overcome barriers: 1. Sustain and deepen the collaboration started at the national level; 2. Start dialogues at other levels; 3. Set a vision for the development of youth; 4. Build on what already exists; 5. Develop a common language between schools and youth development organizations; 6. Identify what should be measured; and 7. Trust each other. Best practices: See seven elements above Models: 1. Table 1: Features of Positive Development Settings (pg. 11) 2. Table 2: Personal and Social Assets That Facilitate Positive Youth Development (pg. 12) 3. Table 3: National Assembly Findings: School/Community Collaborations Matrix (pg. 13)SUN Service System: Coordinating Council Workgroup Planning SheetSUN Service System. SUN Service System. Web. 29 June 2012.<http://web.multco.us/sites/default/files/sun-cc/documents/workgroups_planning_worksheet_final.pdf>.The SUN worksheet serves as a template to aid the process of creating community schoolworkgroups. 22 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012

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