Water Sustainability CommitteeHydraulic Fracturing Focus onWater
BC Water& Waste AssociationWater Resources OverviewNorthern BCMontenay Water Project - Source: Geoscience BC
BC Water& Waste AssociationUnconventional Gas ReservesOverviewNorth American Gas Reserves - Source: Encana
BC Water& Waste AssociationShale Gas Deposits NorthAmericaSource: Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
BC Water& Waste AssociationWhat isHydraulicFracturingSource: CAPP
BC Water& Waste AssociationRegulatory Overview BC• Oil and gas activities in British Columbia are governed by the Oil andGas Activities Act. Other regulations that support the Oil and GasActivities Act are:– Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Regulation,– Consultation and Notification Regulation,– Drilling and Production Regulation,– Environmental Protection and Management Regulation,– Geophysical Exploration Regulations,– Administrative Penalties Regulation,– Fee, Levy and Security Regulation,– Oil and Gas Activities General Regulation– Prescribed Roads Regulation
BC Water& Waste AssociationRegulatory Overview BC Cont.• The Oil & Gas Commission is an independent regulator that provides asingle window for exploration, development, pipelines, andreclamation. The Commission regulates all oil and gas activities in BCincluding:– Geophysical exploration,– Wells and wellsite facilities,– Pipeline systems,– Gas processing plants, and– Liquefied natural gas plants.
BC Water& Waste AssociationHydraulic Fracturing Activity inBC
BC Water& Waste AssociationTreatment TypeSource: BC Ministryof Energy and Mines
BC Water& Waste AssociationWater Use in HydraulicFracturing• The HRB is in the Muskwa formation and is siliceous shale and respondswell to slick-water fracs.– Typical water use is 2500 to 5000 cubic meters of water per frac– 12 to 21 fracs per well in this formation.– Approximately 200 to 300 tonnes of sand– 30,000 to 105,000 cubic meters of water per well.• The Montney Trend is in the Montney formation and is tight siltstoneshale. This formation responds well to energized fracs utilizing N2 andCO2.– Typical water use is 200 to 600 cubic meters of water per frac– 6 to 12 fracs per well in this formation.– Approximately 40 to 100 tonnes of sand– 1,200 to 7,200 cubic meters of water per well.
BC Water& Waste AssociationWater Use in HydraulicFracturing• The Deep Basin is in the Cadomin Formationand is a sandstone and conglomerate. Thisformation responds well to slick-water fracs.– Typical water use is 1000 to 4000 cubic metersof water per frac– 5 to 15 fracs per well in this formation.– Approximately 50 tonnes of sand are also usedper frac.– 5,000 to 60,000 cubic meters of water
BC Water& Waste AssociationWater Use in HydraulicFracturing• The sources of water are distributed asfollows:– freshwater (lakes, streams, rivers, and dugouts)– 60%,– shallow groundwater - unconfined or confinedaquifers (typically fresh water) – 10%,– deep groundwater (typically saline and mayrequire treatment) – 10%, and– flowback fluid (saline and requires treatment) –20%
BC Water& Waste AssociationTotal Water Use• Total water use approved in 2011 was 12,000,000 m3 ofwater.• Only 10% of this volume was actually used and the largestapproved use was in the East Kiskatinaw and representedabout 0.130% of actual runoff for the East Kiskatinaw.• Annual runoff in the Montney play area is 16.8 billion m3.• The projected maximum water requirement for hydraulicfracturing in Montney play is 5-10 million m3 per year.Approximately 2/3 is projected to be from surface sources.• This represents about 0.03 percent of average annualrunoff.
BC Water& Waste AssociationWater Re-Use and Disposal• There are many challenges to treating and reusing flowbackwater:– Natural gas dissolved in the water can be an explosionhazard;– There is great variability in chemical composition makingtreatment complex and difficult to do with one process;– High Biological Oxygen Demand wastewater may needto be treated using a biological process;– Sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide in ananaerobic environment creating a hazard; and– Disposal and removal of left over solids after treatmentis another waste stream that needs to be addressed.
BC Water& Waste AssociationRecommendations and NextSteps for BC• 17 recommendations and next steps outlined• Water issues• Climate change issues• Deep well injection issues• Seismic activity questions• Coordinated regulatory approach• Additives and fluid transport• Alternate water sources• Cumulative impacts and• Knowledge sharing
Safeguarding public health and the environmentthrough the sharing of skills, knowledge, education and experience,and providing a voice for the water and waste community.www.bcwwa.orgQuestions?