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For Most Data Centers, Liquid and Air Cooling Will Not be Mutually Exclusive

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A recent report from Technavio indicates that the adoption of liquid-based cooling is high, as it is considered more efficient than air-based cooling. Globally liquid-based cooling is expected to grow at a remarkable rate through 2020, posting a CAGR of almost 16% during the forecast period. So, why is this level of adoption happening? Increasing rack densities lead by high performance computing (HPC) and the quest to improve efficiency are driving an increase in liquid cooling design strategies and deployment. While still relatively sparse, liquid cooling will become more prevalent, but this does not mean the end of air cooling. In this session, we’ll discuss how to implement liquid cooling while maintaining appropriate air-cooling conditions and fully realize efficiency gains. Lastly, we’ll discuss how to get started and get ahead of the market when it comes to improving cooling efficiency.

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For Most Data Centers, Liquid and Air Cooling Will Not be Mutually Exclusive

  1. 1. #CPEXPO | CHANNELPARTNERSCONFERENCE.COM#DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM For Most Data Centers, Liquid and Air Cooling Will Not be Mutually Exclusive Lars Strong, Senior Engineer Upsite Technologies
  2. 2. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Data Center World – Certified Vendor Neutral Each presenter is required to certify that their presentation will be vendor-neutral. As an attendee you have a right to enforce this policy of having no sales pitch within a session by alerting the speaker if you feel the session is not being presented in a vendor neutral fashion. If the issue continues to be a problem, please alert Data Center World staff after the session is complete.
  3. 3. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Speaker Background • Thought leader and recognized expert on data center optimization • Currently serves as the Senior Engineer and Company Science Officer of Upsite Technologies • Certified U.S. Department of Energy Data Center Energy Practitioner (DCEP) HVAC Specialist • Previous AFCOM Presentations: • How IT Decisions Impact Facilities: The Benefit of Mutual Understanding • Designing, Deploying, and Managing Efficient Data Centers • Myths of Data Center Containment • Understanding the Science Behind Data Center Airflow Management • Data Center Cooling Efficiency: Understanding the Science of the 4 Delta T’s
  4. 4. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Adoption of Liquid Cooling ~1970-1995 • Mainframes 1990-2000 • Gaming • Custom built PCs 2010-2015 • HPC driven liquid cooling in the data center 2005-2010 • Chilled door 2015- • Direct contact • Full immersion
  5. 5. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Sandia National Laboratory is completing a purpose built (primarily) liquid cooled data center in New Mexico • 14,000 sq. ft. • 10MW • 85% warm water liquid cooled • Augmented air cooling of 1.5MW (15%) Sample Case Study
  6. 6. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Density • HPC – latency Drivers for Liquid Cooling
  7. 7. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Density • HPC – latency • Performance • Higher clock speeds (research, modeling, finance) Drivers for Liquid Cooling
  8. 8. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Density • HPC – latency • Performance • Higher clock speeds (research, modeling, finance) • Economy • Efficiency • IT fans represent ~20% of IT load. Affects all aspects of power distribution (switch gear, UPS, PDU, etc.) • Warm water cooling can produce significant CapEx and OpEx savings Drivers for Liquid Cooling
  9. 9. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Density • HPC – latency • Performance • Higher clock speeds (research, modeling, finance) • Economy • Efficiency • IT fans represent ~20% of IT load. Affects all aspects of power distribution (switch gear, UPS, PDU, etc.) • Warm water cooling can produce significant CapEx and OpEx savings • More accurate PUE • Server fans are on the IT load side of the PUE equation when they are actually part of the cooling infrastructure Drivers for Liquid Cooling
  10. 10. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Air is “understood,” familiar • Care and handling paradigm shift – immersion • White space – immersion • Risk – liquid in cabinet, electrocution, outages • No standards or many options • Capital cost • Complexity of running two systems • Resistance due to hydrophobia Resistance to Liquid Cooling
  11. 11. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • “Power in heat out always.” – Ken Brill • Every kW of electricity becomes a kW of heat that needs to be removed from the building • kW of IT consumption • kW of fan motor consumption • kW of transformer losses • kW of distribution losses (resistance) Definition of Liquid Cooling
  12. 12. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • “Power in heat out always.” – Ken Brill • Every kW of electricity becomes a kW of heat that needs to be removed from the building • kW of IT consumption • kW of fan motor consumption • kW of transformer losses • kW of distribution losses (resistance) • Liquid Cooling: Removal of heat by a liquid • When the first loop that takes the heat away from the IT components is liquid, then it is liquid cooling • Many loops are often required to remove heat from the building Definition of Liquid Cooling
  13. 13. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  14. 14. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  15. 15. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  16. 16. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  17. 17. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  18. 18. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Proximity of Liquid to the Heat Source Mainframe Server In Row Rear Door Touch Immersion
  19. 19. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Rear door cooling • Active (fans), or passive • In row cooling • Over row cooling • In the top of cabinet cooling Types of “Liquid” Cooling (Close Coupled Air Cooling)
  20. 20. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Touch Cooling • Direct Liquid Cooling (DLC) to components, “plumbing” Types of Liquid Cooling CoolIT Lenovo AsetekChilldyne
  21. 21. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Touch Cooling • Fixed cold plate, heat spreaders conduct heat to cold plate Types of Liquid Cooling Aquila
  22. 22. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Immersion • Single Phase: using ElectroSafe, a formulated dielectric oil • Green revolution • Pump energy to keep moving • 2 Phase: using dielectric fluids (Novec, Fluorinert) • ICEOTOPE, LiquidCool Types of Liquid Cooling
  23. 23. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Liquid Cooling Close Coupled Air Cooling Immersion Touch Immersion Direct Liquid Cooling Fixed Cold Plate Rear Door In Row % of Heat Captured by Liquid 100% ~65% to 75% ~93% 0% N/A % of Heat Captured by Air 0% ~25% to 35% ~7% 100% N/A Effectiveness of Various Types of Liquid Cooling Cabinet Level
  24. 24. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Air Touch Immersion Compute/Processing Y Y Y Switching (lots of cords/ports) Y Difficult / In development Difficult / In development Solid state storage Y Y Y Spinning media Y Y Spinning media if sealed (HDD) Power supplies Y In development Y What Does Air and Liquid Cool Well and Not Cool Well
  25. 25. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Space available for air and water are different • Liquid is often running through small tubing • 1/4” – 0.05 sq. in. • 1/8” – 0.012 sq. in. • Air is likely to have several square inches 3.0 sq. in. (60x – 1/4” tube) • Density of air ~0.074 lbs. / ft3 (1 lbs. – 12.4 ft3) • Density of water ~ 62.3 lbs. / ft3 (1 lbs. – 0.016 ft3) (842x better than air) • Specific heat of air ~993 J/kg °C • Specific heat of water ~4200 J/kg °C (only 4x better than air) Physics of Liquid Cooling
  26. 26. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Convection heat transfer from a surface to an fluid is governed by the equation: q = hA(Tw - Tf) • h = the convection heat transfer coefficient • A = the surface area • Tw = the temperature of the surface • Tf = the temperature of the fluid • Coefficient of heat transfer for moderate speed air is~100 and moderate flow water is ~ 3000 • Water is 30x better than air Physics of Liquid Cooling
  27. 27. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Convection heat transfer from a surface to an fluid is governed by the equation: q = hA(Tw - Tf) • h = the convection heat transfer coefficient • A = the surface area • Tw = the temperature of the surface • Tf = the temperature of the fluid • Coefficient of heat transfer for moderate speed air is~100 and moderate flow water is ~ 3000 • Water is 30x better than air • Surface area available • Water flowing over chip - 1 sq. in. • Air flowing over heat sink – 10 sq. in. • Taking surface area into consideration water is 3x better than air Physics of Liquid Cooling
  28. 28. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Liquid cooling is the removal of heat by a liquid • Depending on the component and solution, only a portion of the heat can be removed by a liquid • Not all equipment will be liquid cooled • The question is not which is better, but how can you use both liquid and air effectively? • Liquid has always been used in the data center, just how close • Liquid and air cooling will not be mutually exclusive Key Takeaways
  29. 29. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM • Sandia National Laboratory is completing a purpose built (primarily) liquid cooled data center in New Mexico • 14,000 sq. ft. • 10MW • 85% warm water liquid cooled • Augmented air cooling of 1.5MW (15%) Sample Case Study
  30. 30. #DATACENTERWORLD | DATACENTERWORLD.COM Questions & Answers Lars Strong, P.E. Senior Engineer, Upsite Technologies lds@upsite.com Follow Upsite for the latest news and information on data center airflow optimization. Facebook InstagramLinkedInTwitter YouTube Upsite Blog

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